Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Greg

Greg Kimmel

Chemical Physics & Analysis
Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-88
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Greg Kimmel investigates thermal and non-thermal reactions at surfaces and interfaces. These reactions are important in a wide range of applications including catalysis, photocatalysis, radiation chemistry and waste processing. Since high-energy radiation typically produces numerous low-energy secondary electrons that are chemically active, the low-energy electrons (<100 eV) frequently play a dominant role in radiation chemistry. In addition, the presence of surfaces or interfaces modifies the reactions and processes compared to what occurs in the bulk. In photocatalysis, visible and/or UV photons are used to initiate a variety of reactions. However, a detailed understanding of the underlying physical and chemical processes is often lacking. Dr. Kimmel and his colleagues use surface science techniques to investigate thermal and non-thermal reactions at surfaces and interfaces. This work addresses several important issues, including the need to understand the relative importance of the primary excitation source compared to the secondary electrons it produces, energy transfer at surfaces and interfaces, and new reaction pathways at surfaces. Dr. Kimmel also investigates the structure of water films at interfaces. Understanding the structure of the water films provides a foundation for the development of a detailed understanding of the reactions at aqueous interfaces.

Research Interests

  • energetic processes at surfaces and interfaces in fields such as radiation chemistry, waste processing, and advanced materials synthesis.
  • the structure of water at interfaces
  • chemistry on oxide surfaces

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Applied Physics, Cornell University, Thesis topic: Charge exchange processes for atoms and molecules scattering from metal surfaces.
  • B.S. Engineering Physics (with distinction), Cornell University

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Physical Society
  • American Chemical Society

Awards and Recognitions

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2018. "Electron-stimulated reactions in nanoscale water films adsorbed on (alpha)-Al2O3(0001)." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 20, no. 17:11634-11642. PNNL-SA-132648. doi:10.1039/C8CP01284A

2017

  • Mu R., A.P. Dahal, Z. Wang, Z. Dohnalek, G.A. Kimmel, N.G. Petrik, and I.V. Lyubinetsky. 2017. "Adsorption and Photodesorption of CO from Charged Point-Defects on TiO2(110)." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 8, no. 18:4565-4572. PNNL-SA-128233. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b02052

2016

  • Petrik N.G., G.A. Kimmel, M. Shen, and M.A. Henderson. 2016. "Quenching of Electron Transfer Reactions through Coadsorption: A Study of Oxygen Photodesorption from TiO2(110)." Surface Science 652. PNNL-SA-114433. doi:10.1016/j.susc.2015.12.038
  • Xu Y., C.J. Dibble, N.G. Petrik, R.S. Smith, A.G. Joly, R.G. Tonkyn, and B.D. Kay, et al. 2016. "A nanosecond pulsed laser heating system for studying liquid and supercooled liquid films in ultrahigh vacuum." Journal of Chemical Physics 144, no. 16:Article No. 164201. PNNL-SA-115728. doi:10.1063/1.4947304
  • Xu Y., C.J. Dibble, N.G. Petrik, R.S. Smith, B.D. Kay, and G.A. Kimmel. 2016. "Complete wetting of Pt(111) by nanoscale liquid water films." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 7, no. 3:541-547. PNNL-SA-114918. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02748
  • Xu Y., N.G. Petrik, R.S. Smith, B.D. Kay, and G.A. Kimmel. 2016. "Growth rate of crystalline ice and the diffusivity of supercooled water from 126 to 262 K." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, no. 52:14921-14925. PNNL-SA-119195. doi:10.1073/pnas.1611395114

