Quantum Computer Scientist, Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division
Quantum Computer Scientist, Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division


Sam Stein obtained his MS in Data Science from Fordham University in New York. His research focused on topics such as Quantum Deep Learning, a Quantum Machine Learning Framework, and Quantum Generative Adversarial Networks. He joined Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in May 2021. He is a Quantum Algorithms and Machine Learning research associate within the High Performance Computing group, with a focus on traversing the noisy intermediate-scale quantum-era through algorithm development.

Research Interest

  • Quantum Computing
  • Machine Learning
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Deep Learning.


  • MS in Data Science, Fordham University, 2020
  • BS in Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, 2018



Stein, S., Wiebe, N., Ding, Y., Ang, J., & Li, A. (2023). Q-BEEP: Quantum Bayesian Error Mitigation Employing Poisson Modeling over the Hamming Spectrum. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture. ISCA ’23: 50th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture. ACM. doi:10.1145/3579371.3589043 


Stein S.A., N. Wiebe, Y. Ding, B. Peng, K. Kowalski, N.A. Baker, and J.A. Ang, et al. 2022. "EQC: Ensembled Quantum Computing for Variational Quantum Algorithms." In Proceedings of the 49th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA 2022), June 18-22, 2022, New York, NY, 59-71. New York, New York:Association for Computing Machinery. PNNL-SA-165576. doi:10.1145/3470496.3527434

Li Y., T. Geng, S.A. Stein, A. Li, and H. Yu. 2022. “GAAF: Searching Activation Functions for Binary Neural Networks through Genetic Algorithm.” arXiv preprint. doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2206.03291


Stein S.A., R. L'Abbate, W. Mu, Y. Liu, B. Baheri, Y. Mao, and Q. Guan, et al. 2021. "A Hybrid System for Learning Classical Data in Quantum States." IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2021), October 29-31, 2021, Austin, TX, 1-7. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-165589. doi:10.1109/IPCCC51483.2021.9679430

Baheri B., D. Chen, B. Fang, S.A. Stein, V. Chaudhary, Y. Mao, S. Xu, and A. Li. 2021. “TQEA: Temporal Quantum Error Analysis.” 2021 51st Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S), 65-67. doi: 10.1109/DSN-S52858.2021.00034

Stein S.A., B. Baheri, D. Chen, Y. Mao, Q. Guan, A. Li, B. Fang, and S. Xu. 2021. “QuGAN: A Quantum State Fidelity based Generative Adversarial Network.” 2021 IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE), 71-81. doi: 10.1109/QCE52317.2021.00023

Li A., S.A. Stein, S. Krishnamoorthy, and J. Ang. 2020. “QASMBench: A Low-level QASM Benchmark Suite for NISQ Evaluation and Simulation.” arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2005.13018