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Staff information


Vijay Murugesan

Materials Sciences
Physicist, Team Lead
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352


Vijay Murugesan received his MSc and PhD degrees in Physics from Bharathiar University, India. After completing his PhD in 2003, he was awarded postdoctoral fellowships by Universite du Maine, France; College of William and Mary, Virginia; McMaster University, Canada. In 2008 he joined PNNL as a postdoctoral researcher; he was promoted to senior scientist position in 2011 to work in structure-property correlation in energy storage materials. In 2017, he was promoted as staff scientist with responsibilities as task lead for developing design formulations for energy storage and conversion materials. His research is focused on predicting the emergent properties of complex materials and interfaces by understanding atomic- to meso- scale mechanisms through multimodal spectroscopic and computational analysis.

Research Interests

  • Developing material design formulation for target application.
  • Mechanisms of fundamental processes in complex materials and interfaces.
  • Charge and mass transport mechanism in nanoparticles, surfaces, interfaces and porous structures.
  • Chemical reactivity and resilience of heterogeneous interfaces.
  • Multimodal spectroscopic and Computational materials modeling.

Education and Credentials

  • PhD in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (2004).
  • MSc in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (1999).
  • BSc in Physics, Bharathiar University, India (1997).

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society - member
  • Materials Research Society - member
  • Electrochemical Society - member

Awards and Recognitions

  • Pathway to Excellence Award by PNNL to recognize highly cited research article in Elsevier 2017.
  • Battelle Key-Contributor Award for the development of mixed acid based electrolytes for redox flow battery 2013.
  • Co-recipient of R&D-100 Award for the development of Nanostructured graphene electrodes for Lithium battery 2012.
  • Senior Research Fellow Scholarship awarded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, 2003.
  • Junior Research Fellow Scholarship awarded by Defense Research and Development Organization of India, 2000.

PNNL Publications


  • Andersen A., N. Rajput, K. Han, H. Pan, N. Govind, K.A. Persson, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2019. "Structure and Dynamics of Polysulfide Clusters in a Nonaqueous Solvent Mixture of 1,3-dioxolane and 1,2-dimethoxyethane." Chemistry of Materials 31, no. 7:pp 2308-2319. PNNL-SA-141178. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b03944
  • Murugesan V., M.J. Gray, M.F. Guo, H.M. Job, L. Kovarik, A. Devaraj, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2019. "Thermally Activated Nucleation and Growth of Cobalt and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on Porous Silica." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 37, no. 3:Article No. 031101. PNNL-SA-121414. doi:10.1116/1.5080448
  • Shutthanandan V., M.I. Nandasiri, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, W. Xu, S. Thevuthasan, and V. Murugesan. 2019. "Applications of XPS in the Characterization of Battery Materials." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 231. PNNL-SA-134570. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2018.05.005


  • Duan W., B. Li, D. Lu, X. Wei, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and J.P. Kizewski, et al. 2018. "Towards an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery with Higher Theoretical Volumetric Capacities by Utilizing the VO2+/V3+ Couple." Journal of Energy Chemistry 27, no. 5:1381-1385. PNNL-SA-127931. doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2018.05.020
  • Hollas A.M., X. Wei, V. Murugesan, Z. Nie, B. Li, D.M. Reed, and J. Liu, et al. 2018. "A biomimetic high-capacity phenazine-based anolyte for aqueous organic redox flow batteries." Nature Energy 3, no. 6:508-514. PNNL-SA-130788. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0167-3
  • Lee H., S. Chen, X. Ren, A.I. Martinez, V. Shutthanandan, V. Murugesan, and K. Han, et al. 2018. "Electrode Edge Effects and the Failure Mechanism of Lithium-Metal Batteries." ChemSusChem 11, no. 21:3821-3828. PNNL-SA-134550. doi:10.1002/cssc.201801445


  • Duan W., J. Huang, J.A. Kowalski, I.A. Shkrob, V. Murugesan, E.D. Walter, and B. Pan, et al. 2017. "“Wine-Dark Sea” in An Organic Flow Battery: Storing Negative Charge in 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Radicals Leads to Improved Cyclability." ACS Energy Letters 2, no. 5:1156-1161. PNNL-SA-120607. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00261
  • Han K., J. Chen, R. Cao, N. Rajput, V. Murugesan, L. Shi, and H. Pan, et al. 2017. "Effects of Anion Mobility on Electrochemical Behaviors of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 21:9023-9029. PNNL-SA-129332. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02105
  • Murugesan V., K. Han, J. Hu, and K.T. Mueller. 2017. "Molecular Level Structure and Dynamics of Electrolytes Using 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy." eMagRes 6, no. 1:71-82. PNNL-SA-128311. doi:10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm1529
  • Nandasiri M.I., L.E. Camacho-Forero, A.M. Schwarz, V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, P.B. Balbuena, and K.T. Mueller, et al. 2017. "In-situ chemical imaging of Solid-Electrolyte Interphase layer evolution in Li-S batteries." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 11:4728-4737. PNNL-SA-123618. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00374
  • Pan H., J. Chen, R. Cao, V. Murugesan, N. Rajput, K. Han, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2017. "Non Encapsulation Approach for High Performance Li-S Batteries through Controlled Nucleation and Growth." Nature Energy 2. PNNL-SA-123317. doi:10.1038/s41560-017-0005-z
  • Pan H., K. Han, M. Vijayakumar, J. Xiao, R. Cao, J. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2017. "Ammonium additives to dissolve lithium sulfide through hydrogen binding for high energy lithium-sulfur batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 9, no. 5:4290-4295. PNNL-SA-116549. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b04158
  • Rajput N., V. Murugesan, Y. Shin, K. Han, K. Lau, J. Chen, and J. Liu, et al. 2017. "Elucidating the Solvation Structure and Dynamics of Lithium Polysulfides resulting from Competitive Salt and Solvent Interactions." Chemistry of Materials 29, no. 8:3375-3379. PNNL-SA-125254. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b00068


