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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Kai Zhang

Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Kai Zhang's research addresses the treatment and understanding of aerosol and cloud microphysics in the global aerosol-climate model system. He was involved in developing a new version of the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM during his stay at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany. His current research focuses on: a) investigating the role of dynamics and microphysics in the ice cloud formation process and improving ice cloud parameterization in the E3SM Earth system model; b) assessing the aerosol indirect effect through ice and mixed- phase clouds; c) understanding the role of aerosols and clouds on the global water and energy cycle.

Research Interests

  • Radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds
  • High-resolution global atmosphere modeling
  • Water and energy flow in the atmosphere

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Meteorology, 2008, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • M.S. in Meteorology, 2004, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • B.S. in Meteorology, 2001, Ocean University of Qingdao, China

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2014 Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL.
  • 2013 Exceptional Contribution Program Award, PNNL.
  • 2006-2007 Governmental Scholarship for Studying Abroad, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • 2006 Scholarship from the International Max Planck School on Earth System Modelling Exchange Program, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology.
  • 2002 Graduate Student Award, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

PNNL Publications


  • Liu Y, K Zhang, Y Qian, Y Wang, Y Zou, Y Song, H Wan, X Liu, and X Yang. 2018. "Investigation of short-term effective radiative forcing of fire aerosols over North America using nudged hindcast ensembles." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18(1):31-47.  doi:10.5194/acp-18-31-2018
  • Zhang K, PJ Rasch, M Taylor, H Wan, LY Leung, PL Ma, JC Golaz, J Wolfe, W Lin, B Singh, SM Burrows, JH Yoon, H Wang, Y Qian, Q Tang, PM Caldwell, and S Xie. 2018. "Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAM V1)." Geoscientific Model Development 11(5):1971-1988.  doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-293


  • Wan H, K Zhang, PJ Rasch, B Singh, X Chen, and J Edwards. 2017. "A new and inexpensive non-bit-for-bit solution reproducibility test based on time step convergence (TSC1.0)." Geoscientific Model Development 10(2):537-552.  doi:10.5194/gmd-10-537-2017
  • Das S, H Harshvardhan, H Bian, M Chin, G Curci, AP Protonotariou, T Mielonen, K Zhang, H Wang, and X Liu. 2017. "Biomass Burning Aerosol Transport and Vertical Distribution over the South African-Atlantic Region." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(12):6391-6415.  doi:10.1002/2016JD026421
  • Gryspeerdt E, J Quaas, S Ferrachat, A Gettelman, SJ Ghan, U Lohmann, H Morrison, D Neubauer, D Partridge, P Stier, T Takemura, H Wang, M Wang, and K Zhang. 2017. "Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(19):4899-4904.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1617765114
  • Lin G, Y Qian, H Yan, C Zhao, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, and K Zhang. 2017. "Quantification of marine aerosol subgrid variability and its correlation with clouds based on high-resolution regional modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(12):6329-6346.  doi:10.1002/2017JD026567
  • Sand M, BH Samset, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, N Bellouin, T Berntsen, H Bian, M Chin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, G Luo, G Myhre, T Noije, JE Penner, M Schulz, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, F Yu, K Zhang, and H Zhang. 2017. "Aerosols at the Poles: An AeroCom Phase II Multi-Model Evaluation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(19):12197-12218.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-12197-2017
  • Wu C, X Liu, M Diao, K Zhang, A Gettelman, Z Lu, J Penner, and Z Lin. 2017. "Direct comparisons of ice cloud macro- and microphysical properties simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 with HIPPO aircraft observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(7):4731-4749.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-4731-2017


