Lab Fellow, Associate Director
Chemical and Materials Science
Lab Fellow, Associate Director
Chemical and Materials Science

Dr. Gregory J Exarhos is an associate director within the Chemical and Materials Sciences Division and leads the Materials Sciences group. He is the Laboratory Coordinator for the suite of fundamental materials sciences projects funded through the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering and is the lead investigator for programs dealing with defects in TCO films, growth of hierarchically ordered composite materials, in situ Raman studies of materials under extreme conditions, nonlinear optical materials, and studies of pulsed laser-solid interactions. His pioneering materials processing approaches have been recognized internationally and have opened up new venues in optical coatings, nano-architectured materials, multifunctional ceramics, and hybrid polymer composites.

Dr. Exarhos is actively involved in the scientific community. For example, he has served as the Chair of the Long-Range Planning Committee for the American Vacuum Society (AVS), served on the AVS Board of Directors (elected position), and served as Chair of the AVS Publications Committee with oversight responsibilities for several AIP journals. He also launched the BIOINTERPHASES journal for AVS. He has served as Chair of the Surface Engineering Division within the International Union of Vacuum Science, Technique, and Application (elected position). He is the North American Editor for the journal VACUUM and has served as associate editor for both JVST and Materials Letters.

Research Interests

  • Developing innovative approaches for the deposition of dielectric films
  • Post-deposition modification of dielectric films
  • Structure/property relationships in transparent conducting oxides
  • Inorganic polymer design, synthesis, and characterization
  • Preparation of molecularly architectured nanocomposite materials

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, Brown University
  • A.B. in Chemistry, magna cum laude (Physics minor), Lawrence University

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • President, American Vacuum Society (2008-2010)
  • Fellow, American Vacuum Society
  • Fellow, American Ceramic Society
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • American Chemical Society
  • American Physical Society
  • Materials Research Society
  • SPIE (Optical Engineering Society)
  • Sigma Xi
  • Chairs the Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers

Awards and Recognitions

  • Adjunct Professor of Physics at Washington State University (WSU), Pullman,WA
  • Board of Visitors for the College of Sciences and Engineering at WSU
  • R&D100 award in 1992 and a Federal Laboratory Consortium award in 1993 for the Glycine-Nitrate Process for Producing Ultrafine Metal Oxide Powders
  • R.F. Bunshah Award, from Advanced Surface Engineering Division, AVS (2002)
  • Eight patents, involving combustion approaches for preparing advanced ceramic oxide powders, thin film deposition and modification technology, transparent conducting polaron oxides, and processing routes to polymer composites

PNNL Publications

2016

  • Shin Y., J. Tao, B.W. Arey, C. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, J.J. De Yoreo, and M.L. Sushko, et al. 2016. "Double epitaxy as a paradigm for templated growth of highly ordered three-dimensional mesophase crystals." ACS Nano 10, no. 9:8670-8675. PNNL-SA-119957. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b03999

2015

  • Mccloy J.S., W. Jiang, W.D. Bennett, M.H. Engelhard, J. Lindemuth, N.S. Parmar, and G.J. Exarhos. 2015. "Electrical and magnetic properties modification in heavy ion irradiated nanograin NixCo(3-x)O4 films." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, no. 39:22465-22476. PNNL-SA-104250. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b06406

2013

  • Moon G., Y. Shin, D. Choi, B.W. Arey, G.J. Exarhos, C.M. Wang, and W. Choi, et al. 2013. "Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures." Nanoscale 5, no. 14:6291-6296. PNNL-SA-93702. doi:10.1039/C3NR01387A
  • Qiao L., H.Y. Xiao, S.M. Heald, M.E. Bowden, T. Varga, G.J. Exarhos, and M.D. Biegalski, et al. 2013. "The impact of crystal symmetry on the electronic structure and functional properties of complex lanthanum chromium oxides." Journal of Materials Chemistry C 1, no. 30:4527-4535. PNNL-SA-94824. doi:10.1039/C3TC30883A
  • Shao Y., J. Xiao, W. Wang, M.H. Engelhard, X. Chen, Z. Nie, and M. Gu, et al. 2013. "Surface-Driven Sodium Ion Energy Storage in Nanocellular Carbon Foams." Nano Letters 13, no. 8:3909-3914. PNNL-SA-96088. doi:10.1021/nl401995a
  • Sushko P., L. Qiao, M.E. Bowden, T. Varga, G.J. Exarhos, F.K. Urban, III, and D. Barton, et al. 2013. "Multiband Optical Absorption Controlled by Lattice Strain in Thin-Film LaCrO3." Physical Review Letters 110, no. 7:077401. PNNL-SA-87597. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.077401
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, J. Xiao, B. Schwenzer, M.H. Engelhard, L.V. Saraf, and Z. Nie, et al. 2013. "Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 1, no. 33:9517-9526. PNNL-SA-94574. doi:10.1039/C3TA10865A

