Materials Scientist
Materials Scientist


Dr. Daniel Perea is a materials scientist with the Structural Biology team in PNNL’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Division and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) user program. His research focus and expertise lie in using atom probe tomography (APT) analysis to map the 3D atomic scale composition of materials. He is currently involved in pioneering the use of APT to probe the composition and structure of biological organic materials. In addition, he has ongoing collaborative projects involving biominerals, geological minerals, catalysts, structural metals, and radiological materials. 

Perea is interested in developing new applications of APT analysis to study the 3D atomic-scale composition of materials traditionally not studied before using this technique. This includes the use of APT to study biological organic materials, such as proteins and ionic gradients to better understand the complex chemical language cells and microbes used to communicate and perform fundamental functions relevant to energy and the environment. This pioneering work involves the development of unique cryo-based specimen preparation and environmentally protected transfer techniques compatible with APT analysis. 

Other areas where Perea is pushing the limits of APT analysis is to study biominerals and geominerals to understand both the structure and composition of buried organic/inorganic interfaces. His efforts in cryogenic specimen preparation are allowing the analysis of liquid/solid interfaces in nanostructured materials, as well as mapping dissolved ionic gradients. 


  • Postdoctoral Researcher, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2011 

  • PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2009 

  • BS in Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, 2003 

  • Coursework in Chemistry, Chaffey Community College, 2000 

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Proposal Review Committee, Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (2011 – Present) 

  • Society for Senior Ford Fellows (2020) 

  • Symposium Organizer, Materials Research Society (2020) 

  • Symposium Organizer, American Vacuum Society (2013 – 2017) 

  • Scientist and Engineer Development Program, PNNL (2012 – 2014) 

  • Organizer, Atom Probe Tomography Workshop, PNNL (2012) 

Awards and Recognitions

  • Mentor of the Year, Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, PNNL (2018) 

  • Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL (2016) 

  • Honorable Mention Poster Award, Los Alamos Postdoc Research Day (June 2011) 

  • Peer Poster Award, Los Alamos Postdoc Research Day (June 2011) 

  • Outstanding Poster Award, Los Alamos Postdoc Research Day (June 2010) 

  • Director's Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, Los Alamos National Laboratory (November 2009 – November 2011) 

  • Ford Diversity Graduate Fellowship Award (September 2006 – June 2009) 

  • 3M Graduate Fellowship (2005) 

  • Honorable Mention, Ford Diversity Graduate Fellowship (2004) 

  • Honorable Mention, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (2004) 

  • Golden Key Honors Society (2002) 

  • JPLUS Scholarship, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (2000) 

  • Outstanding Chemistry Student of the Year, Chaffey College (2000) 



  • Bard A., X. Zhou, X. Xia, G. Zhu, M.B. Lim, S. Kim, and M.C. Johnson, et al. 2020. "A Mechanistic Understanding of Nonclassical Crystal Growth in Hydrothermally Synthesized Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Nanowires." Chemistry of Materials 32, no. 7:2753-2763. PNNL-SA-147967. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b04076 

  • Boiteau R.M., R.K. Kukkadapu, J.B. Cliff, C.R. Smallwood, L. Kovarik, M.G. Wirth, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Calcareous organic matter coatings sequester siderophores in alkaline soils." Science of the Total Environment 724. PNNL-SA-147851. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138250 

  • Kautz E. J., B. Gwalani, S.V.M. Lambeets, L. Kovarik, D.K. Schreiber, D.E. Perea, D. Senor, et al. 2020 “Rapid assessment of structural and compositional changes during early stages of zirconium alloy oxidation.” npj Materials Degradation 4, 29, PNNL-SA-150333. doi: 10.1038/s41529-020-00133-6 

  • Kizovski T.V., M.M. Izawa, K.T. Tait, D. Moser, J.M. Day, B.C. Hyde, and L.F. White, et al. 2020. "Petrogenesis, alteration, and shock history of intermediate shergottite Northwest Africa 7042: Evidence for hydrous magmatism on Mars?" Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 283. PNNL-SA-152794. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2020.05.030 

  • Lambeets, S. V., E. J. Kautz, M. G. Wirth, G. J. Orren, A. Devaraj, and D. E. Perea. 2020. “Nanoscale Perspectives of Metal Degradation Via in Situ Atom Probe Tomography.” Topics in Catalysis. PNNL-SA-154405.   

