Battelle Fellow, Earth Science
Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling
Battelle Fellow, Earth Science
Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling

Dr. L. Ruby Leung is a Battelle Fellow at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and an Affiliate Scientist at National Center for Atmospheric Research. Her research broadly cuts across multiple areas in modeling and analysis of climate and the hydrological cycle including land-atmosphere interactions, orographic processes, monsoon climate, climate extremes, land surface processes, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Her research on climate change impacts has been featured in Science, Popular Science, Wall Street Journal, National Public Radio, and many major newspapers.

Dr. Leung is the Chief Scientist of Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) supported by Department of Energy. She has organized key workshops sponsored by DOE, NSF, NOAA, and NASA, and served on advisory panels and NRC committee that define future priorities in climate modeling, hydroclimate, and water cycle research. She is an editor of the American Geophysical Union Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres and American Meteorological Society Journal of Hydrometeorology. She has published over 250 peer-reviewed journal articles and has been session chairs and keynote/invited speakers in many workshops and conferences.

Research Interests

  • Regional and global climate modeling
  • Land-atmosphere interactions
  • Regional hydrologic cycle
  • Orographic precipitation
  • Climate extremes
  • Climate variability and change

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, Texas A&M University
  • M.S., Atmospheric Science, Texas A&M University
  • B.S., (Honors) Physics & Statistics, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Meteorological Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science

Awards and Recognitions

  • Member of National Academy of Engineering
  • Member of the Washington State Academy of Sciences
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Fellow, American Meteorological Society
  • Fellow, American Geophysical Union

PNNL Publications


  • Balaguru K., S. Doney, L. Bianucci, P.J. Rasch, L. Leung, J. Yoon, and I.D. Lima. 2018. "Linking deep convection and phytoplankton blooms in the northern Labrador Sea in a changing climate." PLoS One 13, no. 1:Article No. e0191509. PNNL-SA-131791. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191509
  • Goldenson N.L., G. Mauger, L. Leung, C.M. Bitz, and A. Rhines. 2018. "Effects of Ensemble Configuration on Estimates of Regional Climate Uncertainties." Geophysical Research Letters45, no. 2:926-934. PNNL-SA-131956. doi:10.1002/2017GL076297
  • Kelly P.J., B.S. Kravitz, J. Lu, and L. Leung. 2018. "Remote drying in the North Atlantic as a common response to precessional changes and CO2 increase over land." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 8:3615-3624. PNNL-SA-131183. doi:10.1002/2017GL076669
  • Lu J., D. Xue, Y. Gao, G. Chen, L. Leung, and P.W. Staten. 2018. "Enhanced hydrological extremes in the western United States under global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 1. PNNL-SA-126188. doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0017-9
  • Sullivan R.C., P. Crippa, H. Matsui, L. Leung, C. Zhao, A. Thota, and S. Pryor. 2018. "New particle formation leads to cloud dimming." Nature Climate and Atmospheric Science 1, no. 1:9. PNNL-SA-127126. doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0019-7
  • Zhang K., P.J. Rasch, M. Taylor, H. Wan, L. Leung, P. Ma, and J. Golaz, et al. 2018. "Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAM V1)." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 5:1971-1988. PNNL-SA-129738. doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-293
  • Zhang X., H. Li, Z. Deng, C. Ringler, Y. Gao, M.I. Hejazi, and L.R. Leung. 2018. "Impacts of Climate Change, Policy and Water-Energy-Food Nexus on Hydropower Development." Renewable Energy 116, no. Part A:827-834. PNNL-SA-114680. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2017.10.030


  • Ashfaq M., D. Rastogi, R. Mei, D. Touma, and L. Leung. 2017. "Sources of errors in the simulations of South Asian Summer Monsoon in the CMIP5 GCMs." Climate Dynamics 49, no. 1-2:193-223. PNNL-SA-123190. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3337-7
  • Campbell P., Y. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Leung, J. Fan, B. Zheng, and Q. Zhang, et al. 2017. "Evaluation of a multi-scale WRF-CAM5 simulation during the 2010 East Asian Summer Monsoon." Atmospheric Environment 169. PNNL-SA-129852. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.09.008
  • Chen X., F. Hossain, and L. Leung. 2017. "Establishing a Numerical Modeling Framework for Hydrologic Engineering Analyses of Extreme Storm Events." Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 22, no. 8:Article No. 04017016. PNNL-SA-124119. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001523
  • Chen X., F. Hossain, and L. Leung. 2017. "Probable Maximum Precipitation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest in a Changing Climate." Water Resources Research 53, no. 11:9600-9622. PNNL-SA-126184. doi:10.1002/2017WR021094
  • Fan J., L. Leung, D. Rosenfeld, and P.J. DeMott. 2017. "Effects of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ice Nucleating Particles on Precipitation Processes and Supercooled Liquid in Mixed-Phase Orographic Clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 2:1017-1035. PNNL-SA-120578. doi:10.5194/acp-17-1017-2017
  • Fang Y., L. Leung, Z. Duan, M.S. Wigmosta, R.M. Maxwell, J.Q. Chambers, and J. Tomasella. 2017. "Influence of landscape heterogeneity on water availability to tropical forests in an Amazonian catchment and implications for modeling drought response." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 16:8410-8426. PNNL-SA-125270. doi:10.1002/2017JD027066
  • Gao Y., L. Leung, C. Zhao, and S.M. Hagos. 2017. "Sensitivity of U.S. Summer Precipitation to Model Resolution and Convective Parameterizations Across Gray Zone Resolutions." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 5:2714-2733. PNNL-SA-120761. doi:10.1002/2016JD025896
  • He J., Y. Zhang, K. Wang, Y. Chen, L. Leung, J. Fan, and M. Li, et al. 2017. "Multi-year application of WRF-CAM5 over East Asia-Part I: Comprehensive evaluation and formation regimes of O3 and PM2.5." Atmospheric Environment 165. PNNL-SA-127848. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.06.015
  • Kassianov E.I., M.S. Pekour, C.J. Flynn, L.K. Berg, J. Beranek, A. Zelenyuk, and C. Zhao, et al. 2017. "Large Contribution of Coarse Mode to Aerosol Microphysical and Optical Properties: Evidence from Ground-based Observations of a Transpacific Dust Outbreak at a High-Elevation North American Site." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 74, no. 5:1431-1443. PNNL-SA-118075. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-16-0256.1
  • Konapala G., A.K. Mishra, and L. Leung. 2017. "Changes in temporal variability of precipitation over land due to anthropogenic forcings." Environmental Research Letters 12, no. 2:Article No. 024009. PNNL-SA-123268. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa568a
  • Koster R., A.K. Betts, P. Dirmeyer, M. Bierkens, K.E. Bennett, S.J. Dery, and J. Evans, et al. 2017. "Hydroclimatic Variability and Predictability: A Survey of Recent Research." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21, no. 7:3777-3798. PNNL-SA-124827. doi:10.5194/hess-2017-122
  • Lau W., K. Kim, and L. Leung. 2017. "Changing circulation structure and precipitation characteristics in Asian monsoon regions: greenhouse warming vs. aerosol effects." Geoscience Letters 4, no. 1:28. PNNL-SA-131118. doi:10.1186/s40562-017-0094-3
  • Leng G., L. Leung, and M. Huang. 2017. "Significant impacts of irrigation water sources and methods on modeling irrigation effects in the ACME Land Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9, no. 3:1665 - 1683. PNNL-SA-122834. doi:10.1002/2016MS000885
  • Lu J., K. Sakaguchi, Q. Yang, L. Leung, G. Chen, C. Zhao, and E. Swenson, et al. 2017. "Examining the Hydrological Variations in an Aquaplanet World using Wave Activity Transformation." Journal of Climate 30, no. 7:2559-2576. PNNL-SA-123595. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0561.1
  • Luo X., H. Li, L. Leung, T.K. Tesfa, A. Getirana, F. Papa, and L.L. Hess. 2017. "Modeling surface water dynamics in the Amazon Basin using MOSART-Inundation v1.0: impacts of geomorphological parameters and river flow representation." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 3:1233-1259. PNNL-SA-119428. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-1233-2017
  • Neiman P.J., N. Gaggini, C. Fairall, J.D. Aikins, J.R. Spackman, L. Leung, and J. Fan, et al. 2017. "An Analysis of Coordinated Observations from NOAA’s Ronald Brown Ship and G-IV Aircraft in a Landfalling Atmospheric River over the North Pacific during CalWater-2015." Monthly Weather Review 145, no. 9:3647-3669. PNNL-SA-124497. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0055.1
  • Tan Z., L. Leung, H. Li, T.K. Tesfa, M. Vanmaercke, J. Poesen, and X. Zhang, et al. 2017. "A global data analysis for representing sediment and particulate organic carbon yield in Earth System Models." Water Resources Research 53, no. 12:10674-10700. PNNL-SA-130974. doi:10.1002/2017WR020806
  • Tesfa T.K., and L. Leung. 2017. "Exploring New Topography-based Subgrid Spatial Structures for Land Surface Modeling." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 2:873-888. PNNL-SA-118783. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-873-2017
  • Voisin N., M.I. Hejazi, L.R. Leung, L. Liu, M. Huang, H. Li, and T.K. Tesfa. 2017. "Effects of spatially distributed sectoral water management on the redistribution of water resources in an integrated water model." Water Resources Research 53, no. 5:4253-4270. PNNL-SA-109215. doi:10.1002/2016WR019767
  • Wan W., J. Zhao, H. Li, A.K. Mishra, L. Leung, M.I. Hejazi, and W. Wang, et al. 2017. "Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene: Impacts of Local Water Extraction and Reservoir Regulation in the U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 21:11,313-11,328. PNNL-SA-121352. doi:10.1002/2017JD026899
  • Wang W., H. Li, L. Leung, W.Y. Yigzaw, J. Zhao, H. Lu, and Z. Deng, et al. 2017. "Nonlinear Filtering Effects of Reservoirs on the Flood Frequency Curves at the Regional Scale." Water Resources Research 53, no. 10:8277-8292. PNNL-SA-125216. doi:10.1002/2017WR020871
  • Wang W., H. Lu, L. Leung, H. Li, J. Zhao, F. Tian, and K. Yang, et al. 2017. "Dam construction in Lancang-Mekong River Basin could mitigate future flood risk from warming-induced intensified rainfall." Geophysical Research Letters 44, no. 20:10378-10386. PNNL-SA-127876. doi:10.1002/2017GL075037
  • Yang Q., L. Leung, J. Lu, Y. Lin, S.M. Hagos, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Gao. 2017. "Exploring the effects of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core in high-resolution aquaplanet simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 6:3245-3265. PNNL-SA-124394. doi:10.1002/2016JD025287
  • Yang Q., R.A. Houze, L. Leung, and Z. Feng. 2017. "Environments of Long-lived Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 24:13,288-13,307. PNNL-SA-125741. doi:10.1002/2017JD027033
  • Yang X., L. Leung, N. Zhao, C. Zhao, Y. Qian, K. Hu, and X. Liu, et al. 2017. "Contribution of urbanization to the increase of extreme heat events in an urban agglomeration in East China." Geophysical Research Letters 44, no. 13:6940-6950. PNNL-SA-127213. doi:10.1002/2017GL074084
  • Ye S., H. Li, L. Leung, J. Guo, Q. Ran, Y. Demissie, and M. Sivapalan. 2017. "Understanding flood seasonality and its temporal shifts within the contiguous United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18, no. 7:1997-2009. PNNL-SA-126412. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0207.1
  • Zhang K., R. Fu, M.J. Shaikh, S.J. Ghan, M. Wang, L. Leung, and R. Dickinson, et al. 2017. "Influence of Superparameterization and a Higher-Order Turbulence Closure on Rainfall Bias Over Amazonia in Community Atmosphere Model Version 5." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 18:9879-9902. PNNL-SA-123731. doi:10.1002/2017JD026576
  • Zhong S., Y. Qian, C. Zhao, L. Leung, H. Wang, B. Yang, and J. Fan, et al. 2017. "Urbanization-induced Urban Heat Island and Aerosol Effects on Climate Extremes in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 8:5439-5457. PNNL-SA-125598. doi:10.5194/acp-17-5439-2017


