Batteries were invented in 1800, but their complex chemical processes are still being explored and improved. While there are several types of batteries, at its essence a battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electric energy.
Cyber resilience, which is also sometimes referred to as cyber resiliency, is the ability to weather adverse events in a computing environment. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines cyber resilience as “the ability to anticipate, withstand, recover from, and adapt to adverse conditions, stresses, attacks, or compromises on systems that use or are enabled by cyber resources.” Cyber resilience applies to both physical and virtual assets.
Americans rely on critical infrastructures to protect the nation, maintain a strong economy, and enhance quality of life. These infrastructures—which include the electrical power grid, transportation systems, information networks, banking and finance systems, manufacturing and distribution, and more—are evolving and modernizing. They have become increasingly complex, connected, and vulnerable to adverse conditions, such as cyber and physical attacks.
Bioinformatics uses computers to make sense of the vast amount of data researchers can now glean from living things. These things can be as seemingly simple as a single cell or as complex as the human immune response. Bioinformatics is a tool that helps researchers decipher the human genome, look at the global picture of a biological system, develop new biotechnologies, or perfect new legal and forensic techniques, and it will be used to create the personalized medicine of the future.