2015

  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2015. "Reaction Kinetics of Water Molecules with Oxygen Vacancies on Rutile TiO2(110)." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, no. 40:23059-23067. PNNL-SA-111828. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b07526
  • Petrik N.G., M.A. Henderson, and G.A. Kimmel. 2015. "Insights into Acetone Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110). 1. Off-Normal CH3 Ejection from Acetone Diolate." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, no. 22:12262-12272. PNNL-SA-108620. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b02477
  • Petrik N.G., M.A. Henderson, and G.A. Kimmel. 2015. "Insights into Acetone Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110). 2. New Photodesorption Channel with CH3 Ejection along the Surface Normal." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, no. 22:12273-12282. PNNL-SA-108621. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b02478
  • Thurmer K., C. Yuan, G.A. Kimmel, B.D. Kay, and R.S. Smith. 2015. "Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures." Surface Science 641. PNNL-SA-110418. doi:10.1016/j.susc.2015.07.013
  • Yoon Y., Y. Du, J.C. Garcia, Z. Zhu, Z. Wang, N.G. Petrik, and G.A. Kimmel, et al. 2015. "Anticorrelation between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects and the Impact on the Redox Chemistry of TiO2(110)." ChemPhysChem 16, no. 2:313-321. PNNL-SA-105906. doi:10.1002/cphc.201402599

2014

  • Kimmel G.A., T. Zubkov, R.S. Smith, N.G. Petrik, and B.D. Kay. 2014. "Turning things downside up: Adsorbate induced water flipping on Pt(111)." Journal of Chemical Physics 141, no. 18:18C515. PNNL-SA-103931. doi:10.1063/1.4896226
  • Lercher J.A., A.M. Appel, T. Autrey, R.M. Bullock, D.M. Camaioni, H.M. Cho, and D.A. Dixon, et al. 2014. "Multifunctional Catalysts to Synthesize and Utilize Energy Carriers." In Frontiers at the Interface between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis, II, 207-219. Washington, District Of Columbia:U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. PNNL-SA-103068.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2014. "Probing the photochemistry of chemisorbed oxygen on TiO2(110) with Kr and other co-adsorbates." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16, no. 6:2338-2346. PNNL-SA-98647. doi:10.1039/c3cp54195a
  • Petrik N.G., R.J. Monckton, S. Koehler, and G.A. Kimmel. 2014. "Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus hydrogenation of CO in electron-irradiated H2O/CO/H2O ices." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, no. 47:27483-27492. PNNL-SA-105600. doi:10.1021/jp509785d
  • Petrik N.G., R.J. Monckton, S. Koehler, and G.A. Kimmel. 2014. "Electron-stimulated reactions in layered CO/H2O films: Hydrogen atom diffusion and the sequential hydrogenation of CO to methanol." Journal of Chemical Physics 140, no. 20:Article No. 204710. PNNL-SA-100690. doi:10.1063/1.4878658

2013

  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2013. "Multiple Non-Thermal Reaction Steps for the Photooxidation CO to CO2 on Reduced TiO2(110)." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4, no. 3:344-349. PNNL-SA-92421. doi:10.1021/jz302012j

2012

  • Du Y., N.G. Petrik, N.A. Deskins, Z. Wang, M.A. Henderson, G.A. Kimmel, and I. Lyubinetsky. 2012. "Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14, no. 9:3066-3074. PNNL-SA-82616. doi:10.1039/C1CP22515D
  • Kimmel G.A., M.D. Baer, N.G. Petrik, J. VandeVondele, R.J. Rousseau, and C.J. Mundy. 2012. "Polarization- and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water on TiO2(110): Anisotropy and the Hydrogen-Bonding Network." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 3, no. 6:778-784. PNNL-SA-85286. doi:10.1021/jz3001079
  • Lin X., Y. Yoon, N.G. Petrik, Z. Li, Z. Wang, V.A. Glezakou, and B.D. Kay, et al. 2012. "Structure and Dynamics of CO2 on Rutile TiO2(110)-1x1." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 50:26322-26334. PNNL-SA-89052. doi:10.1021/jp308061j
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2012. "Adsorption geometry of CO versus coverage on TiO2(110) from s- and p-polarized infrared spectroscopy." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 3, no. 23:3425-3430. PNNL-SA-90608. doi:10.1021/jz301413v
  • Smith R.S., N.G. Petrik, G.A. Kimmel, and B.D. Kay. 2012. "Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water." Accounts of Chemical Research 45, no. 1:33-42. PNNL-SA-78512. doi:10.1021/ar200070w

