Lab Fellow, Materials Scientist
Environmental Transform & Interact
Lab Fellow, Materials Scientist
Environmental Transform & Interact


Dr. Wang is a materials scientist with the Environmental Transformations and Interactions group in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Division and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) user program. Wang leads a team researching materials for energy science and applications. He is an internationally recognized expert and leader in aberration-corrected high-resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. His research focuses on these tools’ ability to probe materials’ microstructure and chemistry at the atomic scale, especially in the area of energy conversion, storage, and sustainability. 

Among his outstanding contributions and achievements in electron microscopy and materials research, the most recent one, also highly cited as seminal, is his innovative work on the development of in situ TEM for electrochemical studies. This work led to a 2016 Materials Research Society (MRS) Innovation in Materials Characterization Award (shared with Frances Ross from IBM and Niels de Jonge from Leibniz Institute for New Materials of Germany) and a 2012 Microscopy Today Innovation Award. This work opened a new field of research clustered on atomic-level direct observation of electrochemical processes under dynamic operating conditions. His continued research of in situ aberration-corrected S/TEM, leading to three generations of in situ TEM probes for the research community, broadly dubbed as open and closed cell, was recognized in the 2015 Journal of Materials Research Paper of the Year Award. 

Wang's interest in electron microscopy, especially in situ microscopy and techniques, extends to the characterization of energy materials and nanoscale science. He has published more than 400 peer-reviewed journal articles and is internationally recognized for energy storage and electron microscopy.


Research Interest

  • Advanced electron imaging and spectroscopy 

  • Energy science and technology 

  • Nanoscience and nanotechnology 

  • Environmental science and technology   


  • PhD in Materials Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, 1994
  • MS in Condensed Matter Physics, Lanzhou University, 1986
  • BS in Physics, Lanzhou University, 1983

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • 2019–present PNNL Lab Fellow 

  • 2014–2019 Chief Scientist, Electron Microscopy, Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), PNNL 

  • 2001–2014 Senior Research Scientist, Electron Microscopy, EMSL, PNNL 

  • 1997–2001 Research Scientist II, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, USA 

  • 1996–1997 Research Scientist, National Institute for Materials, Tuskuba, Japan 

  • 1994–1996 Humboldt Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Metal Research, Stuttgart, Germany 

  • Principal Editor, Journal of Materials Research 

  • Selected Co-Chair, 2020 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, MA 

  • Symposium Organizer, on in situ TEM and Energy Storage, 2015 MRS Spring and Fall Meetings (fall 2010, spring 2012, spring 2014, fall 2015) 

  • Session Chair, MRS Spring and Fall Meetings (spring 2010, spring 2012, fall 2012, fall 2013, spring 2014, fall 2015, spring 2016) 

  • Leading Editor, MRS Proceedings (hardcopy and electronic versions) (2010, 2012, 2014) 

  • Chair, Organizer, and Program Committee Member, 2015 Pre-Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (M&M) on Electron Microscopy for Biological, Environmental, and Energy Research, July 29–31, PNNL 

  • Chair, Organizer, and Program Committee Member, 2014 Joint Meeting between American Vacuum Society (AVS) Pacific Northwest chapter and Pooled Resources for Electron Microscopy Informatics Education and Research (PREMIER), September 16–19, PNNL 

  • Symposium Organizer, M&M Annual Meeting on in situ Microscopy: (2010, 2011, 2015) 

  • Symposium Organizer, Annual Meeting on in situ Microscopy and Spectroscopy, AVS (2008 and 2009) 

  • Session Chair, M&M Meetings  

  • Session Chair, AVS Meetings 

  • Proposal Reviewer, Science Foundation of European Union, South Korea, Swissland, Canada, U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Universities, Trustee Foundation, and a wide range of scientific journals 

Awards and Recognitions

  • Laboratory Director’s Award for Individual Lifetime Achievement in Science and Technology, PNNL (2020) 

  • Highly Cited Researcher in Materials Science, Clarivate Analytics, (2018, 2019, 2020) 

  • Pathway to Excellence Award, PNNL (2013, 2017, 2018) 

  • Laboratory Director’s Award for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, PNNL (2017) 

  • MRS Fellow (2017) 

  • Materials Characterization Award, Materials Research Innovation (2016) 

  • Paper of Year Award, Journal of Materials Research  

  • Outstanding Performance Award, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, PNNL (2017) 

  • Outstanding Performance Award, Energy and Environment Directorate, PNNL (2017) 

  • R&D 100 Award, for Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Application (2012) 

  • Innovation Award (team leader), Microscopy Today (2012) 

  • Director’s Award, EMSL, PNNL (2010, 2012) 

  • Exceptional Contribution Award, EMSL (2004, 2007) 

  • Exceptional Contribution Award, PNNL (2003) 

  • Japanese Outstanding Invention Award, Ministry of Science and Education of Japan (2001) 

  • Ceramgraph Competition Award, American Ceramic Society (1998, 1999, 2000) 

  • Rowland B. Snow Award, American Ceramic Society (1999) 

  • Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship Award (1994) 


  • “Battery cell and in-situ battery electrode analysis method.” 2013. U.S. Patent No. 10,505,234. 

  • “High capacity and stable cathode materials.” 2019. U.S. Patent No. 10,243,206. 

  • “Si/C composite anode with molecular level mixing for lithium-ion battery.” 2016. South Korea Patent. 

  • “Materials for hydrogen storage and methods for preparing and using same.” 2005. U.S. Patent, E-14310. 

  • “Fabrication of graphite layer enclosed SiC composite.” 1997. Japanese Patent 10-101315.