  • Balaguru K., D.R. Judi, and L. Leung. 2016. "Future hurricane storm surge risk for the U.S. gulf and Florida coasts based on projections of thermodynamic potential intensity." Climatic Change 138, no. 1:99-110. PNNL-SA-114029. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1728-8
  • Balaguru K., G.R. Foltz, L. Leung, and K. Emanuel. 2016. "Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-116242. doi:10.1038/ncomms13670
  • Balaguru K., L. Leung, J. Lu, and G.R. Foltz. 2016. "A meridional dipole in pre-monsoon Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone activity induced by ENSO." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 121, no. 12:6954-6968. PNNL-SA-113075. doi:10.1002/2016JD024936
  • Brunke M., P. Broxton, J. Pelletier, D. Gochis, P. Hazenberg, D.M. Lawrence, and L.R. Leung, et al. 2016. "Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5)." Journal of Climate 29, no. 9:3441-3461. PNNL-SA-109797. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0307.1
  • Feng Z., L. Leung, S.M. Hagos, R.A. Houze, C.D. Burleyson, and K. Balaguru. 2016. "More frequent intense and long-lived storms dominate the springtime trend in central U.S. rainfall." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-122022. doi:10.1038/ncomms13429
  • Gao Y., J. Lu, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Uncertainties in projecting future changes in atmospheric rivers and their impacts on heavy precipitation over Europe." Journal of Climate29, no. 18:6711-6726. PNNL-SA-115660. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0088.1
  • Grotjahn R., R. Black, L.R. Leung, M.F. Wehner, M. Barlow, M. Bosilovich, and A. Gershunov, et al. 2016. "North American Extreme Temperature Events and Related Large Scale Meteorological Patterns: A Review of Statistical Methods, Dynamics, Modeling, and Trends." Climate Dynamics 46, no. 3:1151-1184. PNNL-SA-104682. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2638-6
  • Haarsma R.J., M.J. Roberts, P.L. Vidale, C.A. Senior, A. Bellucci, Q. Bao, and P. Chang, et al. 2016. "High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP v1.0) for CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 9, no. 11:4185-4208. PNNL-SA-123045. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-4185-2016
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, J. Yoon, J. Lu, and Y. Gao. 2016. "A Projection of Changes in Landfilling Atmospheric River Frequency and Extreme Precipitation over Western North America from the Large Ensemble CESM Simulations." Geophysical Research Letters 43, no. 3:1357-1363. PNNL-SA-115451. doi:10.1002/2015GL067392
  • Hu Z., C. Zhao, J. Huang, L.R. Leung, Y. Qian, H. Yu, and L. Huang, et al. 2016. "Trans-Pacific transport and evolution of aerosols: evaluation of quasi-global WRF-Chem simulation with multiple observations." Geoscientific Model Development 9, no. 5:1725-1746. PNNL-SA-114413. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1725-2016
  • Leng G., M. Huang, N. Voisin, X. Zhang, G.R. Asrar, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Emergence of new hydrologic regimes of surface water resources in the Conterminous United States under future warming." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 11:Article No. 114003. PNNL-SA-117644. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114003
  • Leng G., X. Zhang, M. Huang, G.R. Asrar, and L. Leung. 2016. "The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-116570. doi:10.1038/srep33160
  • Leng G., X. Zhang, M. Huang, Q. Yang, R. Rafique, G.R. Asrar, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Simulating County-Level Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States Using the Community Land Model: the Effects of Optimizing Irrigation and Fertilization." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 4:1912-1931. PNNL-SA-116300. doi:10.1002/2016MS000645
  • Leung L., and L.W. Vail. 2016. Potential Impacts of Accelerated Climate Change. PNNL-24868 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Leung L., and Y. Gao. 2016. "Regional downscaling of S2S prediction: Past lessons and future prospects." US CLIVAR Variations 14, no. 4:13-17. PNNL-SA-122609.
  • Leung L.R. 2016. "Atmospheric Rivers." In Handbook of Applied Hydrology, Second Edition, edited by VP Singh. 72-3-72-9. New York, New York:McGraw-Hill Education. PNNL-SA-114685.
  • Li S., L. Xiong, H. Li, L.R. Leung, and Y. Demissie. 2016. "Attributing runoff changes to climate variability and human activities: Uncertainty analysis using four monthly water balance models." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 30, no. 1:251-269. PNNL-SA-104608. doi:10.1007/s00477-015-1083-8
  • Nalli N.R., C.D. Barnet, T. Reale, Q. Liu, V.R. Morris, J.R. Spackman, and E. Joseph, et al. 2016. "Satellite sounder observations of contrasting Troposheric moisture transport regimes: Saharan air layers, Hadley cells, and atmospheric rivers." Journal of Hydrometeorology 17, no. 12:2997-3006. PNNL-SA-121128. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-16-0163.1
  • Ralph F.M., K.A. Prather, D. Cayan, J.R. Spackman, P.J. DeMott, M. Dettinger, and C. Fairall, et al. 2016. "CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97, no. 7:1209-1228. PNNL-SA-113078. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00043.1
  • Ren H., Z. Hou, M. Huang, J. Bao, Y. Sun, T.K. Tesfa, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins." Journal of Hydrology 536. PNNL-SA-105598. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.02.042
  • Sakaguchi K., J. Lu, L. Leung, C. Zhao, Y. Li, and S.M. Hagos. 2016. "Sources and Pathways of the Upscale Effects on the Southern Hemisphere Jet in MPAS-CAM4 Variable-Resolution Simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 4:1786-1805. PNNL-SA-120998. doi:10.1002/2016MS000743
  • Sakaguchi K., X. Zeng, L.R. Leung, and P. Shao. 2016. "Influence of dynamic vegetation on carbon-nitrogen cycle feedback in the Community Land Model (CLM4)." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 12:124029. PNNL-SA-115218. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa51d9
  • Taraphdar S., P. Mukhopadhyay, L. Leung, and K. Landu. 2016. "Prediction Skill of Tropical Synoptic Scale Transients from ECMWF and NCEP Ensemble Prediction Systems." Mathematics of Climate and Weather Forecasting 2, no. 1:26-42. PNNL-SA-123191. doi:10.1515/mcwf-2016-0002
  • Voigt A., M. Biasutti, J. Scheff, J. Bader, S. Bordoni, F. Codron, and R.D. Dixon, et al. 2016. "The Tropical Rain belts with an Annual cycle and a Continent Model Intercomparison Project: TRACMIP." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 4:1868-1891. PNNL-SA-123120. doi:10.1002/2016MS000748
  • Voisin N., L.R. Leung, and M.I. Hejazi. 2016. "Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources: Modeling the Impacts of Climate and Socioeconomic Changes Using the US Midwest as a Case Study." In Terrestrial Water Cycle and Climate Change: Natural and Human-Induced Impacts, edited by Q Tang and T Oki. 169-192. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-118569.
  • Wang L., Y. Qian, Y. Zhang, C. Zhao, L.R. Leung, A. Huang, and C. Xiao. 2016. "Observed Variability of Summer Precipitation Pattern and Extreme Events in East China Associated with Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon." International Journal of Climatology 36, no. 8:2942-2957. PNNL-SA-108238. doi:10.1002/joc.4530
  • Xue Y., F. de Sales, W. Lau, A. Boone, K. Kim, C. Mechoso, and G. Wang, et al. 2016. "West African monsoon decadal variability and surface-related forcings: Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)." Climate Dynamics 47, no. 11:3517-3545. PNNL-SA-112235. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3224-2
  • Yang Y., J. Fan, L.R. Leung, C. Zhao, Z. Li, and D. Rosenfeld. 2016. "Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua of Central China, Part I: Mountain Valley Circulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73, no. 3:1351-1366. PNNL-SA-115149. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0233.1
  • Yang Z., S. Taraphdar, T. Wang, L. Leung, and M.E. Grear. 2016. "Uncertainty and feasibility of dynamical downscaling for modeling tropical cyclones for storm surge simulation." Natural Hazards 84, no. 2:1161-1184. PNNL-SA-119692. doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2482-y
  • Zhao B., K.N. Liou, Y. Gu, C. He, W.L. Lee, X. Chang, and Q. Li, et al. 2016. "Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics16, no. 9:5841-5852. PNNL-SA-118376. doi:10.5194/acp-16-5841-2016
  • Zhao C., L.R. Leung, S. Park, S.M. Hagos, J. Lu, K. Sakaguchi, and J. Yoon, et al. 2016. "Exploring the impacts of physics and resolution on aqua-planet simulations from a non-hydrostatic global variable-resolution modeling framework." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 4:1751-1768. PNNL-SA-118452. doi:10.1002/2016MS000727