2011

  • Feibelman P.J., G.A. Kimmel, R.S. Smith, N.G. Petrik, T. Zubkov, and B.D. Kay. 2011. "A unique vibrational signature of rotated water monolayers on Pt(111): predicted and observed." Journal of Chemical Physics 134, no. 20:Article No. 204702. PNNL-SA-77579. doi:10.1063/1.3591966
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2011. "Electron- and hole-mediated reactions in UV -irradiated O2 adsorbed on reduced rutile TiO2(110)." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115, no. 1:152-164. PNNL-SA-71556. doi:10.1021/jp108909p
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2011. "Oxygen Photochemistry on TiO2(110): Recyclable, Photoactive Oxygen Produced by Annealing Adsorbed O2." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2, no. 21:2790-2796. PNNL-SA-82849. doi:10.1021/jz201225c

2010

  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2010. "Off-normal CO2 desorption from the photooxidation of CO on reduced TiO2(110)." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1, no. 17:2508-2513. PNNL-SA-73722. doi:10.1021/jz100884w
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2010. "Photoinduced Dissociation of O2 on Rutile TiO2(110)." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 1, no. 12:1758-1762. PNNL-SA-72411. doi:10.1021/jz100513e

2009

  • Akin M.C., N.G. Petrik, and G.A. Kimmel. 2009. "Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films." Journal of Chemical Physics 130, no. 10:Art. No. 104710. PNNL-SA-62554.
  • Kimmel G.A., J. Matthiesen, M. Baer, C.J. Mundy, N.G. Petrik, R.S. Smith, and Z. Dohnalek, et al. 2009. "No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene." Journal of the American Chemical Society 131, no. 35:12838-12844. PNNL-SA-65864.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2009. "Nonthermal Water Splitting on Rutile TiO2: Electron-Stimulated Production of H-2 and O-2 in Amorphous Solid Water Films on TiO2(110)." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 11:4451-4460. PNNL-SA-60869.
  • Petrik N.G., Z. Zhang, Y. Du, Z. Dohnalek, I. Lyubinetsky, and G.A. Kimmel. 2009. "Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in oxygen chemisorption." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 28:12407-12411. PNNL-SA-65119. doi:10.1021/jp901989x
  • Zhang Z., Y. Du, N.G. Petrik, G.A. Kimmel, I. Lyubinetsky, and Z. Dohnalek. 2009. "Water as a Catalyst: Imaging Reactions of O-2 with Partially and Fully Hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 5:1908-1916. PNNL-SA-62836.

2008

  • Grieves G.A., N.G. Petrik, J. Herring-Captain, B. Olanrewaju, A. Aleksandrov, R.G. Tonkyn, and S.E. Barlow, et al. 2008. "Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112, no. 22:8359-8364. PNNL-SA-58466. doi:10.1021/jp7102534
  • Kimmel G.A., and N.G. Petrik. 2008. "Tetraoxygen on Reduced Ti02(110): Oxygen Adsorption and Reactions with Oxygen Vacancies." Physical Review Letters 100, no. 19:Art. No. 196102. PNNL-SA-58431. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.196102

2007

  • Kimmel G.A., N.G. Petrik, Z. Dohnalek, and B.D. Kay. 2007. "Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer." Journal of Chemical Physics 126, no. 11:Art. No. 114702. PNNL-SA-51889.
  • Lane C.D., N.G. Petrik, T.M. Orlando, and G.A. Kimmel. 2007. "Electron-Stimulated Oxidation of Thin Water Films Adsorbed on TiO2(110)." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 111, no. 44:16319-16329. PNNL-SA-54544. doi:10.1021/jp072479o
  • Lane C.D., N.G. Petrik, T.M. Orlando, and G.A. Kimmel. 2007. "Site-Dependent Electron-Stimulated Reactions in Water Films on TiO2(110)." Journal of Chemical Physics 127, no. 22:Art. No. 224706. PNNL-SA-56026.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2007. "Hydrogen Bonding, H-D Exchange, and Molecular Mobility in Thin Water Films on TiO2(110)." Physical Review Letters 99, no. 19:Art.No.196103. PNNL-SA-55179. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.196103