  • Lambeets, S. V., T. Visart De Bocarmé, D. E. Perea, and N. Kruse. 2020. “Directional Gateway to Metal Oxidation: 3D Chemical Mapping Unfolds Oxygen Diffusional Pathways in Rhodium Nanoparticles.” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 11 (8): 3144-3151. PNNL-SA-153156.  

  • Li T., D.E. Perea, D.K. Schreiber, M.G. Wirth, G.J. Orren, and G.S. Frankel. 2020. "Cryo-based Structural Characterization and Growth Model of Salt Film on Metal." Corrosion Science 174. PNNL-SA-152669. doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2020.108812 

  • McCarroll I.E., P. Bagot, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, and J. Cairney. 2020. "New frontiers in atom probe tomography: a review of research enabled by cryo and/or vacuum transfer systems." Materials Today Advances 7. PNNL-SA-153475. doi:10.1016/j.mtadv.2020.100090 

  • Perea, D.E., D.K. Schrieber, J.V. Ryan, M.G. Wirth, L. Deng, X. Lu, J. Du, J.D. Vienna 2020. “Tomographic mapping of the nanoscale water-filled pore structure in corroded borosilicate glass.” npj Materials Degradation 4, 8. PNNL-SA-155600. 


  • Perea D.E., D.K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, D. Reilly, S. Lambeets, E.J. Kautz, and T.G. Lach, et al. 2019. "Exploring New Science Domains with Atom Probe Tomography Enabled by an Environmental Transfer Hub." In Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2019, August 4-8, 2019, Portland, OR, 25, 276-277. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-147028. doi:10.1017/S1431927619002113 

  • Taylor S.D., J. Liu, X. Zhang, B.W. Arey, L. Kovarik, D.K. Schreiber, and D.E. Perea, et al. 2019. "Visualizing the iron atom exchange front in the Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite by atom probe tomography." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116, no. 8:2866-2874. PNNL-SA-138345. doi:10.1073/pnas.1816620116 

  • Taylor, S. D., J. Liu, X. Zhang, B. W. Arey, L. Kovarik, D. K. Schreiber, D. E. Perea, and K. M. Rosso. 2019. “Correction: Visualizing the Iron Atom Exchange Front in the Fe(II)-Catalyzed Recrystallization of Goethite by Atom Probe Tomography (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2019) 116 (2866–2874) Doi: 10.1073/Pnas.1816620116).” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (14): 7147.

  • Zachman M., N. De Jonge, R. Fischer, K.L. Jungjohann, and D.E. Perea. 2019. "Cryogenic Specimens for Nanoscale Characterization of Solid-Liquid Interfaces." MRS Bulletin 44, no. 12:949-955. PNNL-SA-148424. doi:10.1557/mrs.2019.289 


  • Devaraj A., D.E. Perea, J. Liu, L.M. Gordon, T.J. Prosa, P.A. Parikh, and D.R. Diercks, et al. 2018. "Three-dimensional nanoscale characterization of materials by atom probe tomography." International Materials Reviews 63, no. 2:68-101. PNNL-SA-117399. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728 

  • Schreiber D.K., D.E. Perea, J.V. Ryan, J.E. Evans, and J.D. Vienna. 2018. "A method for site-specific and cryogenic specimen fabrication of liquid/solid interfaces for atom probe tomography." Ultramicroscopy 194. PNNL-SA-133479. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2018.07.010 

  • Schwarm S.C., S. Mburu, R.P. Kolli, D.E. Perea, and S. Ankem. 2018. "Effects of long-term thermal aging on bulk and local mechanical behavior of ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steels." Materials Science and Engineering. A. Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing 720. PNNL-SA-136058. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2018.02.058 