  • Adam J.C., J.C. Stephens, S. Chung, M.P. Brady, R.D. Evans, C.E. Kruger, and B.K. Lamb, et al. 2015. "BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management." Climatic Change 129, no. 3-4:555-571. PNNL-SA-96311. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1115-2
  • Balaguru K., G.R. Foltz, L. Leung, E. D'Asaro, K.A. Emanuel, H. Liu, and S.E. Zedler. 2015. "Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean’s impact on tropical cyclones." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 16:6739-6746. PNNL-SA-112691. doi:10.1002/2015GL064822
  • Bonfils C., B.D. Santer, T.J. Phillips, K. Marvel, L.R. Leung, C. Doutriaux, and A. Capotondi. 2015. "Relative Contributions of Mean-State Shifts and ENSO-Driven Variability to Precipitation Changes in a Warming Climate." Journal of Climate 28, no. 24:9997-10013. PNNL-SA-103893. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0341.1
  • Chen G., J. Lu, A.D. Burrows, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 24:10,952-10,960. PNNL-SA-116218. doi:10.1002/2015GL066959
  • Chen Y., Y. Zhang, J. Fan, L.R. Leung, Q. Zhang, and K. He. 2015. "Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part I. Comprehensive Model Evaluation and Trend Analysis for 2006 and 2011." Climate 3, no. 3:627-667. PNNL-SA-113254. doi:10.3390/cli3030627
  • Clark M.P., Y. Fan, D.M. Lawrence, J.C. Adam, D. Bolster, D. Gochis, and R.P. Hooper, et al. 2015. "Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models." Water Resources Research 51, no. 8:5929-5956. PNNL-SA-108240. doi:10.1002/2015WR017096
  • Done J., G. Holland, C. Bruyere, L.R. Leung, and A. Suzuki-Parker. 2015. "Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective." Climatic Change129, no. 3-4:381-395. PNNL-SA-97267. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0954-6
  • Fan J., D. Rosenfeld, Y. Yang, C. Zhao, L.R. Leung, and Z. Li. 2015. "Substantial Contribution of Anthropogenic Air Pollution to Catastrophic Floods in Southwest China." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 14:6066-6075. PNNL-SA-106517. doi:10.1002/2015GL064479
  • Fang Y., C. Liu, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4." Geoscientific Model Development 8, no. 3:781-789. PNNL-SA-106100. doi:10.5194/gmd-8-781-2015
  • Foltz G.R., K. Balaguru, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 4:1158-1164. PNNL-SA-105538. doi:10.1002/2015GL063222
  • Gao Y., J. Lu, L.R. Leung, Q. Yang, S.M. Hagos, and Y. Qian. 2015. "Dynamical and thermodynamical modulations of future changes in landfalling atmospheric rivers over North America." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 17:7179-7186. PNNL-SA-110116. doi:10.1002/2015GL065435
  • Gao Y., L.R. Leung, J. Lu, and G. Masato. 2015. "Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 4:Article No. 044001. PNNL-SA-103947. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/4/044001
  • Gao Y., L.R. Leung, Y. Zhang, and L. Cuo. 2015. "Changes in Moisture Flux Over the Tibetan Plateau During 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation." Journal of Climate 28, no. 10:4185-4197. PNNL-SA-103892. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00581.1
  • Gao Y., L.R. Leung, Y. Zhang, and L. Cuo. 2015. "Changes in Moisture Flux over the Tibetan Plateau during 1979-2011: Insights from a High Resolution Simulation." Journal of Climate 28, no. 10:4185-4197. PNNL-SA-105032. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00581.1
  • Gao Y., X. Li, L.R. Leung, D. Chen, and J. Xu. 2015. "Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 3:Article No. 034013. PNNL-SA-106739. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/3/034013
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, Q. Yang, C. Zhao, and J. Lu. 2015. "Resolution and Dynamical Core Dependence of Atmospheric River Frequency in Global Model Simulations." Journal of Climate 28, no. 7:2764-2776. PNNL-SA-104683. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00567.1
  • He C., K.N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M.L. Zamora, P. Yang, and Q. Li, et al. 2015. "Variation of Radiative Properties During Black Carbon Aging: Theoretical and Experimental Intercomparison." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, no. 20:11967-11980. PNNL-SA-107010. doi:10.5194/acp-15-11967-2015
  • Hejazi M.I., N. Voisin, L. Liu, L.M. Bramer, D.C. Fortin, J.E. Hathaway, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "21st Century United States Emissions Mitigation Could Increase Water Stress more than the Climate Change it is Mitigating." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 34:10635-10640. PNNL-SA-105956. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421675112
  • Kraucunas I.P., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Dirks, J.E. Hathaway, M.I. Hejazi, K.A. Hibbard, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)." Climatic Change 129, no. 3-4:573-588. PNNL-SA-93553. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1064-9
  • Lee W.L., Y. Gu, K.N. Liou, L.R. Leung, and H. Hsu. 2015. "A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, no. 10:5405-5413. PNNL-SA-111023. doi:10.5194/acp-15-5405-2015
  • Leng G., M. Huang, Q. Tang, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "A modeling study of irrigation effects on global surface water and groundwater resources under a changing climate." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 3:1285-1304. PNNL-SA-105104. doi:10.1002/2015MS000437
  • Leng G., Q. Tang, M. Huang, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain." Regional Environmental Change 15, no. 2:251-263. PNNL-SA-96424. doi:10.1007/s10113-014-0640-x
  • Leng G., Q. Tang, M. Huang, Y. Hong, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China." Science China. Earth Sciences 58, no. 5:739-754. PNNL-SA-97291. doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4987-0
  • Li H., L.R. Leung, A. Getirana, M. Huang, H. Wu, Y. Xu, and J. Guo, et al. 2015. "Evaluating Global Streamflow Simulations by a Physically-based Routing Model Coupled with the Community Land Model." Journal of Hydrometeorology 16, no. 2:948-971. PNNL-SA-101748. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-14-0079.1
  • Li H., L.R. Leung, T.K. Tesfa, N. Voisin, M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, and Y. Liu, et al. 2015. "Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 4:1661-1679. PNNL-SA-109347. doi:10.1002/2015MS000471
  • Liu W., J. Lu, L.R. Leung, S. Xie, Z. Liu, and J. Zhu. 2015. "The de-correlation of westerly winds and westerly-wind stress over the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum." Climate Dynamics 45, no. 11:3157-3168. PNNL-SA-101878. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2530-4
  • Lu J., G. Chen, L.R. Leung, D.A. Burrows, Q. Yang, K. Sakaguchi, and S.M. Hagos. 2015. "Toward the Dynamical Convergence on the Jet Stream in Aquaplanet AGCMs." Journal of Climate 28, no. 17:6763-6782. PNNL-SA-111542. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00761.1
  • Mei R., M. Ashfaq, D. Rastogi, L.R. Leung, and F. Dominguez. 2015. "Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate 28, no. 8:3400-3419. PNNL-SA-103075. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00355.1
  • Prein A., W. Langhans, G. Fosser, A. Ferrone, N. Ban, K. Goergen, and M. Keller, et al. 2015. "A review on regional convection-permitting climate modeling: Demonstrations, prospects, and challenges." Reviews of Geophysics 53, no. 2:323-361. PNNL-SA-106077. doi:10.1002/2014RG000475
  • Sakaguchi K., L.R. Leung, C. Zhao, Q. Yang, J. Lu, S.M. Hagos, and S. Rauscher, et al. 2015. "Exploring a Multi-resolution Approach Using AMIP Simulations." Journal of Climate 28, no. 14:5549-5574. PNNL-SA-106250. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00729.1
  • Taraphdar S., L.R. Leung, and S.M. Hagos. 2015. "Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 2:572-578. PNNL-SA-105745. doi:10.1002/2014GL062600
  • Ye S., H. Li, S. Li, L.R. Leung, Y. Demissie, Q. Ran, and G. Blschl. 2015. "Vegetation regulation on streamflow intra-annual variability through adaption to climate variations." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 23:10307-10315. PNNL-SA-113359. doi:10.1002/2015GL066396
  • Yoon J., and L.R. Leung. 2015. "Assessing the relative influence of surface soil moisture and ENSO SST on precipitation predictability over the contiguous United States." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 12:5005-5013. PNNL-SA-110967. doi:10.1002/2015GL064139
  • Zhang Y., X. Zhang, K. Wang, J. He, L.R. Leung, J. Fan, and A. Nenes. 2015. "Incorporating an advanced aerosol activation parameterization into WRF-CAM5: Model evaluation and parameterization intercomparison." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 120, no. 14:6952-6979. PNNL-SA-113221. doi:10.1002/2014JD023051
  • Zhang Y., Y. Chen, J. Fan, and L.R. Leung. 2015. "Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions." Climate 3, no. 3:753-774. PNNL-SA-113255. doi:10.3390/cli3030753
  • Zhong S., Y. Qian, C. Zhao, L.R. Leung, and X. Yang. 2015. "A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area: Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 120, no. 20:10903-10914. PNNL-SA-111144. doi:10.1002/2015JD023753