2006

  • Kimmel G.A., N.G. Petrik, Z. Dohnalek, and B.D. Kay. 2006. "Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Amorphous Solid Water Films on Pt(111) and Pd(111)." Journal of Chemical Physics 125, no. 4:044713-1 - 044713-12. PNNL-SA-48867. doi:10.1063/1.2218844
  • Petrik N.G., A.G. Kavetski, and G.A. Kimmel. 2006. "Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Bonding Network." Journal of Chemical Physics 125, no. 12:124702 (11 p.). PNNL-SA-50526.
  • Petrik N.G., A.G. Kavetski, and G.A. Kimmel. 2006. "Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110, no. 6:2723-2731. PNNL-SA-46633.

2005

  • Garrett B.C., D.A. Dixon, D.M. Camaioni, D.M. Chipman, M.A. Johnson, C.D. Jonah, and G.A. Kimmel, et al. 2005. "Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances." Chemical Reviews 105, no. 1:355-389. PNNL-SA-42304. doi:10.1021/cr030453x
  • Kimmel G.A., N.G. Petrik, Z. Dohnalek, and B.D. Kay. 2005. "Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer." Physical Review Letters 95, no. 16:166102. PNNL-SA-45342.
  • Lynch D.J., W.E. Wilson, M.T. Batdorf, M.B. Resat, G.A. Kimmel, and J.H. Miller. 2005. "Monte Carlo Simulation of the Spatial Distribution of Energy Deposition for an Electron Microbeam." Radiation Research 163, no. 4:468-472. PNNL-SA-44733.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2005. "Electron-Stimulated Sputtering of Thin Amorphous Solid Water Films on Pt(111)." Journal of Chemical Physics 123, no. 5:054702 (1-7). PNNL-SA-42923.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2005. "Low-Energy Electron-Stimulated Luminescence of Thin H20 and D20 Layers on Pt(111)." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 109, no. 33:15835-15841. PNNL-SA-43848.
  • Sowa M.B., L.E. Kathmann, B.A. Holben, B.D. Thrall, and G.A. Kimmel. 2005. "Low-LET Microbeam Investigation of the Track-End Dependence of Electron-Induced Damage in Normal Human Diploid Fibroblasts." Radiation Research 164, no. 5:677-679. PNNL-SA-42273.
  • Sowa M.B., M.K. Murphy, J.H. Miller, J.C. McDonald, D.J. Strom, and G.A. Kimmel. 2005. "A Variable-Energy Electron Microbeam: A Unique Modality for Targeted Low-LET Radiation." Radiation Research 164, no. 5:695-700. PNNL-SA-40439.

2004

  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2004. "Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Hydrogen at the Interfaces of Amorphous Solid Water Films on Pt(111)." Journal of Chemical Physics 121, no. 8:3736-3744. PNNL-SA-41294.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2004. "Electron-Stimulated Reactions in Thin D2O Films on Pt(111) Mediated by Electron Trapping." Journal of Chemical Physics 121, no. 8:3727-3735. PNNL-SA-41765.

2003

  • Dohnalek Z., G.A. Kimmel, P. Ayotte, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2003. "The Deposition Angle-Dependent Density of Amorphous Solid Water Films." Journal of Chemical Physics 118, no. 1:364-372. PNNL-SA-36883.
  • Kimmel G.A., M. Persson, Z. Dohnalek, and B.D. Kay. 2003. "Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate Layer Compression for Ar Adsorbed on Pt (111)." Journal of Chemical Physics 119, no. 13:6776-6783. PNNL-SA-37480.
  • Petrik N.G., and G.A. Kimmel. 2003. ""Electron-Simulated Reactions at the Interfaces of Amorphous Solid Water Films Driven by Long-Range Energy Transfer from the Bulk"." Physical Review Letters 90, no. 16:166102. PNNL-SA-37444.
  • Smith R.S., Z. Dohnalek, G.A. Kimmel, G.R. Teeter, P. Ayotte, J.L. Daschbach, and B.D. Kay. 2003. "Molecular Beam Studies of Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water." In Water in Confining Geometries, edited by V. Buch and J.P. Devlin. 337-357. New York, New York:Springer-Verlag. PNNL-SA-36993.