  • Taylor S.D., J. Liu, B.W. Arey, D.K. Schreiber, D.E. Perea, and K.M. Rosso. 2018. "Resolving Iron(II) Sorption and Oxidative Growth on Hematite (001) Using Atom Probe Tomography." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 122, no. 7:3903-3914. PNNL-SA-130858. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b11989 

  • Voss J., Y. Xiang, G.B. Collinge, D.E. Perea, L. Kovarik, J. McEwen, and N. Kruse. 2018. "Characterization of CoCu- and CoMn-based catalysts for the Fischer Tropsch reaction toward chain-lengthened oxygenates." Topics in Catalysis 61, no. 9-11:1016-1023. PNNL-SA-129636. doi:10.1007/s11244-018-0938-x 


  • Comes R.B., D.E. Perea, and S.R. Spurgeon. 2017. "Heterogeneous Two-phase Pillars in Epitaxial NiFe2O4-LaFeO3 Nanocomposites." Advanced Materials Interfaces 4, no. 16:Article No. 1700396. PNNL-SA-124622. doi:10.1002/admi.201700396 

  • Comes, R. B., S. R. Spurgeon, D. M. Kepaptsoglou, M. H. Engelhard, D. E. Perea, T. C. Kaspar, Q. M. Ramasse, P. V. Sushko, and S. A. Chambers. 2017. “Probing the Origin of Interfacial Carriers in SrTiO3-LaCrO3 Superlattices.” Chemistry of Materials 29 (3): 1147-1155.  

  • Liang K., L. Guo, K. Marcus, S. Zhang, Z. Yang, D.E. Perea, and L. Zhou, et al. 2017. "Overall Water Splitting with Room-Temperature Synthesized NiFe Oxyfluoride Nanoporous Films." ACS Catalysis 7, no. 12:8406-8412. PNNL-SA-124856. doi:10.1021/acscatal.7b02991 

  • Mburu S., R.P. Kolli, D.E. Perea, S.C. Schwarm, A.M. Eaton, J. Liu, and S. Patel, et al. 2017. "Effect of Aging Temperature on Phase Decomposition and Mechanical Properties in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels." Materials Science and Engineering. A. Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing 690. PNNL-SA-124944. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2017.03.011 

  • Perea D.E., S. Gerstl, J.L. Chin, B. Hirschi, and J.E. Evans. 2017. "An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography." Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging 3. PNNL-SA-120933. doi:10.1186/s40679-017-0045-2 

  • Schwarm S.C., S.N. Mburu, R.P. Kolli, D.E. Perea, J. Liu, and S. Ankem. 2017. "Mechanical and Microstructural Effects of Thermal Aging on Cast Duplex Stainless Steels by Experiement and Finite Element Method." In Mechanical and Creep Behavior of Advanced Materials: A SMD Symposium Honoring Professor K. Linga Murty, February 26-March 2, 2017, San Diego, California. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series, edited by I Charit, et al, 253-262. Cham:Springer. PNNL-SA-124533. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51097-2_20 


  • Branson, O., E. A. Bonnin, D. E. Perea, H. J. Spero, Z. Zhu, M. Winters, B. Hönisch, A. D. Russell, J. S. Fehrenbacher, and A. C. Gagnon. 2016. “Nanometer-Scale Chemistry of a Calcitebiomineralization Template: Implications Forskeletal Composition and Nucleation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (46): 12934-12939.  

  • Fahey A.J., D.E. Perea, J. Bartrand, B.W. Arey, and S. Thevuthasan. 2016. "Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 153. PNNL-SA-104478. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.12.018 

  • Gan Z., D.E. Perea, J. Yoo, Y. He, R.J. Colby, J.E. Barker, and M. Gu, et al. 2016. "Characterization of Electrical Properties in Axial Si-Ge Nanowire Heterojunctions Using Off - Axis Electron Holography and Atom-Probe Tomography." Journal of Applied Physics 120, no. 10:Article No. 104301. PNNL-SA-106309. doi:10.1063/1.4962380 

  • Larson D.J., T.J. Prosa, D.E. Perea, H. Inoue, and D. Mangelinck. 2016. "Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials." MRS Bulletin 41, no. 1:30-34. PNNL-SA-112153. doi:10.1557/mrs.2015.308 