  • Ali M., S. Ye, H. Li, M. Huang, L.R. Leung, A. Fiori, and M. Sivapalan. 2014. "Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Up-scaling from physically based numerical simulations at hillslope scale." Journal of Hydrology 519, no. Part A:683-698. PNNL-SA-98573. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.018
  • Balaguru K., S. Taraphdar, L.R. Leung, and G.R. Foltz. 2014. "Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 10:3594-3601. PNNL-SA-101048. doi:10.1002/2014GL060197
  • Balaguru K., S. Taraphdar, L.R. Leung, G.R. Foltz, and J.A. Knaff. 2014. "Cyclone-cyclone Interactions through the Ocean Pathway." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 19:6855-6862. PNNL-SA-96628. doi:10.1002/2014GL061489
  • Cai X., Z. Yang, Y. Xia, M. Huang, H. Wei, L.R. Leung, and M. Ek. 2014. "Assessment of simulated water balance from Noah, Noah-MP, CLM, and VIC over CONUS using the NLDAS test bed." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119, no. 24:13,751-13,770. PNNL-SA-108379. doi:10.1002/2014JD022113
  • Chen S., C. Zhao, Y. Qian, L.R. Leung, J. Huang, Z. Huang, and J. Bi, et al. 2014. "Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem." Aeolian Research 15. PNNL-SA-96923. doi:10.1016/j.aeolia.2014.02.001
  • Fan J., L.R. Leung, P.J. DeMott, J.M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2014. "Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 1:81-101. PNNL-SA-100078. doi:10.5194/acp-14-81-2014
  • Fan J., L.R. Leung, P.J. DeMott, J.M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2014. "Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81-101, 2014." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14. PNNL-SA-102971. doi:10.5194/acp-14-3063-2014
  • Fang Y., C. Liu, M. Huang, H. Li, and L.R. Leung. 2014. "Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6, no. 4:1049-1064. PNNL-SA-101823. doi:10.1002/2014MS000331
  • Gao Y., C. Zhao, X. Liu, M. Zhang, and L.R. Leung. 2014. "WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia." Atmospheric Environment 92. PNNL-SA-96927. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.038
  • Gao Y., L.R. Leung, J. Lu, Y. Liu, M. Huang, and Y. Qian. 2014. "Robust Spring Drying in the Southwestern U.S. and Seasonal Migration of Wet/Dry Patterns in a Warmer Climate." Geophysical Research Letters 41. PNNL-SA-100352. doi:10.1002/2014GL059562
  • Getirana A., E. Dutra, M. Guimberteau, J. Kam, H. Li, B. Decharme, and Z.J. Zhang, et al. 2014. "Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble." Journal of Hydrometeorology 15, no. 6:2586-2614. PNNL-SA-101747. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-14-0068.1
  • Guo J., H. Li, L.R. Leung, S. Guo, P. Liu, and M. Sivapalan. 2014. "Links Between Flood Frequency and Annual Water Balance Behaviors: A Basis for Similarity and Regionalization." Water Resources Research 50, no. 2:937-953. PNNL-SA-96763. doi:10.1002/2013WR014374
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, W.I. Gustafson, and B. Singh. 2014. "Eddy Fluxes and Sensitivity of the Water Cycle to Spatial Resolution in Idealized Regional Aquaplanet Model Simulations." Climate Dynamics 42, no. 3-4:931-940. PNNL-SA-90821. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1857-y
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, Y. Xue, A. Boone, F. de Sales, N. Neupane, and M. Huang, et al. 2014. "Assessment of Uncertainties in the Response of the African Monsoon Precipitation to Land Use change simulated by a regional model." Climate Dynamics 43, no. 9-10:2765-2775. PNNL-SA-96599. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2092-x
  • He C., Q. Li, K.N. Liou, Y. Takano, Y. Gu, L. Qi, and Y. Mao, et al. 2014. "Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 22:7806-7813. PNNL-SA-104979. doi:10.1002/2014GL062191
  • Hoerling M., J. Eischeid, A. Kumar, L.R. Leung, A. Mariotti, K. Mo, and S. Schubert, et al. 2014. "Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95, no. 2:269-282. PNWD-SA-10097. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00055.1
  • Landu K., L.R. Leung, S.M. Hagos, V. Vinoj, S. Rauscher, T. Ringler, and M. Taylor. 2014. "The Dependence of ITCZ Structure on Model Resolution and Dynamical Core in Aquaplanet Simulations." Journal of Climate 27, no. 6:2375-2385. PNNL-SA-95463. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00269.1
  • Lei H., M. Huang, L.R. Leung, D. Yang, X. Shi, J. Mao, and D.J. Hayes, et al. 2014. "Sensitivity of Global Terrestrial Gross Primary Production to Hydrologic States Simulated by the Community Land Model Using Two Runoff Parameterizations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6, no. 3:658-679. PNNL-SA-97292. doi:10.1002/2013MS000252
  • Leng G., M. Huang, Q. Tang, H. Gao, and L.R. Leung. 2014. "Modeling the Effects of Groundwater-fed Irrigation on Terrestrial Hydrology over the Conterminous United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 15, no. 3:957-972. PNNL-SA-94649. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-13-049.1
  • Lim K., J. Fan, L.R. Leung, P. Ma, B. Singh, C. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, et al. 2014. "Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects using a Cumulus Microphysics Parameterization in a Regional Climate Model." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119, no. 2:906-926. PNNL-SA-98519. doi:10.1002/2013JD020958
  • Liou K.N., Y. Takano, C. He, P. Yang, L.R. Leung, Y. Gu, and W.L. Lee. 2014. "Stochastic Parameterization for Light Absorption by Internally Mixed BC/dust in Snow Grains for Application to Climate Models." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119, no. 12:7616-7632. PNNL-SA-101022. doi:10.1002/2014JD021665
  • Lu J., L.R. Leung, Q. Yang, G. Chen, W.D. Collins, F. Li, and Z. Hou, et al. 2014. "The Robust Dynamical Contribution to Precipitation Extremes in Idealized Warming Simulations across Model Resolutions." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 8:2971-2978. PNNL-SA-100968. doi:10.1002/2014GL059532
  • Penrod A., Y. Zhang, K. Wang, S.Y. Wu, and L.R. Leung. 2014. "Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality." Atmospheric Environment 89. PNNL-SA-97933. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.001
  • Tesfa T.K., H. Li, L.R. Leung, M. Huang, Y. Ke, Y. Sun, and Y. Liu. 2014. "A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model." Geoscientific Model Development 7, no. 3:947-963. PNNL-SA-94632. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-947-2014
  • Tesfa T.K., L.R. Leung, M. Huang, H. Li, N. Voisin, and M.S. Wigmosta. 2014. "Scalability of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119, no. 6:3166-3184. PNNL-SA-96701. doi:10.1002/2013JD020493
  • Yan H., Y. Qian, G. Lin, L.R. Leung, B. Yang, and Q. Fu. 2014. "Parametric Sensitivity and Calibration for Kain-Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Model." Climate Research 59, no. 2:135-147. PNNL-SA-95763. doi:10.3354/cr01213
  • Yang Q., L.R. Leung, S. Rauscher, T. Ringler, and M. Taylor. 2014. "Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Spatial Resolution Dependence of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations." Journal of Climate 27, no. 10:3565-3581. PNNL-SA-97223. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00468.1
  • Ye S., H. Li, M. Huang, M. Ali, G. Leng, L.R. Leung, and S. Wang, et al. 2014. "Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves." Journal of Hydrology 519, no. Part A:670-682. PNNL-SA-98574. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.017
  • Zhao C., Z. Hu, Y. Qian, L.R. Leung, J. Huang, M. Huang, and J. Jin, et al. 2014. "Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 20:11475-11491. PNNL-SA-102414. doi:10.5194/acp-14-11475-2014