2002

  • Ayotte P., R.S. Smith, G.R. Teeter, Z. Dohnalek, G.A. Kimmel, and B.D. Kay. 2002. "A Beaker without Walls: Formation of Deeply Supercooled Binary Liquid Solutions of Alcohols from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films." Physical Review Letters 88, no. 24:art. no. 245505. PNNL-SA-35559.
  • Dohnalek Z., G.A. Kimmel, D.E. McCready, J.A. Young, A. Dohnalkova, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2002. "Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106, no. 14:3526-3529. PNNL-SA-34845. doi:10.1021/jp013801c
  • Smith R.S., Z. Dohnalek, G.A. Kimmel, K.P. Stevenson, and B.D. Kay. 2002. "The Relationship between the Self-diffusivity of Supercooled and Amorphous Solid Water." In 220th American Chemical Society National Meeting: Liquid Dynamics experiment, simulation, and theory; ACS Symposium series, edited by Fourkas, J. T., 820, 198-213. Washington, D.C.:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-33948.
  • Sowa M.B., G.A. Kimmel, J.H. Miller, J.C. Mcdonald, M.K. Murphy, D.J. Strom, and B.D. Thrall, et al. 2002. "Spatially Resolved Single-Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low-LET Radiation." Radiation Research 158, no. 3:375-376. PNNL-SA-40190.

2001

  • Ayotte P., R.S. Smith, K.P. Stevenson, Z. Dohnalek, G.A. Kimmel, and B.D. Kay. 2001. "Effect of Porosity on the Adsorption, Desorption, Trapping and Release of Volatile gases by Amorphous Solid Water." Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets 106, no. E12:33,387-33,392. PNNL-SA-33609.
  • Dohnalek Z., G.A. Kimmel, S.A. Joyce, P. Ayotte, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2001. "Physisorption of CO on The MgO(100) Surface." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105, no. 18:3747-3751. PNNL-SA-33651.
  • Kimmel G.A., K.P. Stevenson, Z. Dohnalek, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2001. "Control of Amorphous Solid Water Morphology using Molecular Beams - I: Experimental Results." Journal of Chemical Physics 114, no. 12:5284-5294. PNNL-SA-33253.
  • Kimmel G.A., K.P. Stevenson, Z. Dohnalek, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2001. "Control of Amorphous Solid Water Morphology using Molecular Beams - II: Ballistic Deposition Simulations." Journal of Chemical Physics 114, no. 12:5295-5303. PNNL-SA-33252.

2000

  • Dohnalek Z., G.A. Kimmel, R.L. Ciolli, K.P. Stevenson, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 2000. "The Effect of Underlying Substrate on the Crystallization Kinetics of Dense Amorphous Solid Water Films." Journal of Chemical Physics 112, no. 13:5932-5941. PNNL-SA-32228.

1999

  • Dohnalek Z., R.L. Ciolli, G.A. Kimmel, K.P. Stevenson, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 1999. "Substrate Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Solid Water at Low Temperatures." Journal of Chemical Physics 110, no. 12:5489-5492. PNNL-SA-30439.
  • Orlando T.M., G.A. Kimmel, and W.C. Simpson. 1999. "Quantum-Resolved Electron Stimulated Interface Reactions: D2 Formation from D2O Films." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 157. PNNL-SA-31500.
  • Stevenson K.P., G.A. Kimmel, Z. Dohnalek, R.S. Smith, and B.D. Kay. 1999. "Controlling the Morphology of Amorphous Solid Water." Science 283. PNNL-SA-30440.

Science at PNNL

Core Research Areas

User Facilities

Centers & Institutes

Research Highlights

View All Research Highlights & Staff Accomplishments

RSS Feed

Contacts