  • Cao X., L. Zou, B.E. Matthews, L. Zhang, X. He, X. Ren, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2021. "Optimization of fluorinated orthoformate based electrolytes for practical high-voltage lithium metal batteries." Energy Storage Materials 34. PNNL-SA-153014. doi:10.1016/j.ensm.2020.08.035 

  • Hu J., L. Li, E. Hu, S. Chae, H. Jia, T. Liu, and B. Wu, et al. 2021. "Mesoscale-architecture-based crack evolution dictating cycling stability of advanced lithium ion batteries." Nano Energy 79. PNNL-SA-153829. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105420 


  • Chen J., X. Fan, Q. Li, H. Yang, M.R. Khoshi, Y. Xu, and S. Hwang, et al. 2020. "Electrolyte Design for LiF-rich Solid-Electrolyte Interfaces to Enable High-performance Microsized Alloy Anodes for Batteries." Nature Energy 5, no. 5:386-397. PNNL-SA-151702. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0601-1 

  • Chen, X., W. Li, Y. Xu, Z. Zeng, H. Tian, M. Velayutham, W. Shi, W. Li, C. Wang, D. Reed, V. V. Khramtsov, X. Li, and X. Liu. 2020. “Charging activation and desulfurization of MnS unlock the active sites and electrochemical reactivity for Zn-ion batteries.” Nano Energy 75.

  • Darbar D., E.C. Self, L. Li, C. Wang, H.M. Meyer, C. Lee, and J.R. Croy, et al. 2020. "New Synthesis Strategies to Improve Co-Free LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 Cathodes: Early Transition Metal d0 Dopants and Manganese Pyrophosphate Coating." Journal of Power Sources 479. PNNL-SA-153008. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228591 

  • He Y., B. Li, C. Wang, and S.X. Mao. 2020. "Direct Observation of Dual-Step Twinning Nucleation in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:2483. PNNL-SA-152795. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16351-0 

  • He Y., L. Luo, M.L. Sushko, C. Liu, D.R. Baer, D.K. Schreiber, and K.M. Rosso, et al. 2020. "Vacancy Ordering during Selective Oxidation of ß-NiAl." Materialia 12. PNNL-SA-152347. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2020.100783 

  • Jia H., X. Li, J. Song, X. Zhang, L. Luo, Y. He, and B. Li, et al. 2020. "Hierarchical Porous Silicon Structures with Extraordinary Mechanical Strength as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:Article No. 1474. PNNL-SA-140627. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-15217-9 

  • Le, P. M. L., T. D. Vo, H. Pan, Y. Jin, Y. He, X. Cao, H. V. Nguyen, M. H. Engelhard, C. Wang, J. Xiao, and J. G. Zhang. 2020. “Excellent Cycling Stability of Sodium Anode Enabled by a Stable Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formed in Ether-Based Electrolytes.” Advanced Functional Materials 30 (25).

  • Li L., E.C. Self, D. Darbar, L. Zou, I. Bhattacharya, D. Wang, and J. Nanda, et al. 2020. "Hidden Subsurface Reconstruction and its Atomic Origins in Layered Oxide Cathodes." Nano Letters 20, no. 4:2756-2762. PNNL-SA-150764. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00380 

  • Luo L., L. Li, D.K. Schreiber, Y. He, D.R. Baer, S.M. Bruemmer, and C. Wang. 2020. "Deciphering atomistic mechanisms of the gas-solid interfacial reaction during alloy oxidation." Science Advances 6, no. 7:Article No. eaay8491. PNNL-SA-147915. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay8491 

  • Luo L., S. Chen, Q. Xu, Y. He, Z. Dong, L. Zhang, and J. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Dynamic Atom Clusters on AuCu Nanoparticle Surface During CO Oxidation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 142, no. 8:4022-4027. PNNL-SA-150963. doi:10.1021/jacs.9b13901 

  • Luo L., Y. Nian, S. Wang, Z. Dong, Y. He, Y. Han, and C. Wang. 2020. "Real-time Atomic-scale Visualization of Reversible Copper Surface Activation during the CO Oxidation Reaction." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 59, no. 6:2505-2509. PNNL-SA-149739. doi:10.1002/ange.201915024 

  • Mo, R., X. Tan, F. Li, R. Tao, J. Xu, D. Kong, Z. Wang, B. Xu, X. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, Y. Peng, and Y. Lu. 2020. “Tin-Graphene Tubes as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Volumetric and Gravimetric Energy Densities.” Nature Communications 11 (1).

  • Nian Y., Z. Dong, S. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Han, C. Wang, and L. Luo. 2020. "Atomic-Scale Dynamic Interaction of H2O Molecules with Cu Surface." Physical Review Letters 125, no. 15:156101. PNNL-SA-153693. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.156101 

  • Qian C., J. Zhao, Y. Sun, H. Lee, L. Luo, M. Makaremi, and S. Mukherjee, et al. 2020. "Electrolyte-phobic Surface for the Next-Generation Nanostructured Battery Electrodes." Nano Letters 20, no. 10:7455-7462. PNNL-SA-135598. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02880 

  • Sheng, A., J. Liu, X. Li, O. Qafoku, R. N. Collins, A. M. Jones, C. I. Pearce, C. Wang, J. Ni, A. Lu, and K. M. Rosso. 2020. “Labile Fe(III) from Sorbed Fe(II) Oxidation Is the Key Intermediate in Fe(II)-Catalyzed Ferrihydrite Transformation.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 272: 105-120.  

  • Song, J., J. Song, K. Wang, J. Zheng, M. H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, E. Hu, Z. Zhu, C. Wang, M. Sui, Y. Lin, D. Reed, V. L. Sprenkle, P. Yan, and X. Li. 2020. “Controlling Surface Phase Transition and Chemical Reactivity of O3-Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes for High-Performance Na-Ion Batteries.” ACS Energy Letters 5 (6): 1718-1725.