2012

  • Exarhos G.J., V. Gruzdev, J.A. Menapace, D. Ristau, and M.J. Soileau. 2012. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2012, September 23, 2012, Boulder, Colorado. Proceedings of the SPIE. Bellingham, Washington:Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. PNNL-SA-92962.
  • Moon G., Y. Shin, B.W. Arey, C.M. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, W. Choi, and J. Liu. 2012. "Carbon dioxide-assisted fabrication of highly uniform submicron-sized colloidal carbon spheres via hydrothermal carbonization using soft drink." Colloid and Polymer Science 290, no. 15:1567-1573. PNNL-SA-84746. doi:10.1007/s00396-012-2729-4
  • Wang L., D. Wang, J. Liu, and G.J. Exarhos. 2012. "Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Self-Assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 1:22-29. PNNL-SA-78124. doi:10.1021/jp2047008
  • Xiao L., Y. Cao, J. Xiao, B. Schwenzer, M.H. Engelhard, L.V. Saraf, and Z. Nie, et al. 2012. "A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life." Advanced Materials 24, no. 9:1176-1181. PNNL-SA-85186. doi:10.1002/adma.201103392

2011

  • Exarhos G.J., V. Gruzdev, J.A. Menapace, D. Ristau, and M.J. Soileau. 2011. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2011, September 18, 2011, Boulder, Colorado. Proceedings of the SPIE. Bellingham, Washington:Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. PNNL-SA-85962.
  • Tian J., P.K. Thallapally, J. Liu, G.J. Exarhos, and J.L. Atwood. 2011. "Gas-induced solid state transformation of an organic lattice: from nonporous to nanoporous." Chemical Communications 47, no. 2:701-703. PNNL-SA-72646. doi:10.1039/C0CC04260A

2010

  • Fang H., J. Zhu, L. Zhou, H. Jia, S. Li, X. Gong, and S. Li, et al. 2010. "pH-Dependent Assembly and Conversions of Six Cadmium(II)-Based Coordination Complexes." Crystal Growth & Design 10, no. 7:3277-3284. PNNL-SA-72527. doi:10.1021/cg1004598
  • Fernandez C.A., S.K. Nune, R.K. Motkuri, P.K. Thallapally, C.M. Wang, J. Liu, and G.J. Exarhos, et al. 2010. "Synthesis, characterization, and application of metal organic framework nanostructures." Langmuir 26, no. 24:18591-18594. PNNL-SA-75145. doi:10.1021/la103590t
  • Gu Z., Y. Cai, H. Fang, Z. Zhou, P.K. Thallapally, J. Tian, and J. Liu, et al. 2010. "Conversion of Nonporous Helical Cadmium Organic Famework to a Porous Form." Chemical Communications 46, no. 29:5373-5375. PNNL-SA-72526.
  • Jaffe J.E., T.C. Kaspar, T.C. Droubay, T. Varga, M.E. Bowden, and G.J. Exarhos. 2010. "Electronic and defect structure of CuSCN." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 114, no. 19:9111-9117. PNNL-SA-70397. doi:10.1021/jp101586q
  • Nune S.K., P.K. Thallapally, A. Dohnalkova, C.M. Wang, J. Liu, and G.J. Exarhos. 2010. "Synthesis and Properties of Nano Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks." Chemical Communications 46, no. 27:4878-4880. PNNL-SA-70605.
  • Wang L.J., and G.J. Exarhos. 2010. "Persistent Conductivity in Post-Growth Doped ZnO Films Following Pulsed UV Laser Irradiation." Thin Solid Films 519, no. 5:1495-1500. PNNL-SA-70959. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2010.04.118

