Senior Development Engineer
Senior Development Engineer

Biography

Mr. Christian Johnson, a chemical engineer by training, has been involved with research and development at PNNL since 1992 in the field of environmental restoration/remediation technology. He earned his master's of science in chemical engineering at Washington State University.

He has designed and implemented ex situ and in situ bioremediation (ISB) systems for treatment of hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents at U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense (Air Force, Navy, and Army), and private industry sites. Mr. Johnson has applied MODFLOW/MODPATH/RT3D groundwater flow and reactive transport both in the design of active remediation systems and for evaluation of monitored natural attenuation at multiple sites, including a Superfund National Priorities List site where MNA was the regulator-approved remedy.  Mr. Johnson has also co-authored guidance documents for assessing when a soil vapor extraction remedy or pump-and-treat remedy should be closed, optimized, or transitioned to a new remedy.

In conjunction with his remediation work, Mr. Johnson has developed a number of calculation tools using Fortran, Visual Basic, Excel, Access, JavaScript, and SQL Server. Mr. Johnson is a developer of RT3D, a multi-species reactive transport simulation software that is a widely used flexible reactive transport sister code to MT3DMS. Mr. Johnson is a developer of the SVEET software for assessing the impact of remaining vadose zone source material on groundwater or vapor intrusion (a companion tool to the soil vapor extraction guidance document). He is also a developer of the SOCRATES Web-based single-page application for analysis of water level, contaminant plume, and remediation system data.  

Additional calculation tools/codes that he has developed include the STAYSL PNNL neutron dosimetry software, the ICP-OES data reduction tool (DRT) for analytical data analysis, the PIRT tool that applies conformance calculations for lithium-aluminate pellet acceptance, a six-phase soil heating system design tool, a Hanford tank characterization database tool for data manipulation, and a database for new technologies tested at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site.

Mr. Johnson has also contributed to research at PNNL pertaining to a number of other remediation technologies. He is the co-developer of the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) models (algorithms) to simulate the effectiveness of over 100 remediation technologies in logical treatment train configurations. Mr. Johnson has performed numerous technology assessments for applications such as characterization and treatment of uranium metal chips in RCRA-contaminated oil, characterization and treatment of zircaloy metal chips, field-portable analysis of metals in soils, radiation tolerant cameras, drying of radionuclide-contaminated soil, in situ bioremediation treatment of PAH-contaminated sediment in a wetland area, biotreatment of wastewater contaminated with acrylonitrile/cyanide/nitrophenol, and treatment of water contaminated with pathogenic protozoa (e.g., Giardia, Cryptosporidum) using glow discharge plasma.

Disciplines and Skills

  • Access
  • Amazon EC2
  • Amazon S3
  • Amazon Web Services (AWS) CLI
  • Bioremediation
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Cloud Computing
  • Computer Algebra
  • Contaminated Site Remediation
  • CSS
  • Data Reduction
  • Database-driven Web Applications
  • Environmental Data Analysis
  • Environmental Remediation
  • Environmental Subsurface Science
  • Excel
  • Fortran
  • Geogebra
  • GNU Octave
  • Groundwater Contamination, Groundwater Modeling System (GMS), Groundwater Remediation, Groundwater Vistas,
  • HTML
  • Hydrologic Modeling
  • Inno Setup
  • Javascript
  • MT3DMS
  • MathCAD
  • Mathematical Modeling
  • Mathematics Education
  • Matlab
  • Maxima
  • Mentoring
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • MODFLOW
  • Monitored Natural Attenuation, Natural Attenuation Assessment
  • Network Access Control (NAC)
  • Neutron Dosimetry
  • Octave
  • Pellet Information Reporting Tool (PIRT)
  • Pump-and-Treat (P&T)
  • R
  • Radiation Dosimetry and Measurement
  • Reaction Kinetics
  • Reactive Transport Modeling, Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions (RT3D)
  • Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), Remedial Investigations, Remediation Technologies
  • Soil Vapor Extraction
  • SQL Server Management Studio
  • STAYSL PNNL
  • STEM Ambassador, STEM Education
  • Subsurface Technology Development
  • Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP)
  • SVEET
  • T-SQL Stored Procedures
  • Team Battelle
  • Transact-SQL (T-SQL)
  • Unix Administration
  • Visual Basic, Visual Basic for Applications, Visual Modflow
  • Wastewater Treatment
  • Work-based Learning