  • Unocic, R. R., K. L. Jungjohann, B. L. Mehdi, N. D. Browning, and C. Wang. 2020. “In Situ Electrochemical Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces.” MRS Bulletin 45 (9): 738-745.

  • Wang X., J. Wang, Y. He, C. Wang, L. Zhong, and S.X. Mao. 2020. "Unstable twin in body-centered cubic tungsten nanocrystals." Nature Communications 11. PNNL-SA-152500. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-16349-8 

  • Wang, H., X. Feng, Y. Chen, Y. S. Liu, K. S. Han, M. Zhou, M. H. Engelhard, V. Murugesan, R. S. Assary, T. L. Liu, W. Henderson, Z. Nie, M. Gu, J. Xiao, C. Wang, K. Persson, D. Mei, J. G. Zhang, K. T. Mueller, J. Guo, K. Zavadil, Y. Shao, and J. Liu. 2020. “Reversible Electrochemical Interface of Mg Metal and Conventional Electrolyte Enabled by Intermediate Adsorption.” ACS Energy Letters 5 (1): 200-206.

  • Xu Y., H. Wu, H. Jia, J. Zhang, X. Wu, and C. Wang. 2020. "Current density regulated atomic to nanoscale process on Li deposition and solid electrolyte interphase revealed by Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy." ACS Nano 14, no. 7:8766-8775. PNNL-SA-152803. doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c03344 

  • Xu Y., H. Wu, H. Jia, M.H. Engelhard, J. Zhang, W. Xu, and C. Wang. 2020. "Sweeping potential regulated structural and chemical evolution of solid-electrolyte interphase on Cu and Li as revealed by cryo-TEM." Nano Energy 76. PNNL-SA-153402. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105040 

  • Yue Y., N. Li, L. Li, E. Foley, Y. Fu, V.S. Battaglia, and R. Clement, et al. 2020. "Redox Behaviors in Li-Excess Cation-Disordered Mn-Nb-O-F Rocksalt Cathode." Chemistry of Materials 32, no. 11:4490-4498. PNNL-SA-152425. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b05221 

  • Zhang H., C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2020. "Ultra-Microtome for the Preparation of TEM Samples from Battery Cathodes." Microscopy and Microanalysis 26, no. 5:867-877. PNNL-SA-153035. doi:10.1017/S1431927620024368 

  • Zhang X., L. Zou, Y. Xu, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, B.E. Matthews, and L. Zhong, et al. 2020. "Advanced electrolytes for fast-charging high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in wide-temperature range." Advanced Energy Materials 10, no. 22:2000368. PNNL-SA-150274. doi:10.1002/aenm.202000368 

  • Zhou Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Ren, and R. Cao, et al. 2020. "Real-time mass spectrometric characterization of the solid-electrolyte interphase of a lithium-ion battery." Nature Nanotechnology 15, no. 3:224-230. PNNL-SA-144845. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0618-4 


  • Cao X., X. Ren, L. Zou, M.H. Engelhard, W. Huang, H. Wang, and B.E. Matthews, et al. 2019. "Monolithic solid-electrolyte interphases formed in fluorinated orthoformate-based electrolytes minimize Li depletion and pulverization." Nature Energy 4, no. 9:796-805. PNNL-SA-141828. doi:10.1038/s41560-019-0464-5 

  • Cao X., Y. Xu, L. Zhang, M.H. Engelhard, L. Zhong, X. Ren, and H. Jia, et al. 2019. "Nonflammable Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Enabled by Ultraconformal Passivation Interphases." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 10:2529-2534. PNNL-SA-145269. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b01926 

  • Jaegers N.R., J. Lai, Y. He, E.D. Walter, D.A. Dixon, M. Vasiliu, and Y. Chen, et al. 2019. "Mechanism by which Tungsten Oxide Promotes the Activity of Supported V2O5/TiO2 Catalysts for NOX Abatement: Structural Effects Revealed by 51V MAS NMR Spectroscopy." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 58, no. 36:12609-12616. PNNL-SA-141251. doi:10.1002/anie.201904503 

  • Jin Y., L. Zou, L. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, R.L. Patel, Z. Nie, and K. Han, et al. 2019. "Joint charge storage for high-rate aqueous zinc-manganese dioxide batteries." Advanced Materials 31, no. 29:Article No. 1900567. PNNL-SA-140329. doi:10.1002/adma.201900567 

  • Li L., J. Yu, D. Darbar, E.C. Self, D. Wang, J. Nanda, and I. Bhattacharya, et al. 2019. "Atomic-scale Mechanisms of Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of Mo-doped Co-free Layered Oxide Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 10:2540-2546. PNNL-SA-146763. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b01830 

  • Li Y., I.A. Murphy, Y. Chen, F. Li, X. Wang, S. Wang, and D. Hubble, et al. 2019. "A multi-functional interface derived from thiol-modified mesoporous carbon in lithium-sulfur batteries." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 7, no. 21:13372-13381. PNNL-SA-144283. doi:10.1039/c9ta02743b 

  • Liu B., Q. Li, M.H. Engelhard, Y. He, X. Zhang, D. Mei, and C. Wang, et al. 2019. "Constructing Robust Electrode/Electrolyte Interphases to Enable Wide Temperature Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 24:21496-21505. PNNL-SA-141223. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b03821 

  • Mo R., F. Li, X. Tan, P. Xu, R. Tao, G. Shen, and X. Lu, et al. 2019. "High-quality Mesoporous Graphene Particles as High-energy and Fast-charging Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nature Communications 10, no. 1:1474. PNNL-SA-143544. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09274-y 