2009

  • Exarhos G.J. 2009. "Engineering Performance in TCO Films for Energy Applications." ECS Transactions 19, no. 18:29-42. PNNL-SA-67797. doi:10.1149/1.3246846
  • Exarhos G.J., V. Gruzdev, D. Ristau, M.J. Soileau, and C.J. Stolz. 2009. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2009. Bellingham, Washington:Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers. PNNL-SA-70661.
  • Shin Y., and G.J. Exarhos. 2009. "Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Metals using Cellulose Nanocrystal." In The Nanoscience and Technology of Renewable Biomaterials, edited by L.A. Lucia and O.J. Rojas. 315-335. Hoboken, New Jersey:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. PNNL-SA-60127.
  • Shin Y., I. Bae, and G.J. Exarhos. 2009. ""Green" approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in aqueous glucose solutions." Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 348, no. 1-3:191-195. PNNL-SA-62286.
  • Wang L.J., and G.J. Exarhos. 2009. "Post-Deposition Induced Conductivity in Pulsed Laser Irradiated Metal Doped Zinc Oxide Films." Journal of Young Investigators 19, no. 18:1-28. PNNL-SA-68016.
  • Wang L.Q., A.J. Karkamkar, T. Autrey, and G.J. Exarhos. 2009. "Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR Investigation of Ammonia Borane in Mesoporous Silica." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 16:6485-6490. PNNL-SA-63693.
  • Wang L.Q., D. Wang, J. Liu, G.J. Exarhos, S. Pawsey, and I.L. Moudrakovski. 2009. "Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 16:6577-6583. PNNL-SA-62597.

2008

  • Exarhos G.J., A.H. Guenther, K.L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M.J. Soileau, and C.J. Stolz. 2008. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2007, Proceedings of the SPIE. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE- The International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-59088.
  • Exarhos G.J., D. Ristau, M.J. Soileau, and C.J. Stolz. 2008. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Proceedings of the SPIE. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-64483.
  • Shin Y., G.A. Baker, L.Q. Wang, and G.J. Exarhos. 2008. "Investigation of the hygroscopic growth of self-assembled layers of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides at the interface between air and organic salt." Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 318, no. 1-3:254-258. PNNL-SA-51884. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.12.045
  • Shin Y., I. Bae, B.W. Arey, and G.J. Exarhos. 2008. "Facile stabilization of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on cellulose nanocrystal." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112, no. 13:4844-4848. PNNL-SA-58613. doi:10.1021/jp710767w
  • Shin Y., L.Q. Wang, I. Bae, B.W. Arey, and G.J. Exarhos. 2008. "Hydrothermal Syntheses of Colloidal Carbon Spheres from Cyclodextrins." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112, no. 37:14236-14240. PNNL-SA-59363. doi:10.1021/jp801343y