  • Fast JD, LK Berg, K Zhang, RC Easter, Jr, RA Ferrare, J Hair, CA Hostetler, Y Liu, I Ortega, A Sedlacek, JE Shilling, MKB Shrivastava, SR Springston, JM Tomlinson, RM Volkamer, JM Wilson, RA Zaveri, and A Zelenyuk-Imre. 2016. "Model Representations of Aerosol Layers Transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 121(16):9814-9848.  doi:10.1002/2016JD025248
  • Ghan SJ, M Wang, S Zhang, S Ferrachat, A Gettelman, J Griesfeller, Z Kipling, U Lohmann, H Morrison, D Neubauer, D Partridge, P Stier, T Takemura, H Wang, and K Zhang. 2016. "Challenges in Constraining Anthropogenic Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing Using Present-day Spatiotemporal Variability." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(21):5804-5811.  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1514036113
  • Jiang Y, Z Lu, X Liu, Y Qian, K Zhang, Y Wang, and X Yang. 2016. "Impacts of Global open-fire Aerosols on Direct Radiative, Cloud and Surface-Albedo effects Simulated with CAM5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(23):14805-14824.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-14805-2016
  • Kipling Z, P Stier, CE Johnson, GW Mann, N Bellouin, SE Bauer, T Bergman, M Chin, T Diehl, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, H Kokkola, X Liu, G Luo, T van Noije, KJ Pringle, K Von Salzen, M Schulz, O Seland, RB Skeie, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, and K Zhang. 2016. "What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(4):2221-2241.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-2221-2016
  • Kristiansen NI, A Stohl, DJ Olivie , B Croft, OA Sovde, H Klein , T Christoudias, D Kunkel , SJ Leadbetter, YH Lee, K Zhang, K Tsigaridis, T Bergman, N Evangeliou, H Wang, PL Ma, RC Easter, Jr, PJ Rasch, X Liu, G Pitari, G Di Genova, SY Zhao, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, G Faluvegi, H Kokkola, RV Martin, JR Pierce, M Schulz, D Shindell , H Tost, and H Zhang . 2016. "Evaluation of observed and modelled aerosol lifetimes using radioactive tracers of opportunity and an ensemble of 19 global models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(5):3525-3561.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-3525-2016
  • Lin G, H Wan, K Zhang, Y Qian, and SJ Ghan. 2016. "Can nudging be used to quantify model sensitivities in precipitation and cloud forcing?" Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8(3):1073-1091.  doi:10.1002/2016MS000659
  • Peers F, N Bellouin, F Waquet, F Ducos , P Goloub, J Mollard, G Myhre, RB Skeie, T Takemura, D Tanre, F Thieuleux, and K Zhang. 2016. "Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season." Geophysical Research Letters 43(8):3991-4000.  doi:10.1002/2016GL068222
  • Zhang J, K Zhang, J Liu, and G Ban-Weiss. 2016. "Revisiting the climate impacts of cool roofs around the globe using an earth system model." Environmental Research Letters 11(8):Article No. 084014.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084014
  • Zhang K, C Zhao, H Wan, Y Qian, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, K Sakaguchi, and X Liu. 2016. "Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5." Geoscientific Model Development 9(2):607-632.  doi:10.5194/gmd-9-607-2016
  • Zhang S, M Wang, SJ Ghan, A Ding, H Wang, K Zhang, D Neubauer, U Lohmann, S Ferrachat, T Takeamura, A Gettelman, H Morrison, YH Lee, DT Shindell, D Partridge, P Stier, Z Kipling, and C Fu. 2016. "On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(5):2765-2783.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-2765-2016