  • Ren X., L. Zou, S. Jiao, D. Mei, M.H. Engelhard, Q. Li, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "High-Concentration Ether Electrolytes for Stable High-Voltage Lithium Metal Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 4:896-902. PNNL-SA-134330. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.9b00381 

  • Ren X., L. Zou, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, W. Liu, S.D. Burton, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Enabling High-Voltage Lithium-Metal Batteries under Practical Conditions." Joule 3, no. 7:1662-1676. PNNL-SA-140396. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.006 

  • Song G., J. Cheong, C. Kim, L. Luo, C. Hwang, S. Choi, and J. Ryu, et al. 2019. "Atomic-scale combination of germanium-zinc nanofibers for structural and electrochemical evolution." Nature Communications 10, no. 1:Article No. 2364. PNNL-SA-135597. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10305-x 

  • Sun C., K. Zhao, Y. He, J. Zheng, W. Xu, C. Zhang, and X. Wang, et al. 2019. "Interconnected Vertically Stacked 2D-MoS2 for Ultrastable Cycling of Rechargeable Li-Ion Battery." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11, no. 23:20762-20769. PNNL-SA-138453. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b02359 

  • Wu H., Y. Xu, X. Ren, B. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, M.S. Ding, and P.Z. El-Khoury, et al. 2019. "Polymer-in-"quasi-ionic liquid" electrolytes for high-voltage lithium metal batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 9, no. 41:1902108. PNNL-SA-144443. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902108 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, Z. Tang, A. Devaraj, G. Chen, K. Amine, and J. Zhang, et al. 2019. "Injection of oxygen vacancies in the bulk lattice of layered cathodes." Nature Nanotechnology 14, no. 6:602-609. PNNL-SA-141286. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0428-8 

  • Zhang X., X. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2019. "Building Advanced Materials via Particle Aggregation and Molecular Self-Assembly." Journal of Materials Research 34, no. 17:2911-2913. PNNL-SA-156264. doi:10.1557/jmr.2019.272 

  • Zheng J., Y. Ye, T. Liu, Y. Xiao, C. Wang, F. Wang, and F. Pan. 2019. "Ni/Li Disordering in Layered Transition Metal Oxide: Electrochemical Impact, Origin, and Control." Accounts of Chemical Research 52, no. 8:2201-2209. PNNL-SA-140607. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00033 


  • Adkins E.R., T. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Wang, and B.A. Korgel. 2018. "In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Oxide Shell-Induced Pore Formation in (De)lithiated Silicon Nanowires." ACS Energy Letters 3, no. 11:2829-2834. PNNL-SA-129164. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b01904 

  • Han S., J. Wang, X. Shi, M. Guo, H. Wang, C. Wang, and M. Gu. 2018. "Morphology-controlled Discharge Profile and Reversible Cu Extrusion and Dissolution In Biomimetic CuS." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 48:41458-41464. PNNL-SA-138373. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b17387 

  • Kwak W., L. Luo, H. Jung, C. Wang, and Y. Sun. 2018. "Revealing the Reaction Mechanism of Na-O2 Batteries Using Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy." ACS Energy Letters 3, no. 2:393-399. PNNL-SA-131396. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b01273 

  • Liu B., W. Xu, J. Tao, P. Yan, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, and D. Lu, et al. 2018. "Enhanced Cyclability of Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with Electrodes Protected by Surface Films Induced via In-Situ Electrochemical Process." Advanced Energy Materials 8, no. 11:1702340. PNNL-SA-128613. doi:10.1002/aenm.201702340 

  • Liu J., D. Lu, J. Zheng, P. Yan, B. Wang, X. Sun, and Y. Shao, et al. 2018. "Minimizing Polysulfide Shuttle Effect in Lithium-Ion Sulfur Batteries by Anode Surface Passivation." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 26:21965-21972. PNNL-SA-129224. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b02381 

  • Luo L., M. Su, P. Yan, L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Atomic Origins of Water-Vapour-Promoted Alloy Oxidation." Nature Materials 17, no. 6:514-518. PNNL-SA-124752. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0078-5 

  • Nanda J., C. Wang, and P. Liu. 2018. "Frontiers of solid-state batteries." MRS Bulletin 43, no. 10:740-745. PNNL-SA-138451. doi:10.1557/mrs.2018.234 

  • Ren W., D. Liu, C. Sun, X. Yao, J. Tan, C. Wang, and K. Zhao, et al. 2018. "Nonhierarchical Heterostructured Fe2O3/Mn2O3 Porous Hollow Spheres for Enhanced Lithium Storage." Small 14, no. 26:1800659. PNNL-SA-135599. doi:10.1002/smll.201800659 

  • Ryu J., T. Chen, T. Bok, G. Song, J. Ma, C. Hwang, and L. Luo, et al. 2018. "Mechanical Mismatch-driven Rippling In Carbon-coated Silicon Sheets For Stress-resilient Battery Anodes." Nature Communications 9, no. 1:Article No. 2924. PNNL-SA-132988. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05398-9 

  • Vinado C., S. Wang, Y. He, X. Xiao, Y. Li, C. Wang, and J. Yang. 2018. "Electrochemical and Interfacial Behavior of All Solid State Batteries Using Li10SnP2S12 Solid Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 396. PNNL-SA-132845. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.06.038 

  • Xia Y., J. Zheng, C. Wang, and M. Gu. 2018. "Designing Principle For Ni-rich Cathode Materials With High Energy Density For Practical Applications." Nano Energy 49. PNNL-SA-134249. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.04.062 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, T. Chen, L. Luo, Y. Jiang, K. Wang, and M. Sui, et al. 2018. "Coupling of Electrochemically Triggered Thermal and Mechanical Effects to Aggravate Failure in a Layered Cathode." Nature Communications 9, no. 1:Artice No. 2437. PNNL-SA-134810. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04862-w 