2007

  • Chang J.H., M.E. Park, Y. Shin, G.J. Exarhos, K.J. Kim, S. Lee, and K. Oh. 2007. "Functional Scaffolds of Bicontinuous, Thermoresponsive L3-phase Silica/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites." Journal of Materials Chemistry 17, no. 3:238-242. PNNL-SA-53767. doi:10.1039/b609409k
  • Exarhos G.J., and X.D. Zhou. 2007. "Discovery-Based Design of Transparent Conducting Oxide Films." Thin Solid Films 515, no. 18:7025-7052. PNNL-SA-54035. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.03.014
  • Exarhos G.J., C.F. Windisch, K.F. Ferris, and R.R. Owings. 2007. "Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides." Applied Physics A, Materials Science and Processing 89, no. 1:9-18. PNNL-SA-52464. doi:10.1007/s00339-007-4040-7
  • Jiang W., Y. Zhang, M.H. Engelhard, W.J. Weber, G.J. Exarhos, J. Lian, and R.C. Ewing. 2007. "Behavior of Si and C atoms in ion amorphized SiC." Journal of Applied Physics 101, no. 2:Art. No. 023524. PNNL-SA-50763. doi:10.1063/1.2431941
  • Pawsey S., I.L. Moudrakovski, J.A. Ripmeester, L.Q. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, J.L. Rowsell, and O.M. Yaghi. 2007. "Hyperpolarized 129Xe Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Isoreticular Metal-Organic Frameworks." Journal of Physical Chemistry 11, no. 16:6060 -6067. PNNL-SA-51427. doi:10.1021/jp0668246
  • Shin Y., and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Conversion of cellulose materials into nanostructured ceramics by biomineralization." Cellulose 14, no. 3:269-279. PNNL-SA-51848. doi:10.1007/s10570-006-9101-0
  • Shin Y., and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Template synthesis of porous titania using cellulose nanocrystals." Materials Letters 61, no. 11-12:2594-2597. PNNL-SA-51881. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2006.10.005
  • Shin Y., C.M. Wang, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Synthesis of SiC nanorods from bleached wood pulp." Materials Letters 61, no. 13:2814-2817. PNNL-SA-51882. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2006.10.035
  • Shin Y., G.E. Fryxell, M.H. Engelhard, and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Functional Mesoporous Carbon Built from the 1,10-Phenathroline Building Block: A New Class of Catalyst Support." Inorganic Chemistry Communications 10, no. 12:1541-1544. PNNL-SA-55682. doi:10.1016/J.INOCHE.2007.09.021
  • Shin Y., I. Bae, B.W. Arey, and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Simple Preparation and Stabilization of Nickel Nanocrystals on Cellulose Nanocrystal." Materials Letters 64, no. 14-15:3215-3217. PNNL-SA-52051. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.036
  • Shin Y., J.M. Blackwood, I. Bae, B.W. Arey, and G.J. Exarhos. 2007. "Synthesis and stabilization of selenium nanoparticles on cellulose nanocrystal." Materials Letters 61, no. 21:4297-4300. PNNL-SA-51883. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2007.01.091
  • Wang L.Q., G.J. Exarhos, C.F. Windisch, C. Yao, L.R. Pederson, and X.D. Zhou. 2007. "Probing hydrogen in ZnO nanorods using solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance." Applied Physics Letters 90, no. 17:Art. No. 173115. PNNL-SA-51672. doi:10.1063/1.2731688
  • Wang L.Q., X.D. Zhou, G.J. Exarhos, L.R. Pederson, C.M. Wang, C.F. Windisch, and C. Yao. 2007. "Proton Dynamics in ZnO Nanorods Quantified by In Situ Solid-State 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance." Applied Physics Letters 91, no. 17:paper number 173107. PNNL-SA-54034. doi:10.1063/1.2799734
  • Windisch C.F., G.J. Exarhos, C. Yao, and L.Q. Wang. 2007. "Raman Study of the Influence of Hydrogen on Defects in ZnO." Journal of Applied Physics 101, no. 12:Art. No. 123711. PNNL-SA-55305.
  • Yao C., Y. Shin, L.Q. Wang, C.F. Windisch, W.D. Samuels, B.W. Arey, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2007. "Hydrothermal Dehydration of Aqueous Fructose Solutions in a Closed System." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111, no. 42:15141-15145. PNNL-SA-48561. doi:10.1021/jp074188l

2006

  • Jiang W., V. Shutthanandan, Y. Zhang, S. Thevuthasan, W.J. Weber, and G.J. Exarhos. 2006. "Hydrogen behavior in Mg+-implanted graphite." Journal of Materials Research 21, no. 4:811-815. PNNL-SA-44188. doi:10.1557/JMR.2006.0121
  • Qi L., B.I. Lee, B.I. Lee, W.D. Samuels, G.J. Exarhos, and S.G. Parker. 2006. "Three-phase percolative silver-BaTiO3-epoxy nanocomposites with high dielectric constants." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 102. PNNL-SA-44330. doi:10.1002/app.23739
  • Wang W., L.Q. Wang, B.J. Palmer, G.J. Exarhos, and A.D. Li. 2006. "Cyclization and Catenation Directed by Molecular Self-Assembly." Journal of the American Chemical Society128, no. 34:11150-11159. PNNL-SA-52118.