  • Chen J., K. Han, W.A. Henderson, K. Lau, M. Vijayakumar, T. Dzwiniel, and H. Pan, et al. 2016. "Restricting the Solubility of Polysulfides in Li-S Batteries Via Electrolyte Salt Selection." Advanced Energy Materials 6, no. 11:Article No. 1600160. PNNL-SA-113496. doi:10.1002/aenm.201600160
  • Devaraj A., V. Murugesan, J. Bao, M.F. Guo, M.A. Derewinski, Z. Xu, and M.J. Gray, et al. 2016. "Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-113562. doi:10.1038/srep37586
  • Duan W., V.S. Vemuri, J.D. Milshtein, S. Laramie, R.D. Dmello, J. Huang, and L. Zhang, et al. 2016. "A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 4, no. 15:5448-5456. PNNL-SA-115896. doi:10.1039/c6ta01177b
  • Han K., N. Rajput, M. Vijayakumar, X. Wei, W. Wang, J.Z. Hu, and K.A. Persson, et al. 2016. "Preferential Solvation of an Asymmetric Redox Molecule." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 49:27834-27839. PNNL-SA-113547. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b09114
  • Kumar G.R., D.A. Savariraj, S.N. Karthick, S. Selvam, B. Balamuralitharan, H. Kim, and K.K. Viswanathan, et al. 2016. "Phase transition kinetics and surface binding states of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 18, no. 10:7284-7292. PNNL-SA-113781. doi:10.1039/C5CP06232B
  • Savariraj D.A., H. Kim, K.K. Viswanathan, M. Vijayakumar, and K. Prabakar. 2016. "Growth mechanisms and origin of localized surface plasmon resonance coupled exciton effects in Cu2_xS thin films." RSC Advances 6, no. 23:19034-19040. PNNL-SA-114203. doi:10.1039/C5RA26744G
  • Vijayakumar M., Q. Luo, R.B. Lloyd, Z. Nie, X. Wei, B. Li, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2016. "Tuning the perfluorosulfonic acid membrane morphology for vanadium redox flow batteries." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8, no. 50:34327-34334. PNNL-SA-115747. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b10744


  • Cosimbescu L., X. Wei, M. Vijayakumar, W. Xu, M.L. Helm, S.D. Burton, and C.M. Sorensen, et al. 2015. "Anion-Tunable Properties and Electrochemical Performance of Functionalized Ferrocene Compounds." Scientific Reports 5. PNNL-SA-104406. doi:10.1038/srep14117
  • Kerisit S.N., M. Vijayakumar, K. Han, and K.T. Mueller. 2015. "Solvation structure and transport properties of alkali cations in dimethyl sulfoxide under exogenous static electric fields." Journal of Chemical Physics 142, no. 22:224502. PNNL-SA-108842. doi:10.1063/1.4921982
  • Li B., Z. Nie, M. Vijayakumar, G. Li, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-103966. doi:10.1038/ncomms7303
  • Savariraj D.A., G. Rajendrakumar, S. Selvam, S.N. Karthick, B. Balamuralitharan, H. Kim, and K.K. Viswanathan, et al. 2015. "Stacked Cu1.8S nanoplatelets as Counter Electrode for Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell." RSC Advances 5, no. 122:100560 - 100567. PNNL-SA-113770. doi:10.1039/c5ra20965j
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, B. Li, X. Wei, Z. Nie, S. Thevuthasan, and V.L. Sprenkle, et al. 2015. "Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with NafionŽ membranes." Frontiers in Energy Research 3. PNNL-SA-108088. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2015.00010
  • Vijayakumar M., Z. Nie, E.D. Walter, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2015. "Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." ChemPlusChem 80, no. 2:428-437. PNNL-SA-102555. doi:10.1002/cplu.201402139
  • Wei X., L. Cosimbescu, W. Xu, J.Z. Hu, M. Vijayakumar, J. Feng, and M.Y. Hu, et al. 2015. "Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species." Advanced Energy Materials 5, no. 1:Article No. 1400678. PNNL-SA-97506. doi:10.1002/aenm.201400678
  • Wei X., W. Xu, J. Huang, L. Zhang, E.D. Walter, C.W. Lawrence, and M. Vijayakumar, et al. 2015. "Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 127, no. 30:8808-8811. PNNL-SA-107928. doi:10.1002/ange.201501443
  • Xiao J., J.Z. Hu, H. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, J. Zheng, H. Pan, and E.D. Walter, et al. 2015. "Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using In an In Situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique." Nano Letters 15, no. 5:3309-3316. PNNL-SA-101779. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521