  • Yang Z., P. Ong, Y. He, L. Wang, M.E. Bowden, W. Xu, and T.C. Droubay, et al. 2018. "Direct Visualization of Li Dendrite Effect on LiCoO2 Cathode by In Situ TEM." Small 14, no. 52:1803108. PNNL-SA-135382. doi:10.1002/smll.201803108 

  • Zhang H., B. May, J. Serrano, M. Casas, J. Cabana, C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2018. "Facet-dependent Rock-salt Reconstruction on the Surface of Layered Oxide Cathodes." Chemistry of Materials 30, no. 3:692-699. PNNL-SA-131179. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b03901 

  • Zhang K.H., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation And Ordering Of Oxygen Vacancies At WO3-d And Perovskite Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-110314. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278 

  • Zhang K.L., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation and Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies at WO3-d and Perovskite Interfaces." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-132665. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278 

  • Zhang Q., H. Chen, L. Luo, B. Zhao, H. Luo, X. Han, and J. Wang, et al. 2018. "Harnessing the Concurrent Reaction Dynamics in Active Si and Ge to Achieve High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries." Energy & Environmental Science 11, no. 3:669-681. PNNL-SA-135614. doi:10.1039/c8ee00239h 

  • Zhang Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, R. Cao, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Investigation of Ion-Solvent Interactions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Using in Situ Liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 90, no. 5:3341-3348. PNNL-SA-131962. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04921 

  • Zhao W., J. Zheng, L. Zou, H. Jia, B. Liu, M.H. Engelhard, and C. Wang, et al. 2018. "High Voltage Operation of Ni-Rich NMC Cathodes Enabled by Stable Electrode/Electrolyte Interphases." Advanced Energy Materials 8, no. 19:1800297. PNNL-SA-131810. doi:10.1002/aenm.201800297 

  • Zhao W., L. Zou, J. Zheng, H. Jia, J. Song, M.H. Engelhard, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Simultaneous Stabilization of LiNi0.76 Mn0.14Co0.10O2 Cathode and Lithium Metal Anode by Lithium Bis(oxalato)borate as Additive." ChemSusChem 11, no. 13:2211-2220. PNNL-SA-133094. doi:10.1002/cssc.201800706 

  • Zheng J., P. Yan, L. Estevez, C. Wang, and J. Zhang. 2018. "Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Electrochemical Properties of Nickel-rich LiNi0.76Mn0.14Co0.10O2 Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nano Energy 49. PNNL-SA-132502. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.04.077 


  • Bielinski A.R., M. Boban, Y. He, E. Kazyak, D.H. Lee, C. Wang, and A. Tuteja, et al. 2017. "Rational Design Of Hyperbranched Nanowire Systems For Tunable Superomniphobic Surfaces Enabled By Atomic Layer Deposition." ACS Nano 11, no. 1:478-489. PNNL-SA-122424. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b06463 

  • Du L., L. Luo, Z. Feng, M.H. Engelhard, X. Xie, B. Han, and J. Sun, et al. 2017. "Nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst." Nano Energy 39. PNNL-SA-124686. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.07.006 

  • Duan H., D. Li, Y. Tang, Y. He, S. Ji, R. Wang, and H. Lv, et al. 2017. "High Performance Rh2P Electrocatalyst for Efficient Water Splitting." Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, no. 15:5494-5502. PNNL-SA-123543. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b01376 

  • Duan Y., B. Zhang, J. Zheng, J. Hu, J. Wen, D. Miller, and P. Yan, et al. 2017. "Excess Li-ion Storage on Reconstructed Surfaces of Nanocrystals to Boost Battery Performance." Nano Letters 17, no. 10:6018-6026. PNNL-SA-124114. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02315 

  • Gu M., Z. Wang, C. Wang, and J. Zheng. 2017. "Atomic Scale Study of Surface Orientations and Surface Energies of Ti2O3 Crystals." Applied Physics Letters 111, no. 18:Article No. 181603. PNNL-SA-122134. doi:10.1063/1.5004017 

  • He J., Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Wang, J. Zheng, H. Zhang, and G. Zhou, et al. 2017. "A Fe5C2 Nanocatalyst for the Preferential Synthesis of Ethanol via Dimethyl Oxalate Hydrogenation." Chemical Communications 53, no. 39:5376-5379. PNNL-SA-124515. doi:10.1039/C7CC01644A 

  • Hu J., Y. Xiao, H. Tang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, C. Liu, and H. Zeng, et al. 2017. "Tuning Li-Ion Diffusion in a-LiMn1-xFexPO4 Nanocrystals by Antisite Defects and Embedded ß-Phase for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 17, no. 8:4937-4940. PNNL-SA-129316. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01978 

  • Jian Z., C. Bommier, L. Luo, Z. Li, W. Wang, C. Wang, and P.A. Greaney, et al. 2017. "Insights on the Mechanism of Na-Ion Storage in Soft Carbon Anode." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 5:2314-2320. PNNL-SA-122630. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b05474 

  • Kaspar T.C., J.G. Gigax, L. Shao, M.E. Bowden, T. Varga, V. Shutthanandan, and S.R. Spurgeon, et al. 2017. "Damage evolution of ion irradiated defected-fluorite La2Zr2O7 epitaxial thin films." Acta Materialia 130. PNNL-SA-121946. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2017.01.012 