2005

  • Chang J.H., C.H. Shim, B.J. Kim, Y. Shin, G.J. Exarhos, and K.J. Kim. 2005. "Bicontinuous, Thermoresponsive, L-3-phase Silica Nanocomposites and their Smart Drug-Delivery Applications." Advanced Materials 17, no. 5:634-637. PNNL-SA-44757.
  • Chang J.H., G.J. Exarhos, and Y. Shin. 2005. "Biomimetic Catalysis of Tailored Mesoporous Materials with the Self-Assembled Multifunctional Monolayers." Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 11, no. 3:375-380. PNNL-SA-45657.
  • Exarhos G.J., A.H. Guenther, D. Ristau, K.L. Lewis, M.J. Soileau, and C.J. Stolz. 2005. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE- The International Society for Optical Engeneering. PNNL-SA-48007.
  • Exarhos G.J., A.H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K.L. Lewis, M.J. Soileau, and C.J. Stolz. 2005. Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004. Boulder, Colorado:SPIE. PNNL-SA-44374.
  • Moudrakovski I.L., C.I. Ratcliffe, J.A. Ripmeester, L.Q. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, T. Baumann, and J.H. Satcher. 2005. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 109, no. 22:11215-11222. PNNL-SA-44243.
  • Owings R.R., G.J. Exarhos, C.F. Windisch, P.H. Holloway, and J.G. Wen. 2005. "Process Enhanced Polaron Conductivity of Infrared Transparent Nickel-Cobalt Oxide." Thin Solid Films483, no. 1-2:175-184. PNNL-SA-41056.
  • Owings R.R., P.H. Holloway, G.J. Exarhos, and C.F. Windisch. 2005. "Effect of Annealing and Lithium Substitution on Conductivity in Nickel-Cobalt Oxide Spinel Films." In 26th Symposium on Applied Surface Analysis 2004 published in the journal Surface and Interface Analysis, 37, 424-431. Chichester:Wiley. PNNL-SA-42052.
  • Qi L., B.I. Lee, B.I. Lee, P. Badheka, L.Q. Wang, P. Gilmour, and W.D. Samuels, et al. 2005. "Low-Temperature Paraelectric-Ferroelectric Phase Transformation in Hydrothermal BaTiO3 Particles." Materials Letters 59, no. 22:2794 - 2798. PNNL-SA-44637.
  • Qi L., B.I. Lee, S. Chen, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2005. "High-Dielectric-Constant Silver-Epoxy Composites as Embedded Dielectrics." Advanced Materials 17, no. 14:1777-1781. PNNL-SA-44805.
  • Shin Y., C.M. Wang, and G.J. Exarhos. 2005. "Synthesis of SiC ceramics by the carbothermal reduction of mineralized wood with silica." Advanced Materials 17, no. 1:73-77. PNNL-SA-42678.
  • Shin Y., C.M. Wang, X.S. Li, and G.J. Exarhos. 2005. "Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites." Carbon 43, no. 5:1096-1098. PNNL-SA-39765.
  • Shin Y., L.Q. Wang, G.E. Fryxell, and G.J. Exarhos. 2005. "Hygroscopic Growth of Self-Assembled Layered Surfactant Molecules at the Interface between Air and Organic Salts." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 284, no. 1:278-281. PNNL-SA-42677.
  • Windisch C.F., G.J. Exarhos, and S.K. Sharma. 2005. "Viscosity by Fluorescence Depolarization of Probe Molecules. A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment." Journal of Chemical Education 82, no. 6:916-918. PNNL-SA-41676.