  • Balaguru K., L.R. Leung, and J. Yoon. 2013. "Oceanic Control of Northeast Pacific Hurricane Activity at Interannual Timescales." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 4:Article No. 044009. PNNL-SA-92146. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044009
  • Chen S., J. Huang, C. Zhao, Y. Qian, L.R. Leung, and B. Yang. 2013. "Modeling the Transport and Radiative Forcing of Taklimakan Dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 2:797-812. PNNL-SA-89039.
  • Fan J., L.R. Leung, D. Rosenfeld, Q. Chen, Z. Li, J. Zhang, and H. Yan. 2013. "Microphysical Effects Determine Macrophysical Response for Aerosol Impacts on Deep Convective Clouds." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, no. 48:E4581-E4590. PNNL-SA-95738. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316830110
  • Fang Y., M. Huang, C. Liu, H. Li, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "A Generic Biogeochemical Module for Earth System Models: Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module (NGBGC), Version 1.0." Geoscientific Model Development 6, no. 6:1977-1988. PNNL-SA-95159. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1977-2013
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, S. Rauscher, and T. Ringler. 2013. "Error Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF." Monthly Weather Review 141, no. 9:3022-3036. PNNL-SA-92096. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00338.1
  • Hagos S.M., Z. Feng, S.A. McFarlane, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 70, no. 8:2409-2425. PNNL-SA-90832. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0260.1
  • Hou Z., M. Huang, D.H. Bacon, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Parameter Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Earth System Models through Exploratory Data Analyses and Calibration." In MODFLOW and More 2013: Translating Science into Practice, June 2-5, 2013, Golden, Colorado, edited by R Maxwell, et al, 159-163. Golden, Colorado:Integrated Ground Water Modeling Center (IGWMC), Colorado School of Mines. PNNL-SA-95103.
  • Huang M., Z. Hou, L.R. Leung, Y. Ke, Y. Liu, Z. Fang, and Y. Sun. 2013. "Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model - Evidence from MOPEX Basins." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14. PNNL-SA-90792. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-0138.1
  • Ke Y., L.R. Leung, M. Huang, and H. Li. 2013. "Enhancing the Representation of Subgrid Land Surface Characteristics in Land Surface Models." Geoscientific Model Development 6. PNNL-SA-93753. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1609-2013
  • Lee T., X. Tong, H. Shen, P.C. Wong, S.M. Hagos, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Feature Tracking and Visualization of Madden-Julian Osciallation in Climate Simulation." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 33, no. 4:29-37. PNNL-SA-94719. doi:10.1109/MCG.2013.36
  • Leng G., M. Huang, Q. Tang, W.J. Sacks, H. Lei, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Modeling the Effects of Irrigation on Land Surface Fluxes and States over the Conterminous United States: Sensitivity to Input Data and Model Parameters." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 17:9789-9803. PNNL-SA-93449. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50792
  • Leung L.R., T. Ringler, W.D. Collins, M. Taylor, and M. Ashfaq. 2013. "A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations." Eos 94, no. 34:297-298. PNNL-SA-95460. doi:10.1002/2013EO340001
  • Li F., W.D. Collins, M.F. Wehner, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 5, no. 2:134-145. PNNL-SA-92048. doi:10.1002/jame.20020
  • Li H., M.S. Wigmosta, H. Wu, M. Huang, Y. Ke, A.M. Coleman, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models." Journal of Hydrometeorology 14, no. 3:808-828. PNNL-SA-84830. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-12-015.1
  • Li Y., and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Potential impacts of the Arctic on interannual and interdecadal summer precipitation over China." Journal of Climate 26, no. 3:889-917. PNNL-SA-85264. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00075.1
  • Li Y., L.R. Leung, Z. Xiao, M. Wei, and Q. Li. 2013. "Interdecadal Connection Between Artic Temperature and Summer Precipitation Over the Yangtze River Valley in the CMIP5 Historical Simulations." Journal of Climate 26, no. 19:7464-7488. PNNL-SA-91660. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00776.1
  • Liou K.N., Y. Gu, L.R. Leung, W.L. Lee, and R.G. Fovell. 2013. "A WRF Simulation of the Impact of 3-D Radiative Transfer on Surface Hydrology over the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 23:11709-11721. PNNL-SA-100075. doi:10.5194/acp-13-11709-2013
  • Mearns L.O., M. Bukovsky, L.R. Leung, Y. Qian, R. Arritt, W. Gutowski, and E.S. Takle, et al. 2013. "Reply to “Comments on ‘The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results’”." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94, no. 7:1077-1078. PNNL-SA-93026. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00013.1
  • Mearns L.O., S. Sain, L.R. Leung, M.S. Bukovsky, S. McGinnis, S. Biner, and D. Caya, et al. 2013. "Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)." Climatic Change 120, no. 4:965-975. PNNL-SA-97723. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0831-3
  • O'Brien T.A., F. Li, W.D. Collins, S. Rauscher, T. Ringler, M. Taylor, and S.M. Hagos, et al. 2013. "Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models." Journal of Climate 26, no. 23:9313-9333. PNNL-SA-95766. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00005.1
  • Sun Y., Z. Hou, M. Huang, F. Tian, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux and Runoff Observations in the Community Land Model." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17. PNNL-SA-94605. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4995-2013
  • Voisin N., H. Li, D.L. Ward, M. Huang, M.S. Wigmosta, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, no. 9:3605-3622. PNNL-SA-93513. doi:10.5194/hess-17-3605-2013
  • Voisin N., L. Liu, M.I. Hejazi, T.K. Tesfa, H. Li, M. Huang, and Y. Liu, et al. 2013. "One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences17, no. No. 11:4555-4575. PNNL-SA-94642. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4555-2013
  • Wan H., P.J. Rasch, K. Zhang, J. Kazil, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM." Geoscientific Model Development 6, no. 3:861-874. PNNL-SA-92938. doi:10.5194/gmd-6-861-2013
  • Wang Y., J. Fan, R. Zhang, L.R. Leung, and C.N. Franklin. 2013. "Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 11:5361-5379. PNNL-SA-91659. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50432
  • Xu Y., R. Bahadur, C. Zhao, and L.R. Leung. 2013. "Estimating the Radiative Forcing of Carbonaceous Aerosols over California based on Satellite and Ground Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 19:11,148-11,160. PNNL-SA-93853. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50835
  • Yang B., Y. Qian, G. Lin, L.R. Leung, P.J. Rasch, G.J. Zhang, and S.A. McFarlane, et al. 2013. "Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning in the CAM5 Zhang-McFarlane Convection Scheme and Impact of Improved Convection on the Global Circulation and Climate." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 2:395-415. PNNL-SA-88207. doi:10.1029/2012JD018213
  • Yang Z., T. Wang, L.R. Leung, K.A. Hibbard, A.C. Janetos, I.P. Kraucunas, and J.S. Rice, et al. 2013. "A modeling study of coastal inundation induced by storm surge, sea-level rise, and subsidence in the Gulf of Mexico." Natural Hazards 71, no. 3:1771-1794. PNNL-SA-94696. doi:10.1007/s11069-013-0974-6
  • Zhao C., L.R. Leung, R.C. Easter, J. Hand, and J. Avise. 2013. "Characterization of Speciated Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Over California." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 5:2372-2388. PNNL-SA-88525. doi:10.1029/2012JD018364
  • Zhao C., S. Chen, L.R. Leung, Y. Qian, J. Kok, R.A. Zaveri, and J. Huang. 2013. "Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13. PNNL-SA-96926. doi:10.5194/acp-13-10733-2013