  • Kazyak E., K. Chen, K.N. Wood, A.L. Davis, T. Thompson, A.R. Bielinski, and A. Sanchez, et al. 2017. "Atomic Layer Deposition of the Solid Electrolyte Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 8:3785-3792. PNNL-SA-124464. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00944 

  • Li Q., D. Lu, J. Zheng, S. Jiao, L. Luo, C. Wang, and K. Xu, et al. 2017. "Li+-Desolvation Dictating Lithium-Ion Battery's Low-Temperature Performances." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, no. 49:42761-42768. PNNL-SA-129021. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b13887 

  • Li Q., S. Jiao, L. Luo, M.S. Ding, J. Zheng, S.S. Cartmell, and C. Wang, et al. 2017. "Wide temperature electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, no. 22:18826-18835. PNNL-SA-124731. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b04099 

  • Liu B., W. Xu, J. Zheng, P. Yan, E.D. Walter, N.G. Isern, and M.E. Bowden, et al. 2017. "Temperature dependence of the oxygen reduction mechanism in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries." ACS Energy Letters 2. PNNL-SA-126517. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00845 

  • Liu B., W. Xu, P. Yan, S. Kim, M.H. Engelhard, X. Sun, and D. Mei, et al. 2017. "Stabilization of Li Metal Anode in DMSO-Based Electrolytes via Optimization of Salt-Solvent Coordination for Li-O2 Batteries." Advanced Energy Materials 7, no. 14:Article No. 1602605. PNNL-SA-121082. doi:10.1002/aenm.201602605 

  • Lu D., J. Tao, P. Yan, W.A. Henderson, Q. Li, Y. Shao, and M.L. Helm, et al. 2017. "Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes." Nano Letters 17, no. 3:1602-1609. PNNL-SA-113201. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04766 

  • Luo L., B. Liu, S. Song, W. Xu, J. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2017. "Revealing The Reaction Mechanisms of Li-O2 Batteries Using Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy." Nature Nanotechnology 12, no. 6:535-540. PNNL-SA-123331. doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.27 

  • Luo L., M.H. Engelhard, Y. Shao, and C. Wang. 2017. "Revealing the Dynamics of Platinum Nanoparticle Catalyst on Carbon in Oxygen and Water using Environmental TEM." ACS Catalysis 7, no. 11:7658-7664. PNNL-SA-124749. doi:10.1021/acscatal.7b02861 

  • Ruther R., A.S. Pandian, P. Yan, J.N. Weker, C. Wang, and J. Nanda. 2017. "Structural Transformations in High Capacity Li2Cu0.5Ni0.5O2 Cathodes." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 7:2997-3005. PNNL-SA-123197. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b05442 

  • Shutthanandan V., S. Choudhury, S. Manandhar, T.C. Kaspar, C.M. Wang, A. Devaraj, and B.D. Wirth, et al. 2017. "Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 4, no. 14:Article No. 1700037. PNNL-SA-107725. doi:10.1002/admi.201700037 

  • Song S., W. Xu, J. Zheng, L. Luo, M.H. Engelhard, M.E. Bowden, and B. Liu, et al. 2017. "Complete decomposition of Li2CO3 in Li-O2 batteries using Ir/B4C as noncarbon-based oxygen electrode." Nano Letters 17, no. 3:1417-1424. PNNL-SA-121343. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04371 

  • Song S., W. Xu, R. Cao, L. Luo, M.H. Engelhard, M.E. Bowden, and B. Liu, et al. 2017. "B4C as a stable non-carbon-based oxygen electrode material for lithium-oxygen batteries." Nano Energy 33. PNNL-SA-119212. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.01.042 

  • Soto F.A., P. Yan, M.H. Engelhard, A. Marzouk, C. Wang, G. Xu, and Z. Chen, et al. 2017. "Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon." Advanced Materials 29, no. 18:Article No. 1606860. PNNL-SA-121033. doi:10.1002/adma.201606860 

  • Wang H., H. Ruan, M. Feng, Y. Qin, H.M. Job, L. Luo, and C. Wang, et al. 2017. "One-Pot Process for Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin to Alkanes Using Ru-based Bimetallic and Bifunctional Catalysts Supported on Zeolite Y." ChemSusChem 10, no. 8:1846-1856. PNNL-SA-120890. doi:10.1002/cssc.201700160 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, J. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2017. "Atomic Resolution Structural and Chemical Imaging Revealing the Sequential Migration of Ni, Co and Mn upon Battery Cycling of Layered Cathode." Nano Letters 17, no. 6:3946-3951. PNNL-SA-125875. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01546 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, M. Gu, J. Xiao, J. Zhang, and C. Wang. 2017. "Intragranular Cracking as a Critical Barrier For High-voltage Usage of Layer-structured Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries." Nature Communications 8. PNNL-SA-118952. doi:10.1038/ncomms14101 

  • Zhang H., F. Omenya, M.S. Whittingham, C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2017. "Formation of an Anti-core-shell Structure in Layered Oxide Cathode for Li-ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 11:2598-2606. PNNL-SA-130068. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00921 

  • Zhang H., F. Omenya, P. Yan, L. Luo, M.S. Whittingham, C. Wang, and G. Zhou. 2017. "Rock-salt Growth Induced (003) Cracking in Layered Positive Electrode for Li-ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 11:2607-2615. PNNL-SA-130267. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00907 

  • Zhang H., S. Hwang, M. Wang, Z. Feng, S.G. Karakalos, L. Luo, and Z. Qiao, et al. 2017. "Single Atomic Iron Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Acidic Media: Particle Size Control and Thermal Activation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 139, no. 40:14143-14149. PNNL-SA-126535. doi:10.1021/jacs.7b06514 