2004

  • Exarhos G.J., and K.F. Ferris. 2004. "Optical Limiting by Index-Matched Phase-Segregated Mixtures." In Quantum sensing and nanophotonic devices : Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering, 29-25 January, 2004, San Jose, California, USA /, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Gail J. Brown, 5359, 309-323. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-40502.
  • Exarhos G.J., K.F. Ferris, and W.D. Samuels. 2004. "Heterogeneous Mixtures as NLO Christiansen Filters for Optical Limiting." In SPIE Proceedings, edited by Exarhos, Gregory J.; et. al., 5273, 402-412. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-40261.
  • Moudrakovski I.L., L.Q. Wang, T. Baumann, J.H. Satcher, G.J. Exarhos, C.I. Ratcliffe, and J.A. Ripmeester. 2004. "Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy." Journal of the American Chemical Society126, no. 16:5052-5053. PNNL-SA-40666. doi:10.1021/ja049577x
  • Qi L., B.I. Lee, P. Badheka, D. Yoon, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2004. "Short-Range Dissolution-Precipitation Crystallization of Hydrothermal Barium Titanate." Journal of the European Ceramic Society 24, no. 13:3553-3557. PNNL-SA-40411.
  • Shin Y., X.S. Li, C.M. Wang, J.E. Coleman, and G.J. Exarhos. 2004. "Synthesis of Hierarchical Titanium Carbide from Titania-Coated Cellulose Paper." Advanced Materials 16, no. 14:1212-1215. PNNL-SA-41057.
  • Sun Y., J.L. Qi, M. Lee, B.I. Lee, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2004. "Photoluminescent properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors prepared via urea precipitation in non-aqueous solution." Journal of Luminescence 109, no. 2:85-91. PNNL-SA-37124.
  • Sun Y., L. Qi, M. Lee, B.I. Lee, B.I. Lee, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2004. "Photoluminescent Properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ Phosphors Prepared via Urea Precipitation in Non-Aqueous Solution." Journal of Luminescence 109, no. 2:85-91. PNNL-SA-39970.
  • Windisch C.F., G.J. Exarhos, and R.R. Owings. 2004. "Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of the Site Occupancy Distribution of Cations in Nickel Cobalt Oxides." Journal of Applied Physics95, no. 10:5435-5442. PNNL-SA-40671.
  • Windisch C.F., Y. Shin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2004. "Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense." In Chemical and Biological Standoff Detection II. Proceedings of the SPIE, 5585, 79-87. Bellingham, Washington:International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-42631.
  • Zhu M., L.Q. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, and A.D. Li. 2004. "Thermosensitive Gold Nanoparticles." Journal of the American Chemical Society 126, no. 9:2656-2657. PNNL-SA-41316.

2003

  • Dausch D., S. Goodwin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Chopping of Near- and Mid-Infrared Radiation using a Curled Electrostatic MEMS Actuator." In Infrared Technology and Applications XXIX, edited by BF Andresen and GF Fulop, 5074, 903-910. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-39227. doi:10.1117/12.488786
  • Dausch D., S. Goodwin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Chopping of Near- and Mid-Infrared Radiation Using a Curled Electrostatic MEMS Actuator." In PROCEEDINGS- SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING: Infrared technology and applications, 29th Conference, Orlando, FL, edited by Andresen, B. F. and Fulop, G. F., 5074, 903-910. Bellingham, Washington:INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING (SPIE). PNNL-SA-40263.
  • Exarhos G.J., K.F. Ferris, W.D. Samuels, and R.R. Owings. 2003. "Optical Limiting Based on Liquid-Liquid Immiscibility." In Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization, 4932, 319 - 333. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-37710.
  • Qi J.L., B.I. Lee, B.I. Lee, X. Gu, M. Grujicic, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Concentration Efficiency of Doping in Phosphors: Investigation of the Copper and Aluminum Doped Zinc Sulfide." Applied Physics Letters 83, no. 24:4945-4947. PNNL-SA-39971.
  • Shin Y., L.Q. Wang, G.E. Fryxell, and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Hygroscopic Growth of Self-Assembled Layered Surfactant Molecules at the Interface between Air and Organic Salts." In Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials: Symposium held April 22-25, 2003, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by Lu, Yunfeng, 775, 141-145. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-38544.
  • Shin Y., L.Q. Wang, J. Liu, and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "pH-Controlled Synthesis of Hierarchically Ordered Ceramics with Wood Cellular Structures by Surfactant-Directed Sol-Gel Procedure." Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 9, no. 1:76-82. PNNL-SA-37122.
  • Wang L.Q., and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Study of Local Molecular Ordering in Layered Surfactant-Silicate Mesophase Composites." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107, no. 2:443-450. PNNL-SA-37723.
  • Wang L.Q., and G.J. Exarhos. 2003. "Study of Local Molecular Ordering in Layered Surfactant-Silicate Mesophase Composites." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107, no. 2:443-450. PNNL-SA-40866. doi:10.1021/jp021512y
  • Wang L.Q., Y. Shin, W.D. Samuels, G.J. Exarhos, I.L. Moudrakovski, V.V. Terskikh, and J.A. Ripmeester. 2003. "Magnetic Resonance Studies of Hierarchically Ordered Replicas of Wood Cellular Structures Prepared by Surfactant-Mediated Mineralization." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107, no. 50:13793-13802. PNNL-SA-37827.