  • Kulkarni GR, K Zhang, C Zhao, MI Nandasiri, V Shutthanandan, X Liu, JD Fast, and LK Berg. 2015. "Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 120(15):7682-7698.  doi:10.1002/2014JD022637
  • Lacagnina C, OP Hasekamp, H Bian, G Curci, G Myhre, T van Noije, M Schulz , RB Skeie, T Takemura, and K Zhang. 2015. "Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedo over the global ocean: comparing PARASOL Retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom Models Estimates." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 120(18):9814-9836.  doi:10.1002/2015JD023501
  • Shi X, X Liu, and K Zhang. 2015. "Effects of Pre-Existing Ice Crystals on Cirrus Clouds and Comparison between Different Ice Nucleation Parameterizations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15(3):1503-1520.  doi:10.5194/acp-15-1503-2015
  • Shrivastava MKB, RC Easter, Jr, X Liu, A Zelenyuk, B Singh, K Zhang, PL Ma, D Chand, SJ Ghan, JL Jiminez, Q Zhang, JD Fast, PJ Rasch, and P Tiitta. 2015. "Global transformation and fate of SOA: Implications of Low Volatility SOA and Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 120(9):4169-4195.  doi:10.1002/2014JD022563
  • Sudarchikova N, U Mikolajewicz, C Timmreck, D O'Donnell, G Schurgers, D Sein, and K Zhang. 2015. "Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica." Climate of the Past 11(5):765-779.  doi:10.5194/cp-11-765-2015


  • Hiranuma N, M Paukert, I Steinke, K Zhang, GR Kulkarni, C Hoose, M Schnaiter, H Saathoff, and O Mohler. 2014. "A Comprehensive Parameterization of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Dust Surrogate: Laboratory Study with Hematite Particles and Its Application to Atmospheric Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(23):13145-13158.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-13145-2014
  • Hiranuma N, N Hoffmann, A Kiselev, A Dreyer, K Zhang, GR Kulkarni, T Koop, and O Mohler. 2014. "Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(5):2315-2324.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014
  • Wan H, PJ Rasch, K Zhang, Y Qian, H Yan, and C Zhao. 2014. "Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models." Geoscientific Model Development 7(5):1961-1977.  doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1961-2014
  • Ban-Weiss G, L Jin, S Bauer, R Bennartz, X Liu, K Zhang, Y Ming, H Guo, and J Jiang. 2014. "Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(18):10,876-10,901.  doi:10.1002/2014JD021722
  • Jiao C, MG Flanner, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, N Bellouin, T Berntsen, H Bian, KS Carslaw, M Chin, N De Luca, T Diehl, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, D Koch, X Liu, GW Mann, JE Penner, G Pitari, M Schulz, O Seland, RB Skeie, SD Steenrod, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, T van Noije, Y Yun, and K Zhang. 2014. "An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14:2399-2417.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-2399-2014
  • Kulkarni GR, CN Sanders, K Zhang, X Liu, and C Zhao. 2014. "Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(16):9993-10011.  doi:10.1002/2014JD021567
  • Mann GW, KS Carslaw, CL Reddington, KJ Pringle, M Schulz, A Asmi, DV Spracklen, DA Ridley, MT Woodhouse, LA Lee, K Zhang, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, X Liu, P Stier, YH Lee, PJ Adams, H Tost, J Lelieveld, S Bauer, K Tsigaridis, T van Noije, A Strunk, E Vignati, N Bellouin, M Dalvi, CE Johnson, T Bergman, H Kokkola, K Von Salzen, F Yu, G Luo, A Petzold, J Heintzenberg, AD Clarke, JA Ogren, J Gras, U Baltensperger, U Kaminski, SG Jennings, CD O'Dowd, RM Harrison, DC Beddows, M Kulmala, Y Viisanen, V Ulevicius, N Mihalopoulos, V Zdimal, M Fiebig, HC Hansson, E Swietlicki, and JS Henzing. 2014. "Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(9):4679-4713.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-4679-2014
  • Samset BH, G Myhre, A Herber, Y Kondo, SM Li, N Moteki, M Koike, N Oshima, JP Schwarz, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, N Bellouin, T Berntsen, H Bian, M Chin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, JE Penner, M Schulz, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, and K Zhang. 2014. "Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(22):12465-12477.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-12465-2014
  • Tsigaridis K, N Daskalakis, M Kanakidou, PJ Adams, P Artaxo, R Bahadur, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, N Bellouin, A Benedetti, T Bergman, T Berntsen, JP Beukes, H Bian, KS Carslaw, M Chin, G Curci, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, S Gong, A Hodzic, CR Hoyle, T Iversen, S Jathar, JL Jimenez, JW Kaiser, A Kirkevag, D Koch, H Kokkola, YH Lee, G Lin, X Liu, G Luo, X Ma, GW Mann, N Mihalopoulos, JJ Morcrette, JF Muller, G Myhre, S Myriokefalitakis, NL Ng, D O'Donell, JE Penner, L Pozzoli, KJ Pringle, L Russell, M Schulz, J Sciare, O Seland, D Shindell, S Sillman, RB Skeie, DV Spracklen, T Stavrakou, SD Steenrod, T Takemura, P Tiitta, S Tilmes, H Tost, T van Noije, PG van Zyl, K von Salzen, F Yu, Z Wang, Z Wang, RA Zaveri, H Zhang, K Zhang, Q Zhang, and X Zhang. 2014. "The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(19):10845-10895.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-10845-2014
  • Wang M, X Liu, K Zhang, and JM Comstock. 2014. "Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(3):756-776.  doi:10.1002/2014MS000339
  • Zhang C, M Wang, H Morrison, RC Somerville, K Zhang, X Liu, and JLF Li. 2014. "Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(4):998-1015.  doi:10.1002/2014MS000343
  • Zhang K, H Wan, X Liu, SJ Ghan, GJ Kooperman, PL Ma, PJ Rasch, D Neubauer, and U Lohmann. 2014. "Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(16):8631-8645.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-8631-2014