  • Zhang X., Y. He, M.L. Sushko, J. Liu, L. Luo, J.J. De Yoreo, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2017. "Direction-Specific van der Waals Attraction Between Rutile TiO2 Nanocrystals." Science 356, no. 6336:434-437. PNNL-SA-122696. doi:10.1126/science.aah6902 

  • Zheng J., S. Myeong, W. Cho, P. Yan, J. Xiao, C.M. Wang, and J. Cho, et al. 2017. "Li- and Mn-rich Cathode Materials: Challenges to Commercialization." Advanced Energy Materials 7, no. 6:Article No. 1601284. PNNL-SA-117202. doi:10.1002/aenm.201601284 

  • Zhong L., F. Sansoz, Y. He, C.M. Wang, and S.X. Mao. 2017. "Slip-activated surface creep with room-temperature super-elongation in metallic nanocrystals." Nature Materials 16, no. 4:439-445. PNNL-SA-118612. doi:10.1038/nmat4813 

  • Zhou Y., X. Cheng, C.H. Yen, C.M. Wai, C. Wang, J. Yang, and Y. Lin. 2017. "Synthesis Of An Excellent Electrocatalyst For Oxygen Reduction Reaction With Supercritical Fluid: Graphene Cellular Monolith With Ultrafine And Highly Dispersive Multimetallic Nanoparticles." Journal of Power Sources 347. PNNL-SA-123457. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.044 


  • Byrne J., G. van der Laan, A. Figueroa, O. Qafoku, C. Wang, C.I. Pearce, and M.J. Jackson, et al. 2016. "Size dependent microbial oxidation and reduction of magnetite nano-and micro-particles." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-119852. doi:10.1038/srep30969 

  • Cheng Y., L. Luo, L. Zhong, J. Chen, B. Li, W. Wang, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2016. "Highly Reversible Zinc-ion Intercalation with Chevrel Phase Mo6S8 Nanocubes and Applications for Advanced Zinc-ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 22:13673-13677. PNNL-SA-116513. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b03197 

  • Feng X., H. Zou, H. Xiang, X. Guo, T. Zhou, Y. Wu, and W. Xu, et al. 2016. "Ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets as anode materials for lithium and sodium storage." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 26:16718-16726. PNNL-SA-114583. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04752 

  • Gan Z., D.E. Perea, J. Yoo, Y. He, R.J. Colby, J.E. Barker, and M. Gu, et al. 2016. "Characterization of Electrical Properties in Axial Si-Ge Nanowire Heterojunctions Using Off - Axis Electron Holography and Atom-Probe Tomography." Journal of Applied Physics 120, no. 10:Article No. 104301. PNNL-SA-106309. doi:10.1063/1.4962380 

  • Gan Z., M. Gu, J. Tang, C. Wang, Y. He, K.L. Wang, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Direct Mapping of Charge Distribution during Lithiation of Ge Nanowires Using Off-Axis Electron Holography." Nano Letters 16, no. 6:3748-3753. PNNL-SA-118752. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01099 

  • He Y., L. Zhong, F. Fan, C.M. Wang, T. Zhu, and S.X. Mao. 2016. "In situ Observation of Shear-Driven Amorphization in Silicon Crystals." Nature Nanotechnology 11, no. 10:866-871. PNNL-SA-114344. doi:10.1038/NNANO.2016.166 

  • He Y., M. Gu, H.Y. Xiao, L. Luo, Y. Shao, F. Gao, and Y. Du, et al. 2016. "Atomistic Conversion Reaction Mechanism of WO3 in Secondary Ion Batteries of Li, Na, and Ca." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55, no. 21:6244-6247. PNNL-SA-114899. doi:10.1002/anie.201601542 

  • Jeong S., X. Li, J. Zheng, P. Yan, R. Cao, H. Jung, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Hard carbon coated nano-Si/graphite composite as a high performance anode for Li-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 329. PNNL-SA-116194. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.08.089 

  • Lee E., J. Blauwkamp, F.C. Castro, J. Wu, V.P. Dravid, P. Yan, and C. Wang, et al. 2016. "Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel-Oxide Spinel Electrodes for =3.5 V Li-Ion Cells." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 41:27720-27729. PNNL-SA-119446. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b09073 

  • Li X., P. Yan, M.H. Engelhard, A.J. Crawford, V.V. Viswanathan, C.M. Wang, and J. Liu, et al. 2016. "The Importance of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation for Long Cycle Stability Full-Cell Na-Ion Batteries." Nano Energy 27. PNNL-SA-115949. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.07.030 

  • Liu B., P. Yan, W. Xu, J. Zheng, Y. He, L. Luo, and M.E. Bowden, et al. 2016. "Electrochemically formed ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts for high performance lithium-oxygen batteries." Nano Letters 16, no. 8:4932-4939. PNNL-SA-117155. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01556 

  • Liu B., W. Xu, P. Yan, X. Sun, M.E. Bowden, J. Read, and J. Qian, et al. 2016. "Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes." Advanced Functional Materials 26, no. 4:605-613. PNNL-SA-112653. doi:10.1002/adfm.201503697 

  • Lu X., E.R. Adkins, Y. He, L. Zhong, L. Luo, S.X. Mao, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Germanium as a Sodium Ion Battery Material: In Situ TEM Reveals Fast Sodiation Kinetics with High Capacity." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 4:1236-1242. PNNL-SA-111277. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00200 

  • Lu X., Y. He, S.X. Mao, C. Wang, and B. Korgel. 2016. "Size Dependent Pore Formation in Germanium Nanowires Undergoing Reversible Delithiation Observed by In Situ TEM." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 50:28825-28831. PNNL-SA-122152. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b10174 