  • Balaguru K., P. Chang, R. Saravanan, L.R. Leung, Z. Xu, M. Li, and J. Hsieh. 2012. "Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 36:14343-14347. PNNL-SA-82715. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201364109
  • Done J., G. Holland, C. Bruyere, L.R. Leung, and A. Suzuki-Parker. 2012. "Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective." NCAR Technical Notes NCAR/TN-490+STR. PNNL-SA-85150. doi:10.5065/D61834FM
  • Fan J., D. Rosenfeld, Y. Ding, L.R. Leung, and Z. Li. 2012. "Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection." Geophysical Research Letters 39. PNNL-SA-85127. doi:10.1029/2012GL051851
  • Fan J., L.R. Leung, Z. Li, H. Morrison, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, and Y. Qian, et al. 2012. "Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation in Eastern China: Results from Bin and Bulk Microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117. PNNL-SA-81144. doi:10.1029/2011JD016537
  • Gao Y., L.R. Leung, E. Salathe, F. Dominguez, B. Nijssen, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2012. "Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change." Geophysical Research Letters 39. PNNL-SA-84768. doi:10.1029/2012GL051560
  • Gu Y., K.N. Liou, W.L. Lee, and L.R. Leung. 2012. "Simulating 3-D Radiative Transfer Effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 20:9965-9976. PNNL-SA-91882. doi:10.5194/acp-12-9965-2012
  • Hagos S.M., and L.R. Leung. 2012. "Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 4. PNNL-SA-80961. doi:10.1029/2012MS000155
  • Hagos S.M., and L.R. Leung. 2012. "On the relationship between uncertainties in tropical divergence and the hydrological cycle in global models." Journal of Climate 25, no. 1:381-391. PNNL-SA-77638. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00058.1
  • Hou Z., M. Huang, L.R. Leung, G. Lin, D.M. Ricciuto, and D.M. Ricciuto. 2012. "Sensitivity of Surface Flux Simulations to Hydrologic Parameters Based on an Uncertainty Quantification Framework Applied to the Community Land Model." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117. PNNL-SA-85130. doi:10.1029/2012JD017521
  • Ke Y., L.R. Leung, M. Huang, A.M. Coleman, H. Li, and M.S. Wigmosta. 2012. "Development of High Resolution Land Surface Parameters for the Community Land Model." Geoscientific Model Development 5, no. 6:1341-1362. PNNL-SA-91361. doi:10.5194/gmd-5-1341-2012
  • Li H., H. Wu, M. Huang, and L.R. Leung. 2012. "Representing natural and manmade drainage systems in an earth system modeling framework." Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering1, no. 2:Article No. e107. PNNL-SA-90216.
  • Mearns L.O., R. Arritt, S. Biner, M. Bukovsky, S. McGinnis, S. Sain, and D. Caya, et al. 2012. "The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93, no. 9:1337-1362. PNNL-SA-76549. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00223.1
  • Post E.S., A. Grambsch, C.P. Weaver, P. Morefield, J. Huang, L.R. Leung, and C.G. Nolte, et al. 2012. "Variation in Estimated Ozone-Related Health Impacts of Climate Change due to Modeling Choices and Assumptions." Environmental Health Perspectives 120, no. 11:1559-1564. PNNL-SA-92788. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104271
  • Wu H., J.S. Kimball, H. Li, M. Huang, L.R. Leung, and R.F. Adler. 2012. "A New Global River Network Database for Macroscale Hydrologic modeling." Water Resources Research 48. PNNL-SA-87400. doi:10.1029/2012WR012313
  • Yang B., Y. Qian, G. Lin, L.R. Leung, and Y. Zhang. 2012. "Some Issues in Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning: A Case Study of Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Regional Climate Model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 5:2409-2427. PNNL-SA-83188. doi:10.5194/acp-12-2409-2012
  • Yang Q., W.I. Gustafson, J.D. Fast, H. Wang, R.C. Easter, M. Wang, and S.J. Ghan, et al. 2012. "Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 18:8777-8796. PNNL-SA-87970. doi:10.5194/acp-12-8777-2012
  • Yoon J., L.R. Leung, and J. Correia Jr. 2012. "Comparison of Dynamically and Statistically Downscaled Seasonal Climate Forecasts for the Cold Season over the United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117. PNWD-SA-9747. doi:10.1029/2012JD017650
  • Zhang Y., Y. Qian, V. Duliere, E. Salathe, and L.R. Leung. 2012. "ENSO anomalies over the Western United States: present and future patterns in regional climate simulations." Climatic Change 110, no. 1:315-346. PNNL-SA-84929. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0088-7
  • Zhao C., X. Liu, and L.R. Leung. 2012. "Impact of the Desert Dust on the Summer Monsoon System over Southwestern North America." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 8:3717-3731. PNNL-SA-83551. doi:10.5194/acp-12-3717-2012
  • Zhong S., X. Li, X. Bian, W.E. Heilman, L.R. Leung, and W.I. Gustafson. 2012. "Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations over the Great Lakes Region Driven by Three Global Data Sets." Journal of Great Lakes Research 38, no. 2:212-225. PNNL-SA-78152. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2012.03.012


  • Bennartz R., J. Fan, J. Rausch, L.R. Leung, and A.K. Heidinger. 2011. "Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea." Geophysical Research Letters 38. PNNL-SA-80078. doi:10.1029/2011GL047235
  • Hagos S.M., and L.R. Leung. 2011. "Moist thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a cloud resolving simulation." Journal of Climate 24, no. 21:5571-5583. PNNL-SA-76338. doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4212.1
  • Hagos S.M., L.R. Leung, and J. Dudhia. 2011. "Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 68, no. 9:1974-1989. PNNL-SA-73333. doi:10.1175/2011JAS3592.1
  • Li H., M. Huang, M.S. Wigmosta, Y. Ke, A.M. Coleman, L.R. Leung, and A. Wang, et al. 2011. "Evaluating runoff simulations from the Community Land Model 4.0 using observations from flux towers and a mountainous watershed." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116. PNNL-SA-79456. doi:10.1029/2011JD016276
  • Murthi A., K.P. Bowman, and L.R. Leung. 2011. "Simulations of Precipitation Using NRCM and Comparisons with Satellite Observations and CAM: Annual Cycle." Climate Dynamics 36, no. 9-10:1659-1679. PNNL-SA-74068. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0878-z
  • Qian Y., M.G. Flanner, L.R. Leung, and W. Wang. 2011. "Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 5:1929-1948. PNNL-SA-74751. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1929-2011
  • Zhao C., X. Liu, L.R. Leung, and S.M. Hagos. 2011. "Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 5:1879-1893. PNNL-SA-76065. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1879-2011


  • Banner J.L., C.S. Jackson, Z. Yang, K. Hayhoe, C. Woodhouse, L. Gulden, and K. Jacobs, et al. 2010. "Climate Change Impacts on Texas Water: A White Paper Assessment of the Past, Present and Future and Recommendations for Action." Texas Water Journal 1, no. 1:1-19. PNNL-SA-75451.
  • Chung C., V. Ramanathan, G. Carmichael, S. Kulkarni, Y. Tang, B. Adhikary, and L.R. Leung, et al. 2010. "Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in Asia Derived From Regional Models With Atmospheric and Aerosol Data Assimilation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, no. 13:6007-6024. PNNL-SA-69757. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6007-2010
  • Gutowski W., R. Arritt, S. Kawazoe, D. Flory, E.S. Takle, S. Biner, and D. Caya, et al. 2010. "Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated by NARCCAP RCMs." Journal of Hydrometeorology 11, no. 6:1373-1379. PNNL-SA-71052. doi:10.1175/2010JHM1297.1
  • Leung L.R., M. Huang, Y. Qian, and X. Liang. 2010. "Climate-Soil-Vegetation Control on Groundwater Table Dynamics and its Feedbacks in a Climate Model." Climate Dynamics 36, no. 1-2:57-81. PNNL-SA-66579. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0746-x
  • Lu N., Z.T. Taylor, W. Jiang, C. Jin, J. Correia, L.R. Leung, and P.C. Wong. 2010. "Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25, no. 1:480-488. PNNL-SA-62518.
  • Qian Y., D. Gong, and L.R. Leung. 2010. "Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009." Atmospheric Science Letters 11, no. 4:301-306. PNNL-SA-72590. doi:10.1002/asl.298
  • Ray P., C. Zhang, M. Moncrieff, J. Dudhia, J.M. Caron, L.R. Leung, and C. Bruyere. 2010. "Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model." Climate Dynamics 36, no. 1-2:161-184. PNNL-SA-73783. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0859-2
  • Salathe E., L.R. Leung, Y. Qian, and Y. Zhang. 2010. "Regional Climate Model Projections for the State of Washington." Climatic Change 102, no. 1-2:51-75. PNNL-SA-65832. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9849-y
  • Zhao C., X. Liu, L.R. Leung, B. Johnson, S.A. McFarlane, W.I. Gustafson, and J.D. Fast, et al. 2010. "The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, no. 18:8821-8838. PNNL-SA-71138. doi:10.5194/acp-10-8821-2010