2002

  • Bozlee B.J., G.J. Exarhos, A.E. Jimenez, and S.L. Van Swam. 2002. "Measurement of the Index of Refraction of Solids by UV-Vis Spectroscopy." Journal of Chemical Education 79, no. 5:619-622. PNNL-SA-39822.
  • Chang J.H., L.Q. Wang, Y. Shin, B. Jeong, J.C. Birnbaum, and G.J. Exarhos. 2002. "The Core-Shell Approach to Formation of Ordered Nanoporous Materials." Advanced Materials 14, no. 5:378-382. PNNL-SA-35349.
  • Liang L., J. Liu, C.F. Windisch, G.J. Exarhos, and Y. Lin. 2002. "Direct Assembly of Large Arrays of Oriented Conducting Polymer Nanowires." Angewandte Chemie International Edition41, no. 19:3665-3668. PNNL-SA-37103.
  • Moudrakovski I.L., V.V. Terskikh, C.I. Ratcliffe, J.A. Ripmeester, L.Q. Wang, Y. Shin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2002. "A Xe-129 NMR Study of Functionalized Ordered Mesoporous Silica." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106, no. 23:5938-5946. PNNL-SA-35917.
  • Shin Y., J. Liu, J.H. Chang, and G.J. Exarhos. 2002. "Sustained Drug Release on Temperature-Responsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Integrated Hydroxyapatite." Chemical Communications 16. PNNL-SA-36662.
  • Wang L.Q., and G.J. Exarhos. 2002. "Study of Local Molecular Ordering in Layered Surfactant-silicate Mesophase Composites." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107, no. 2:443-450. PNNL-SA-36579.
  • Windisch C.F., G.J. Exarhos, and S.K. Sharma. 2002. "Influence of Temperature and Electronic Disorder on the Raman Spectra of Nickel Cobalt Oxides." Journal of Applied Physics 92, no. 9:5572-74. PNNL-SA-36851.
  • Windisch C.F., K.F. Ferris, G.J. Exarhos, and S.K. Sharma. 2002. "Conducting Spinel Oxide Films with Infrared Transparency." Thin Solid Films 420. PNNL-SA-37293.

2001

  • Exarhos G.J., A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau. 2001. Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2000, Proceedings of SPIE,. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE- The International Society for Optical Engeneering. PNNL-SA-35761.
  • Exarhos G.J., K.F. Ferris, C.F. Windisch, B.J. Bozlee, S.M. Risser, and S.L. Van Swam. 2001. "An Index-Mismatch Scattering Approach to Optical Limiting." In Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 16-18 Oct. 2000, Boulder, CO. Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering., 4347, 432-443. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE-Int. Society Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-33851.
  • Shin Y., J. Liu, J.H. Chang, Z. Nie, and G.J. Exarhos. 2001. "Hierarchically Ordered Ceramics through Surfactant-Templated Sol-Gel Mineralization of Biological Cellular Structures." Advanced Materials 13, no. 10:728-732. PNNL-SA-34092.
  • Shin Y., J.H. Chang, J. Liu, R.E. Williford, Y. Shin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2001. "Hybrid Nanogels for Sustainable Positive Thermosensitive Drug Release." Journal of Controlled Release 73, no. 2001:1-6. PNNL-SA-34146.
  • Shin Y., J.H. Chang, J. Liu, R.E. Williford, Y. Shin, and G.J. Exarhos. 2001. "Hybrid Nanogels for Sustainable Positive Thermosensitive Drug Release." Journal of Controlled Release. PNNL-SA-34063.
  • Windisch C.F., G.J. Exarhos, K.F. Ferris, M.H. Engelhard, and D.C. Stewart. 2001. "Infrared Transparent Spinel Films with p -Type Conductivity." Thin Solid Films 398-399. PNNL-SA-34448.
  • Windisch C.F., K.F. Ferris, and G.J. Exarhos. 2001. "Synthesis and Characterization of Transparent Conducting Oxide Cobalt-Nickel Spinel Films." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 19, no. 4 PT 2:1647-1651. PNNL-SA-33669.