Education

M.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1999

B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, 1992

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • OSHA 40 Hours Hazardous Waste Site Worker with Field Experience
  • Hazardous Waste Site Supervisor
  • Engineer-in-Training

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2016 PNNL Fitzner-Eberhardt Award for Outstanding Contributions to Science and Engineering Education
  • Battelle 2014 Community Spirit Award
  • Outstanding Performance Awards - 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2013
  • Federal Laboratory Consortium, Reactive Transport Transfer Efforts for RT3D - 1999
  • Battelle Software Creator Award, Remedial Action Assessment System - 1997

Publications

2018

  • Greenwood L.R., B.D. Pierson, and C.D. Johnson. 2018. "Enhancement of STAYSL_PNNL with IRDFF/V1.05 to 60 MeV." In 16th International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry, edited by M. H. Sparks, K. R. DePriest, and D. W. Vehar, STP1608-EB, 265-275. West Conshohock, Pennsylvania:ASTM International. PNNL-SA-125878. doi:10.1520/STP160820170054
  • Truex M.J., G.B. Chronister, C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, G.D. Tartakovsky, M. Oostrom, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2018. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report. PNNL-26902. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report
  • Yonkofski C., D. Appriou, X. Song, J.L. Downs, C.D. Johnson, and V.C. Milbrath. 2018. Water Application for Dust Control in the Central Plateau: Impacts, Alternatives, and Work Strategies. PNNL-28061. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Water Application for Dust Control in the Central Plateau: Impacts, Alternatives, and Work Strategies

2017

2016

  • Truex M.J., and C.D. Johnson. 2016. Approach for Pump-and-Treat Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site. PNNL-25875. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2015

2014

  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, A.K. Rice, C.D. Johnson, K.C. Carroll, D. Becker, and M.A. Simon. 2014. "Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 34, no. 2:71-84. PNNL-SA-90992.
  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, A.K. Rice, C.D. Johnson, K.C. Carroll, D. Becker, and M.A. Simon. 2014. "Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 34, no. 2:71-84. PNNL-SA-93903.
  • Truex M.J., C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, T.C. Johnson, R.E. Clayton, and G.B. Chronister. 2014. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014. PNNL-23731. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

2013

2012

  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, C.E. Strickland, G.B. Chronister, M.W. Benecke, and C.D. Johnson. 2012. "Field-Scale Assessment of Desiccation Implementation for Deep Vadose Zone Contaminants." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-83775. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0144
  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, C.E. Strickland, T.C. Johnson, V.L. Freedman, C.D. Johnson, and W.J. Greenwood, et al. 2012. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results. PNNL-21369. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results
  • Truex M.J., V.R. Vermeul, B.G. Fritz, R.D. Mackley, J.A. Horner, C.D. Johnson, and D.R. Newcomer. 2012. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site. PNNL-21845; RPT-DVZ-AFRI-005. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

2009

  • Truex M.J., V.R. Vermeul, B.G. Fritz, R.D. Mackley, D.P. Mendoza, R.P. Elmore, and A.V. Mitroshkov, et al. 2009. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results. PNNL-18784. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

2008

2007

2006

2004

  • Yantasee W., Y. Lin, G.E. Fryxell, K.L. Alford, B.J. Busche, and C.D. Johnson. 2004. "Selective Removal of Copper(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Fine-Grained Activated Carbon Functionalized with Amine." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 43, no. 11:2759-2764. PNNL-SA-38034.

2001

2000

  • Clement T.P., C.D. Johnson, Y. Sun, G.M. Klecka, and C. Bartlett. 2000. "Natural attenuation of chlorinated ethene compounds: model development and field-scale application at the Dover site." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 42, no. 2-4:113-140. PNNL-SA-31638.

1999

  • Clement P., C.D. Johnson, Y. Sun, G.M. Klecka, and C. Bartlett. 1999. "Modeling natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent plumes at the Dover Air Force Base Area-6 site." In Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds, The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, edited by B.C. Alleman and A. Leeson, 29-34. Columbus, Ohio:Battelle Press. PNNL-SA-31637.
  • Last G.V., L.M. Bagaasen, T.J. Gilmore, N.P. Kohn, C.D. Johnson, D.C. Lanigan, and T.L. Liikala, et al. 1999. Surface Water-Sediment Feasibility Study Report for the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, California. PNNL-11931. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Surface Water-Sediment Feasibility Study Report for the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, California