  • Luo L., B. Zhao, B. Xiang, and C.M. Wang. 2016. "Size-controlled Intercalation to Conversion Transition in Lithiation of Transition-Metal Chalcogenides - NbSe3." ACS Nano 10, no. 1:1249-1255. PNNL-SA-114163. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b06614 

  • Luo L., L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, D.R. Baer, S.M. Bruemmer, G. Zhou, and C.M. Wang. 2016. "In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Surface Oxidation for Ni-10Cr and Ni-20Cr Alloys." Scripta Materialia 114. PNNL-SA-114164. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.11.031 

  • Luo L., L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, M.J. Olszta, D.R. Baer, S.M. Bruemmer, and G. Zhou, et al. 2016. "In Situ Atomic Scale Visualization Of Surface Kinetics Driven Dynamics Of Oxide Growth On A Ni-Cr Surface." Chemical Communications 52, no. 16:3300-3303. PNNL-SA-111555. doi:10.1039/c5cc09165a 

  • Mafi E., X. Tao, W. Zhu, Y. Gao, C.M. Wang, and Y. Gu. 2016. "Generation And The Role of Dislocations in Single-crystalline Phase-change In2Se3 Nanowires Under Electrical Pulses." Nanotechnology 27, no. 33:Article No. 335704. PNNL-SA-110190. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/33/335704 

  • Pan H., Y. Shao, P. Yan, Y. Cheng, K. Han, Z. Nie, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Reversible aqueous zinc/manganese oxide energy storage from conversion reactions." Nature Energy 1, no. 5:Article No. 16039. PNNL-SA-111263. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.39 

  • Shen C., M. Ge, L. Luo, X. Fang, Y. Liu, A. Zhang, and J. Rong, et al. 2016. "In Situ and Ex Situ TEM Study of Lithiation Behaviours of Porous Silicon Nanostructures." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-115171. doi:10.1038/srep31334 

  • Shin Y., J. Tao, B.W. Arey, C. Wang, G.J. Exarhos, J.J. De Yoreo, and M.L. Sushko, et al. 2016. "Double epitaxy as a paradigm for templated growth of highly ordered three-dimensional mesophase crystals." ACS Nano 10, no. 9:8670-8675. PNNL-SA-119957. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b03999 

  • Song B., W. Li, P. Yan, S. Oh, C.M. Wang, and A. Manthiram. 2016. "A Facile Cathode Design Combining Ni-rich Layered Oxides With Li-rich Layered Oxides with Lithium-ion Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 325. PNNL-SA-115253. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.06.056 

  • Spurgeon S.R., Y. Du, T.C. Droubay, A. Devaraj, X. Sang, P. Longo, and P. Yan, et al. 2016. "Competing Pathways for Nucleation of the Double Perovskite Structure in the Epitaxial Synthesis of La2MnNiO6." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 11:3814-3822. PNNL-SA-115671. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00829 

  • Wang C.M., Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, and D.R. Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24, no. 2:32-39. PNNL-SA-115445. 

  • Wang J., H. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. He, F. Fan, Z. Zhang, and S.X. Mao, et al. 2016. "Tuning The Outward To Inward Swelling In Lithiated Silicon Nanotubes Via Surface Oxide Coating." Nano Letters 16, no. 9:5815-5822. PNNL-SA-120527. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02581 

  • Wang Z., Y. He, M. Gu, Y. Du, S.X. Mao, and C. Wang. 2016. "Electron Transfer Governed Crystal Transformation of Tungsten Trioxide upon Li Ions Intercalation." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 37:24567-24572. PNNL-SA-120073. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b06581 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, J. Zheng, Z. Wang, G. Teng, S. Kuppan, and J. Xiao, et al. 2016. "Ni And Co Segregations On Selective Surface Facets And Rational Design Of Layered Lithium Transition-metal Oxide Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 9:Article No. 1502455. PNNL-SA-115219. doi:10.1002/aenm.201502455 

  • Yan P., J. Zheng, X. Zhang, R. Xu, K. Amine, J. Xiao, and J. Zhang, et al. 2016. "Atomic to Nanoscale Investigation of Functionalities of Al2O3 Coating Layer on Cathode for Enhanced Battery Performance." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 3:857-863. PNNL-SA-114347. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04301 

  • Zheng J., P. Yan, D. Mei, M.H. Engelhard, S.S. Cartmell, B. Polzin, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 8:Article No. 1502151. PNNL-SA-114226. doi:10.1002/aenm.201502151 

  • Zheng J., P. Yan, R. Cao, H. Xiang, M.H. Engelhard, B. Polzin, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2016. "Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 8:5715-5722. PNNL-SA-114667. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b12517 

  • Zheng J., P. Yan, W.H. Kan, C.M. Wang, and A. Manthiram. 2016. "A Spinel-integrated P2-type Layered Composite: High-rate Cathode for Sodium-ion Batteries." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163, no. 3:A584-A591. PNNL-SA-115300. doi:10.1149/2.0041605jes 

  • Zheng J., T. Liu, Z. Hu, Y. Wei, X. Song, Y. Ren, and W. Wang, et al. 2016. "Tuning of Thermal Stability in Layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O-2." Journal of the American Chemical Society 138, no. 40:13326-13334. PNNL-SA-122525. doi:10.1021/jacs.6b07771 

  • Zhou Y., C.H. Yen, Y.H. Hu, C. Wang, X. Cheng, C.M. Wai, and J. Yang, et al. 2016. "Making Ultrafine and Highly-dispersive Multimetallic Nanoparticles in Three-dimensional Graphene With Supercritical Fluid as Excellent Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, no. 47:18628-18638. PNNL-SA-127667. doi:10.1039/c6ta08508c