  • Perea D.E., J. Liu, J. Bartrand, Q.G. Dicken, S. Thevuthasan, N.D. Browning, and J.E. Evans. 2016. "Atom Probe Tomographic Mapping Directly Reveals the Atomic Distribution of Phosphorus in Resin Embedded Ferritin." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-112512. doi:10.1038/srep22321 

  • Roder P.B., S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, E.J. Davis, and P.J. Pauzauskie. 2016. "Pulsed Photothermal Heating of One-Dimensional Nanostructures." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 38:21730-21739. PNNL-SA-120701. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b04592 


  • Felmy A.R., O. Qafoku, B.W. Arey, L. Kovarik, J. Liu, D.E. Perea, and E.S. Ilton. 2015. "Enhancing Magnesite Formation at Low Temperature and High CO2 Pressure: The Impact of Seed Crystals and Minor Components." Chemical Geology 395. PNNL-SA-107559. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.12.003 

  • Perea D.E., I. Arslan, J. Liu, Z. Ristanovic, L. Kovarik, B.W. Arey, and J.A. Lercher, et al. 2015. "Determining the Location and Nearest Neighbors of Aluminum in Zeolites with Atom Probe Tomography." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-106381. doi:10.1038/ncomms8589 

  • Santhanagopalan D., D.K. Schreiber, D.E. Perea, R. Martens, Y. Janssen, P. Kalifah, and Y.S. Meng. 2015. "Effects of Laser Energy and Wavelength on the Analysis of LiFePO4 Using Laser Assisted Atom Probe Tomography." Ultramicroscopy 148. PNNL-SA-101831. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2014.09.004 

  • Smith B.E., P.B. Roder, J.L. Hanson, S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, and W. Kim, et al. 2015. "Singlet-Oxygen Generation From Individual Semiconducting and Metallic Nanostructures During Near-Infrared Laser Trapping." ACS Photonics 2, no. 4:559-564. PNNL-SA-108413. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00022 


  • Gu M., H. Yang, D.E. Perea, J. Zhang, S. Zhang, and C.M. Wang. 2014. "Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires." Nano Letters 14, no. 8:4622-4627. PNNL-SA-103596. doi:10.1021/nl501680w 

  • Zhang P., S.T. Le, X. Hou, A. Zaslavsky, D.E. Perea, S.A. Dayeh, and S.T. Picraux. 2014. "Strong Room-temperature Negative Transconductance In An Axial Si/Ge Hetero-nanowire Tunneling Field-effect Transistor." Applied Physics Letters 105, no. 6:Article No. 062106. PNNL-SA-103792. doi:10.1063/1.4892950 


  • Connell, J. G., K. Yoon, D. E. Perea, E. J. Schwalbach, P. W. Voorhees, and L. J. Lauhon. 2013. “Identification of an Intrinsic Source of Doping Inhomogeneity in Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Grown Nanowires.” Nano Letters 13 (1): 199-206.  

  • Devaraj A., R.J. Colby, W.P. Hess, D.E. Perea, and S. Thevuthasan. 2013. "Role of Photoexcitation and Field Ionization in the Measurement of Accurate Oxide Stoichiometry by Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4, no. 6:993-998. PNNL-SA-92674. doi:10.1021/jz400015h 

  • Gamalski A.D., D.E. Perea, J. Yoo, N. Li, M.J. Olszta, R.J. Colby, and D.K. Schreiber, et al. 2013. "Catalyst Composition and Impurity-dependent Kinetics of Nanowire Heteroepitaxy." ACS Nano 7, no. 9:7689-7697. PNNL-SA-95600. doi:10.1021/nn402208p 

  • Gan Z., D.E. Perea, J. Yoo, S.T. Picraux, D.J. Smith, and M.R. Mccartney. 2013. "Mapping Electrostatic Profiles Across Axial p-n Junctions in Si Nanowires using Off-Axis Electron Holography." Applied Physics Letters 103, no. 15:Article No. 153108. PNNL-SA-98430. doi:10.1063/1.4824775 