  • Fan J., T. Yuan, J.M. Comstock, S.J. Ghan, A. Khain, L.R. Leung, and Z. Li, et al. 2009. "Dominant Role by Vertical Wind Shear in Regulating Aerosol Effects on Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D22206. PNNL-SA-64280. doi:10.1029/2009JD012352
  • Khain A., L.R. Leung, B.H. Lynn, and S.J. Ghan. 2009. "Effects of aerosols on the dynamics and microphysics of squall lines simulated by WRF with spectral bin and bulk parameterization schemes." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D22203. PNWD-SA-8510. doi:10.1029/2009JD011902
  • Leung L.R., and Y. Qian. 2009. "Atmospheric Rivers Induced Heavy Precipitation and Flooding in the Western U.S. Simulated by the WRF Regional Climate Model." Geophysical Research Letters 36. PNNL-SA-64103. doi:10.1029/2008GL036445
  • Lu N., Z.T. Taylor, W. Jiang, J. Correia, L.R. Leung, and P.C. Wong. 2009. "The Temperature Sensitivity of the Residential Load and Commercial Building Load." In IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PES '09), July 26-30, 2009, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-63626. doi:10.1109/PES.2009.5275654
  • Mearns L.O., W. Gutowski, R. Jones, L.R. Leung, S. McGinnis, A. Nunes, and Y. Qian. 2009. "A Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for North America." Eos 90, no. 36. PNNL-SA-68330.
  • Qian Y., D. Gong, J. Fan, L.R. Leung, R. Bennartz, D. Chen, and W. Wang. 2009. "Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114. PNNL-SA-63743. doi:10.1029/2008JD011575
  • Qian Y., S.J. Ghan, and L.R. Leung. 2009. "Downscaling hydroclimatic changes over the Western U.S. Based on CAM subgrid scheme and WRF regional climate simulations." International Journal of Climatology 30, no. 5:675-693. PNWD-SA-8304. doi:10.1002/joc.1928
  • Qian Y., W.I. Gustafson, L.R. Leung, and S.J. Ghan. 2009. "Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114. PNNL-SA-58820. doi:10.1029/2008JD011039
  • Wang Y., C.N. Long, L.R. Leung, J. Dudhia, S.A. McFarlane, J.H. Mather, and S.J. Ghan, et al. 2009. "Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D21203. PNNL-SA-61995. doi:10.1029/2009JD012729
  • Weaver C.P., X.Z. Liang, J. Zhu, J. Zhu, P.J. Adams, P. Amar, and J. Avise, et al. 2009. "A Preliminary Synthesis of Modeled Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional Ozone Concentrations." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90, no. 12:1843-1863. PNNL-SA-61954. doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2568.1
  • Wong P.C., L.R. Leung, N. Lu, M.J. Scott, P.S. Mackey, H.P. Foote, and J. Correia, et al. 2009. "Designing a Collaborative Visual Analytics Tool for Social and Technological Change Prediction." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 29, no. 5:58-68. PNNL-SA-64416. doi:10.1109/MCG.2009.92
  • Wong P.C., L.R. Leung, N. Lu, M.L. Paget, J. Correia, W. Jiang, and P.S. Mackey, et al. 2009. "Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on U.S. Power Grids and Its Wider Implications on National Security." In AAAI Spring Symposium on Technosocial Predictive Analytics, SS-09-09, 148-153. Menlo Park, California:AAAI Press. PNNL-SA-62199.
  • Zhu C., C. Zhu, L.R. Leung, D. Gochis, Y. Qian, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2009. "Evaluating the influence of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon precipitation in the coupled MM5/VIC modeling system." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 1. PNNL-SA-63239. doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.13


  • Adhikary B., s. Kulkarni, A. Dallura, Y. Tang, T. Chai, L.R. Leung, and Y. Qian, et al. 2008. "A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique." Atmospheric Environment 42, no. 37:8600-8615. PNWD-SA-8119. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.08.031
  • Huang M., X. Liang, and L.R. Leung. 2008. "A Generalized Subsurface Flow Parameterization Considering Subgrid Spatial Variability of Recharge and Topography." Journal of Hydrometeorology 9, no. 6:1151-1171. PNNL-SA-55662. doi:10.1175/2008JHM936.1
  • Kennedy T.L., D.S. Gutzler, and L.R. Leung. 2008. "Predicting future threats to the long-term survival of Gila Trout using a high-resolution simulation of climate change." Climatic Change. PNNL-SA-54398. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9503-0
  • Lu N., Z.T. Taylor, W. Jiang, Y. Xie, L.R. Leung, J. Correia, and P.C. Wong, et al. 2008. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid. PNNL-17826. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Qian Y., Q. Song, S. Menon, S. Yu, S.C. Liu, G. Shi, and L.R. Leung, et al. 2008. "Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols." In Changes In The Human-Monsoon System Of East Asia In The Context Of Global Change, edited by C Fu, JR Freney. JWB Stewart. 115-132. Hackensack, New Jersey:World Scientific Publishing Company, Imperial College Press. PNNL-SA-45010.
  • Zhang J., W. Wang, and L.R. Leung. 2008. "Contribution of Land-atmosphere Coupling to Summer Climate Variability over the Contiguous United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113, no. 22:D22109. PNNL-SA-55667. doi:10.1029/2008JD010136
  • Zhang Y., X. Hu, L.R. Leung, and W.I. Gustafson. 2008. "Impacts of Regional Climate Change on Biogenic Emissions and Air Quality." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres)113. PNNL-SA-59607. doi:10.1029/2008JD009965


  • Adhikary B., G. Carmichael, Y. Tang, L.R. Leung, Y. Qian, J.J. Schauer, and E.A. Stone, et al. 2007. "Characterization of the seasonal cycle of south Asian aerosols: A Regional-Scale Modeling Analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112, no. D22:D22S22 (22 pages). PNWD-SA-7631. doi:10.1029/2006JD008143
  • Gustafson W.I., and L.R. Leung. 2007. "Regional Downscaling for Air Quality Assessment: A Reasonable Proposition?." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88, no. 8:1215-1227. PNNL-SA-50718.
  • Qian Y., and L.R. Leung. 2007. "A Long-term Regional Simulation and Observations of the Hydroclimate in China." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112. PNNL-SA-51616. doi:10.1029/2006JD008134
  • Qian Y., W. Wang, L.R. Leung, and D.P. Kaiser. 2007. "Variability of Solar Radiation under Cloud-Free Skies in China: The Role of Aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters 34. PNNL-SA-51615. doi:10.1029/2006GL028800
  • Tagaris E., K. Manomaiphiboon, K. Liao, L.R. Leung, J. Woo, S. He, and P. Amar, et al. 2007. "Impacts of Global Climate Change and Emissions on Regional Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations over United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112. PNNL-SA-53485. doi:10.1029/2006JD008262


  • Duffy P., R. Arritt, J. Coquard, W. Gutowski, J. Han, J. Iorio, and J. Kim, et al. 2006. "Simulations of Present and Future Climates in the Western United States with Four Nested Regional Climate Models." Journal of Climate 19, no. 6:873-895. PNNL-SA-46110.
  • Leung L.R., Y. Kuo, and J. Tribbia. 2006. "Research Needs and Directions of Regional Climate Modeling Using WRF and CCSM." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87, no. 12:1747-1751. PNNL-SA-46312.
  • Qian Y., D.P. Kaiser, L.R. Leung, and M. Xu. 2006. "More Frequent Cloud-Free Sky and Less Surface Solar Radiation in China from 1955 to 2000." Geophysical Research Letters 33, no. 1:L01812, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024586. PNNL-SA-45886.
  • Wong P.C., H.P. Foote, L.R. Leung, E.R. Jurrus, D.R. Adams, and J.J. Thomas. 2006. "Vector Fields Simplification-A Case Study of Visualizing Climate Modeling and Simulation Data Sets." In Visualization 2000. Proceedings, 485 - 488, 596. New York City, New York:IEEE. PNNL-SA-34863.


  • Hogrefe C., L.R. Leung, L.J. Mickley, S.W. Hunt, and D.A. Winner. 2005. "Considering Climate Change in U.S. Air Quality Management." EM: Air & Waste Management Association's magazine for environmental managers October 2005. PNNL-SA-45957.
  • Leung L.R. 2005. "Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S." In Global Change and Mountain Regions, Advances in Global Change Research, edited by UM Huber, HKM Bugmann, and MA Reasoner. 355-364. Dordrecht:Springer. PNNL-SA-37388.
  • Leung L.R., and W.I. Gustafson. 2005. "Potential Regional Climate Change and Implications to U.S. Air Quality." Geophysical Research Letters 32, no. 16:L16711. PNNL-SA-45956. doi:10.1029/2005GL022911
  • Leung L.R., and Y. Qian. 2005. "Downscaling Extended Weather Forecasts for Hydrologic Prediction." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86, no. 3:332-333. PNWD-SA-6940.
  • Leung L.R., and Y. Qian. 2005. "Hydrologic Response to Climate Variability, Climate Change, and Climate Extreme in the U.S.: Climate Model Evaluation and Projections." In Regional Hydrological Impacts of Climate Change - Impact Assessment and Decision Making, IAHS Publication 295, edited by T. Wagener, et al. 37-44. Wallingford, Oxfordshire:IAHS Press. PNNL-SA-46314.
  • Zhao Z., L.R. Leung, and Y. Qian. 2005. "Characteristics of Diurnal Variations of Rainfall in China for the Recent Years." Exchanges : newsletter of the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR) 10, no. 3:24-26. PNNL-SA-46313.