  • Wan H, PJ Rasch, K Zhang, J Kazil, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):861-874.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-861-2013
  • Ghan SJ, SJ Smith, M Wang, K Zhang, KJ Pringle, KS Carslaw, J Pierce, SE Bauer, and PJ Adams. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(12):6688-6707.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Kinne S, D O'Donnell, P Stier, S Kloster, K Zhang, H Schmidt, S Rast, M Giorgetta, T Eck, and B Stevens. 2013. "MAC-v1: A New Global Aerosol Climatology for Climate Studies." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 5:704-740.  doi:10.1002/jame.20035
  • Ma PL, PJ Rasch, H Wang, K Zhang, RC Easter, Jr, S Tilmes, JD Fast, X Liu, JH Yoon, and JF Lamarque. 2013. "The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(10):4657-4669.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50411
  • Myhre G, BH Samset, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, H Bian, N Bellouin, M Chin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, J Feichter, SJ Ghan, D Hauglustaine, T Iversen, S Kinne, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, MT Lund, G Luo, X Ma, T van Noije, JE Penner, PJ Rasch, A Ruiz, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, P Wang, Z Wang, L Xu, H Yu, F Yu, JH Yoon, K Zhang, H Zhang, and C Zhou. 2013. "Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(4):1853-1877.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013
  • Samset BH, G Myhre, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, SE Bauer, T Berntsen, H Bian, N Bellouin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, S Kinne, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, JE Penner, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, and K Zhang. 2013. "Black Carbon Vertical Profiles Strongly Affect its Radiative Forcing Uncertainty." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(5):2423-2434.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-2423-2013
  • Six KD, S Kloster, T Ilyina, SD Archer, K Zhang, and E Maier-Reimer. 2013. "Global Warming Amplified by Reduced Sulfur Fluxes as a Result of Ocean Acidification." Nature Climate Change 3(11):975-978.  doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1981
  • Zhang K, X Liu, M Wang, JM Comstock, D Mitchell, S Mishra, and GG Mace. 2013. "Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(9):4963-4982.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-4963-2013