2000

  • Bozlee B.J., and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Preparation and Characterization of Gold and Ruthenium Colloids in Thin Zinc Oxide Films." Thin Solid Films 377. PNNL-SA-33158.
  • Cao Z., Z. Cao, B.I. Lee, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Thermal Behavior of Sol-Gel Derived Phosphate Ceramics." Journal of the American Ceramic Society 61, no. 10:1677-1685. PNNL-SA-30307.
  • Domansky K., A. Rose, H. Gover, and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Localized Deposition of Zinc Oxide Films by Automated Fluid Dispensing Method." Materials Science and Engineering. B. Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology 76, no. 2:161-121. PNNL-SA-29251.
  • Goodwin-Johansson S., P. Holloway, G. Mcguire, L.J. Buckley, R. Cozzens, R. Schwartz, and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Artificial Eyelid for Protection of Optical Sensors." In Electroactive polymer actuators and devices, PROCEEDINGS- SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING, edited by Yoseph Bar-Cohen, 3987, 225-231. Bellingham, Washington:INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING. PNNL-SA-33320.
  • Lee B.I., B.I. Lee, Z. Cao, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Sol-gel synthesis and properties of phosphate ceramics." Korean Journal of Ceramics 6, no. 4:390-395. PNNL-SA-33523.
  • Liu J., Y. Shin, Z. Nie, J.H. Chang, L.Q. Wang, G.E. Fryxell, and W.D. Samuels, et al. 2000. "Molecular Assembly in Ordered Mesoporosity: A New Class of Highly Functional Nanoscale Materials." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 104, no. 36:8328-8339. PNNL-SA-32914.
  • Shin Y., J. Liu, L.Q. Wang, Z. Nie, W.D. Samuels, G.E. Fryxell, and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Ordered Hierarchical Porous Materials: Towards Tunable Size- and Shape-Selective Microcavities in Nanoporous Channels." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 39, no. 15:2702-2707. PNNL-SA-33975.
  • Wang L.Q., J. Liu, G.J. Exarhos, K. Flanigan, and R. Bordia. 2000. "Conformation Heterogeneity and Mobility of Surfactant Molecules in intercalated Clay Minerals Studied by Solid-State NMR." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104(13), no. April 6, 2000:2810-2816. PNNL-SA-32627.
  • Windisch C.F., and G.J. Exarhos. 2000. "Mott-Schottky Analysis of Thin ZnO Films." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 18, no. 4 pt 2:1677-1680. PNNL-SA-33524.

1999

  • Bozlee B.J., G.J. Exarhos, and R.W. Teel. 1999. "Spectroscopic Studies of Pulsed-Laser-Induced Damage Sites in Heated CaF2 Crystals." In Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, 3578, 533 - 554. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-32099.
  • Jiang W., W.J. Weber, S. Thevuthasan, G.J. Exarhos, and B.J. Bozlee. 1999. "Effect of Oxygen Ion Implantation in Gallium Nitride." In GaN and related alloys : symposium held November 30-December 4, 1998, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., edited by S.J. Pearton, C. Kuo, A.F. Wright, and T. Uenoyama, 537, 6.15.1 - 6.15.6. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-30627.
  • Wang L.Q., G.J. Exarhos, and J. Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructural Materials." Advanced Materials 11, no. 16:1331-1341. PNNL-SA-32132.
  • Wang L.Q., G.J. Exarhos, and J. Liu. 1999. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials." Advanced Materials 11, no. 16:1331-1340. PNNL-SA-34352.

1998

  • Cao Z., B.I. Lee, B.I. Lee, W.D. Samuels, and G.J. Exarhos. 1998. "Synthesis and Photoresponse of Rare-Earth-Doped Phosphosilicates." In Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by PN Kumta, 495, 215-220. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-32502.