  • Easter R.C., S.J. Ghan, Y. Zhang, R.D. Saylor, E.G. Chapman, N.S. Laulainen, and H. Abdul-Razzak, et al. 2004. "MIRAGE: Model Description and Evaluation of Aerosols and Trace Gases." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109, no. D20:D20210. PNWD-SA-5826. doi:10.1029/2004JD004571
  • Guo J., X. Liang, and L.R. Leung. 2004. "A New Multi-Scale Flow Network Generation Scheme for Land Surface Models." Geophysical Research Letters 31, no. 23:Article no. 23502. PNNL-SA-42702. doi:10.1029/2004GL021381
  • Guo J., X. Liang, and L.R. Leung. 2004. "A New Multiscale Flow Network Generation Scheme for Land Surface Models." Geophysical Research Letters 31, no. 23:L23502. PNNL-SA-42001. doi:10.1029/2004GL021381
  • Guo J., X. Liang, and L.R. Leung. 2004. "Impacts of Different Precipitation Data Sources on Water Budgets." Journal of Hydrology 298, no. 1-4:311-334. PNNL-SA-41322.
  • Leung L.R., S. Zhong, Y. Qian, and Y. Liu. 2004. "Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1998 and 1999 East Asian Summer Monsoon Using the GAME/HUBEX Observational Data." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 82, no. 6:1695-1713. PNNL-SA-41327.
  • Leung L.R., Y. Qian, X. Bian, W.M. Washington, J. Han, and J.O. Roads. 2004. "Mid-Century Ensemble Regional Climate Change Scenarios for the Western United States." Climatic Change 62, no. 1-3:75-113. PNNL-SA-37362.
  • Liang X., J. Guo, and L.R. Leung. 2004. "Assessment of the effects of spatial resolutions on daily water flux simulations." Journal of Hydrology 298, no. 1-4:287-310. PNNL-SA-41323. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.07.007
  • Liang X., J. Guo, and L.R. Leung. 2004. "Assessment of the Effects of Spatial Resolutions on Daily Water Flux Simulations." Journal of Hydrology 298, no. 1-4:287-310. PNNL-SA-43037.
  • Wang Y., L.R. Leung, J.L. McGregor, D. Lee, W. Wang, Y. Ding, and F. Kimura. 2004. "Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 82, no. 6:1599-1628. PNNL-SA-41328.
  • Wong P.C., H.P. Foote, D.R. Adams, W.E. Cowley, L.R. Leung, and J.J. Thomas. 2004. "Visualizing Data Streams." In Visual and Spatial Analysis: Advances in Data Mining, Reasoning, and Problem Solving, edited by Boris Kovalerchuk and James Schwing. 265-291. Dordrecht:Springer. PNNL-SA-41466.
  • Wood A.W., L.R. Leung, V. Sridhar, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2004. "Hydrologic Implications of Dynamical and Statistical Approaches to Downscaling Climate Model Outputs." Climatic Change 62, no. 1-3:189-216. PNNL-SA-37377.


  • Leung L.R., and Y. Qian. 2003. "Changes in Seasonal and Extreme Hydrologic Conditions of the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound in an Ensemble Regional Climate Simulation for the Mid-Century." Canadian Water Resources Journal 28, no. 4:605-631. PNNL-SA-41326.
  • Leung L.R., and Y. Qian. 2003. "The Sensitivity of Precipitation and Snowpack Simulations to Model Resolution via Nesting in Regions of Complex Terrain." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4, no. 6:1025-1043. PNNL-SA-37337.
  • Leung L.R., L.O. Mearns, F. Giorgi, and R.L. Wilby. 2003. "Regional Climate Research: Needs and Opportunities." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84, no. 1:89-95. PNNL-SA-37372.
  • Leung L.R., Y. Qian, and X. Bian. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part I: Seasonal Statistics." Journal of Climate 16, no. 12:1892-1911. PNNL-SA-35915.
  • Leung L.R., Y. Qian, J. Han, and J.O. Roads. 2003. "Intercomparison of Global Reanalyses and Regional Simulations of Cold Season Water Budgets in the Western United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4, no. 6:1067-1087. PNNL-SA-37355.
  • Leung L.R., Y. Qian, X. Bian, and A.G. Hunt. 2003. "Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO Anomalies." Journal of Climate 16, no. 12:1912-1928. PNNL-SA-35916.
  • Qian Y., L.R. Leung, S.J. Ghan, and F. Giorgi. 2003. "Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology55, no. 4:914-934. PNNL-SA-37550.
  • Wigmosta M.S., and L.R. Leung. 2003. "Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Streamflow and Flooding in Snow Dominated Forest Basins." In Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests: IUFRO Research Series, No. 9, edited by R.C Sidle. 7-24. Wallingford:CABI Publishing. PNNL-SA-31837.


  • Chin G., L.R. Leung, K.L. Schuchardt, and D.K. Gracio. 2002. "New Paradigms in Problem Solving Environments for Scientific Computing." In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 39-46. New York, New York:ACM Press. PNNL-SA-35737.
  • Leung L.R., X. Bian, and Y. Qian. 2002. "Long-Term Regional Climate Simulations Driven by Two Global Reanalyses and a GCM for the Western United States." In 4th International Scientific Conference on Global Energy and Water Cycle, 13th Symposium on Global Change and Climate Variations, 65-67. Boston, Massachusetts:American Meteorological Society. PNNL-SA-34823.
  • Thomson A.M., R.A. Brown, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Izaurralde, N.J. Rosenberg, and L.R. Leung. 2002. "Elevation dependence of winter wheat production in eastern Washington state with climate change: A methodological study." Climatic Change 54. PNNL-SA-35094.
  • Wong P.C., H.P. Foote, D.L. Kao, L.R. Leung, and J.J. Thomas. 2002. "Mulitvariate Visualization with Data Fusion." Information Visualization 1, no. 3-4:182-193. PNNL-SA-42184.
  • Wong P.C., H.P. Foote, D.L. Kao, L.R. Leung, and J.J. Thomas. 2002. "Mulitvariate Visualization with Data Fusion." In Infomation Visualization, edited by Chaomei Chen, 1, 182-193. Hampshire:MacMillan. PNNL-SA-36166.


  • Chin G., L.R. Leung, K.L. Schuchardt, and D.K. Gracio. 2001. "Conceptualizing a Collaborative Problem-Solving Environment for Regional Climate Modeling and Assessment of Climate Impacts." In Computational science - ICCS 2001 : international conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, May 28-30, 2001 : proceedings /, edited by Vassil Alexandrov, 2073, 159-174. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-34489.
  • Ghan S.J., N.S. Laulainen, R.C. Easter, R. Wagener, S. Nemesure, S. Nemesure, and E.G. Chapman, et al. 2001. "Evaluation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106, no. D6:5295-5316. PNWD-SA-5025.
  • Ghan S.J., R.C. Easter, E.G. Chapman, H. Abdul-Razzak, H. Abdul-Razzak, Y. Zhang, and L.R. Leung, et al. 2001. "A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106, no. D6:5279-5293. PNWD-SA-5024.


  • Leung L.R., and M.S. Wigmosta. 2000. "The roles of subgrid topography on land-atmosphere interactions." In 15th Conference On Hydrology, 194-197. Boston, Massachusetts:American Meteorological Society. PNNL-SA-31707.
  • Wong P.C., H.P. Foote, L.R. Leung, D.R. Adams, and J.J. Thomas. 2000. "Data Signature and Visualization of Scientific Data Sets." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20, no. 2:12-15. PNNL-SA-32343.


  • Ghan S.J., L.R. Leung, and J. McCaa. 1999. "A Comparison of Three Different Modeling Strategies for Evaluating Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations." Monthly Weather Review127, no. 9:1967-1984. PNNL-SA-29873.
  • Leung L.R., A.F. Hamlet, D.P. Lettenmaier, and A. Kumar. 1999. "Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80, no. 11:2313-2329. PNNL-SA-30515.
  • Leung L.R., and M.S. Wigmosta. 1999. "Potential climate change impacts on mountain watersheds in the Pacific Northwest." Journal of the American Water Resources Association35, no. 6:1463-1471. PNNL-SA-31708.
  • Leung L.R., and S.J. Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part I: Control Simulations." Journal of Climate 12, no. 7:2010-2030. PNNL-SA-29966.
  • Leung L.R., and S.J. Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part II: 2XCO2 Simulations." Journal of Climate 12, no. 7:2031-2053. PNNL-SA-29967.
  • Leung L.R., S.J. Ghan, Z. Zhao, Y. Luo, W. Wang, H. Wei, and H. Wei. 1999. "Intercomparison of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1991 Summer Monsoon in Eastern Asia." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 104. PNNL-SA-30245.


  • Leung L.R., and S.J. Ghan. 1998. "Parameterizing Subgrid Orographic Precipitation and Surface Cover in Climate Models." Monthly Weather Review 126, no. 12:3271-3291. PNNL-SA-29059.