  • Liu X, X Shi, K Zhang, E Jensen, A Gettelman, D Barahona, A Nenes, and P Lawson. 2012. "Sensitivity Studies of Dust Ice Nuclei Effect on Cirrus Clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(24):12061-12079.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-12061-2012
  • Kazil J, K Zhang, P Stier, J Feichter, U Lohmann, and K O'Brien. 2012. "The present-day decadal solar cycle modulation of Earth's radiative forcing via charged H2SO4/H2O aerosol nucleation." Geophysical Research Letters 39:Article No. L02805.  doi:10.1029/2011GL050058
  • Ma PL, K Zhang, JJ Shi, T Matsui, and A Arking. 2012. "Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51(12):2090-2104.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0215.1
  • Pringle KJ, KS Carslaw, T Fan, GW Mann, A Hill, P Stier, K Zhang, and H Tost. 2012. "A Multi-model Assessment of the Impact of Sea Spray Geoengineering on Cloud Droplet Number." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(23):11647-11663.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-11647-2012
  • Wang M, SJ Ghan, X Liu, TL Ecuyer, K Zhang, H Morrison, M Ovchinnikov, RC Easter, Jr, R Marchand, D Chand, Y Qian, and JE Penner. 2012. "Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations ." Geophysical Research Letters 39:L15709.  doi:10.1029/2012GL052204
  • Zhang K, D O'Donnell, J Kazil, P Stier, S Kinne, U Lohmann, S Ferrachat, B Croft, J Quaas, H Wan, S Rast, and J Feichter. 2012. "The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(19):8911-8949.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-8911-2012

Selected Publications


  • Kazil J, K Zhang, P Stier, J Feichter, U Lohmann, and K O'Brien. 2012. "The Present-Day Decadal Solar Cycle Modulation of Earth's Radiative Forcing via Charged H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Nucleation." Geophysical Research Letters 39: Art. No. L02805. doi:10.1029/2011GL050058.


  • Feng, W., Chipperfield, M. P., Dhomse, S., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Yang, X., Zhang, K., and Ramonet, M. 2011. "Evaluation of Cloud Convection and Tracer Transport in a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(10):5783-5803. doi:10.5194/acpd-10-22953-2010.

  • Kulmala M, A Asmi, HK Lappalainen, et al., with J Feichter, D O'Donnell, and K Zhang, Editors. 2011. "General Overview: European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) - Integrating Aerosol Research from Nano to Global Scales." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11:13,061-13,143. doi:10.5194/acp-11-13061-2011.

  • Zhang K, J Feichter, J Kazil, H Wan, W Zhuo, AD Griffiths, H Sartorius, W Zahoroski, M Ramonet, M Schmidt, C Yver, REM Neubert, and E-G Brunke. 2011. "Radon Activity in the Lower Troposphere and its Impact on Ionization Rate: A Global Estimate using Different Radon Emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11:7817-7838. doi:10.5194/acp-11-7817-2011.


  • Kazil J, P Stier, K Zhang, J Quaas, S Kinne, D O'Donnell, S Rast, M Esch, S Ferrachat, U Lohmann, and J Feichter. 2010. "Aerosol Nucleation and its Role for Clouds and Earth's Radiative Forcing in the Aerosol-Climate Model ECHAM5-HAM." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(5):10,733-10,752. doi:10.5194/acp-10-107 33-2010.

  • Zhang K, H Wan, B Wang, M Zhang, J Feichter, and X Liu. 2010. "Tropospheric Aerosol Size Distributions Simulated by Three Online Global Aerosol Models using the M7 Microphysics Module." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(13):6409-6434. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6409-2010.


  • Zhang K, H Wan, B Wang, and M Zhang. 2008. "Consistency Problem with Tracer Advection in the Atmospheric Model GAMIL." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 25(2):306-318. doi:10.1007/s00376-008-0306-z.

  • Zhang K, H Wan, M Zhang, and B Wang 2008. "Evaluation of the Atmospheric Transport in a GCM using Radon Measurements: Sensitivity to Cumulus Convection Parameterization." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(10):2811-2832. doi:10.5194/acp-8-2811-2008.

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