  • Gu M., L.R. Parent, B.L. Mehdi, R.R. Unocic, M.T. Mcdowell, R.L. Sacci, and W. Xu, et al. 2013. "Demonstration of an Electrochemical Liquid Cell for Operando Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of the Lithiation/Delithiation Behavior of Si Nanowire Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 13, no. 12:6106-6112. PNNL-SA-99250. doi:10.1021/nl403402q 

  • Gu M., Z. Wang, J.G. Connell, D.E. Perea, L.J. Lauhon, F. Gao, and C.M. Wang. 2013. "Electronic Origin For The Phase Transition From Amorphous LixSi To Crystalline Li15Si4." ACS Nano 7, no. 7:6303-6309. PNNL-SA-96285. doi:10.1021/nn402349j 

  • Wang Z., M. Gu, Y. Zhou, X. Zu, J.G. Connell, J. Xiao, and D.E. Perea, et al. 2013. "Electron-Rich Driven Electrochemical Solid-State Amorphization in Li-Si Alloys." Nano Letters 13, no. 9:4511-4516. PNNL-SA-97210. doi:10.1021/nl402429a 

  • Zaslavsky, A., J. Wan, S. T. Le, P. Jannaty, S. Cristoloveanu, C. Le Royer, D. E. Perea, S. A. Dayeh, and S. T. Picraux. 2013. “Sharp-Switching High-Current Tunneling Devices.”  


  • Arey, B., D. Perera, L. Kovarik, O. Qafoku, A. Felmy, and B. Gorman. 2012. “Atom Probe and TEM Investigation of Natural Olivines.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 18 (S2): 658-659. 

  • Devaraj, A., R. Colby, V. Shutthanandan, V. Subramanian, C. M. Wang, D. E. Perea, and S. Thevuthasan. 2012. “Characterization of Embedded Metallic Nanoparticles in Oxides by Cross-Coupling Aberration-Corrected Stem and Atom Probe Tomography.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 18 (S2): 912-913.   

  • Gan, Z., D. E. Smith, M. R. McCartney, D. E. Perea, and S. T. Picraux. 2012. “Mapping the Electrostatic Profile across Axial p-n Junctions in Si Nanowires Using Off-Axis Electron Holography.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 18: 1826-1827.  

  • Le S.T., P. Jannaty, X. Luo, A. Zaslavsky, D.E. Perea, S.A. Dayeh, and S.T. Picraux. 2012. "Axial SiGe Heteronanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors." Nano Letters 12, no. 11:5850-5855. PNNL-SA-91732. doi:10.1021/nl3032058 

  • Mohite, A. D., D. E. Perea, S. Singh, S. A. Dayeh, I. H. Campbell, S. T. Picraux, and H. Htoon. 2012. “Highly Efficient Charge Separation and Collection across in Situ Doped Axial VLS-Grown Si Nanowire p-n Junctions.” Nano Letters 12 (4): 1965-1971.   

  • Perea, D. E., J. Yoo, S. Dayeh, D. K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, S. T. Picraux, and T. Thevuthasan. 2012. “Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 18 (S2): 1860-1861.  

  • Riley, J. R., D. E. Perea, L. He, F. Tsui, and L. J. Lauhon. 2012. “Correlation and Morphology of Dopant Decomposition in Mn and Co Codoped Ge Epitaxial Films.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116 (1): 276-280. 


  • Jung, Y., A. Vacic, D. E. Perea, S. T. Picraux, and M. A. Reed. 2011. “Minority Carrier Lifetimes and Surface Effects in VLS-Grown Axial p-n Junction Silicon Nanowires.” Advanced Materials 23 (37): 4306-4311.  

  • Perea, D. E., N. Li, R. M. Dickerson, A. Misra, and S. T. Picraux. 2011. “Controlling Heterojunction Abruptness in VLS-Grown Semiconductor Nanowires Via in Situ Catalyst Alloying.” Nano Letters 11 (8): 3117-3122. 


  • Picraux, S. T., S. A. Dayeh, P. Manandhar, D. E. Perea, and S. G. Choi. 2010. “Silicon and Germanium Nanowires: Growth, Properties, and Integration.” JOM 62 (4): 35-43.