AbstractNMR spectroscopy was used to measure the rates of the first and second substitution reactions between and iodoalkane (R = Me, 1-butyl) and DABCO in methanol, acetonitrile and DMSO. Most of the reactions were recorded at three different temperatures, which permitted calculation of the activation parameters from Eyring and Arrhenius plots. Additionally, the reaction rate and heat of reaction for 1-iodobutane + DABCO in acetonitrile and DMSO were also measured using calorimetry. To help interpret experimental results, ab initio calculations were performed on the reactant, product, and transition state entities to understand structures, reaction enthalpies and activation parameters. Markov chain Monte Carlo statistical sampling was used to determine a distribution of kinetic rates with respect to the uncertainties in measured concentrations and correlations between parameters imposed by a kinetics model. The reactions with 1-iodobutane are found to be slower in all cases compared to reactions under similar conditions for iodomethane. This is due to steric crowding around the reaction centre for the larger butyl group compared to methyl which results in a larger activation energy for the reaction.
Published: March 17, 2023