  • Kerisit S.N., B. Schwenzer, and M. Vijayakumar. 2014. "Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, no. 13:2330-2334. PNNL-SA-102736. doi:10.1021/jz500900t
  • Motkuri R.K., H.V. Annapureddy, M. Vijayakumar, H.T. Schaef, P.F. Martin, B.P. McGrail, and L.X. Dang, et al. 2014. "Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks." Nature Communications 5. PNNL-SA-99164. doi:10.1038/ncomms5368
  • Schwenzer B., S.N. Kerisit, and M. Vijayakumar. 2014. "Anion pairs in room temperature ionic liquids predicted by molecular dynamics simulation, verified by spectroscopic characterization." RSC Advances 4, no. 11:5457-5460. PNNL-SA-99013. doi:10.1039/C3RA46069J
  • Vijayakumar M., B. Schwenzer, V. Shutthanandan, J.Z. Hu, J. Liu, and I.A. Aksay. 2014. "Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study." Nano Energy 3. PNNL-SA-87010. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2012.09.014
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, E.D. Walter, S.D. Burton, A.K. Shukla, A. Devaraj, and J. Xiao, et al. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16, no. 22:10923-10932. PNNL-SA-99942. doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H
  • Wei X., W. Xu, M. Vijayakumar, L. Cosimbescu, T.L. Liu, V.L. Sprenkle, and W. Wang. 2014. "TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries." Advanced Materials 26, no. 45:7649-7653. PNNL-SA-105126. doi:10.1002/adma.201403746


  • Vijayakumar M., and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies." ECS Transactions 53, no. 10:23-32. PNNL-SA-91592. doi:10.1149/05310.0023ecst
  • Vijayakumar M., W. Wang, Z. Nie, V.L. Sprenkle, and J.Z. Hu. 2013. "Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 241. PNNL-SA-95082. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.072


  • Alvine K.J., M. Vijayakumar, M.E. Bowden, A.L. Schemer-Kohrn, and S.G. Pitman. 2012. "Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate." Journal of Applied Physics 112, no. 4:Article No. 043511. PNNL-SA-82843. doi:10.1063/1.4748283
  • Vijayakumar M., B. Schwenzer, S. Kim, Z. Yang, S. Thevuthasan, J. Liu, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2012. "Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 42. PNNL-SA-80357. doi:10.1016/j.ssnmr.2011.11.005
  • Vijayakumar M., L. Li, Z. Nie, Z. Yang, and J.Z. Hu. 2012. "Structure and Stability of Hexa-Aqua V(III) Cations in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14, no. 29:10233-10242. PNNL-SA-86137. doi:10.1039/c2cp40707h


  • Choi D., J. Xiao, Y. Choi, J.S. Hardy, M. Vijayakumar, M.S. Bhuvaneswari, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4, no. 11:4560-4566. PNNL-SA-79713. doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Li L., S. Kim, W. Wang, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Nie, B. Chen, and J. Zhang, et al. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1, no. 3:394-400. PNNL-SA-75871.
  • Schwenzer B., S. Kim, M. Vijayakumar, Z. Yang, and J. Liu. 2011. "Correlation of Structural Differences between Nafion/Polyaniline and Nafion/Polypyrrole Composite Membranes and Observed Transport Properties." Journal of Membrane Science 372, no. 1-2:11-19. PNNL-SA-76269. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2011.01.025
  • Vijayakumar M., B.M. Sivakumar, P. Nachimuthu, B. Schwenzer, S. Kim, Z. Yang, and J. Liu, et al. 2011. "Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Membrane Science 366, no. 1-2:325-334. PNNL-SA-73754. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2010.10.018
  • Vijayakumar M., L. Li, G.L. Graff, J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Yang, and J.Z. Hu. 2011. "Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 7:3669-3672. PNNL-SA-75255. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.126
  • Vijayakumar M., S.N. Kerisit, K.M. Rosso, S.D. Burton, J.A. Sears, Z. Yang, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2011. "Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 4:2211-2220. PNNL-SA-70935.
  • Zhang J., L. Li, Z. Nie, B. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, S. Kim, and W. Wang, et al. 2011. "Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41, no. 10 - Special Issue S1:1215-1221. PNNL-SA-76986. doi:10.1007/s10800-011-0312-1


  • Vijayakumar M., S.D. Burton, C. Huang, L. Li, Z. Yang, G.L. Graff, and J. Liu, et al. 2010. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery." Journal of Power Sources 195, no. 22 SP ISS:7709-7717. PNNL-SA-71574.


  • Vijayakumar M., S.N. Kerisit, C.M. Wang, Z. Nie, K.M. Rosso, Z. Yang, and G.L. Graff, et al. 2009. "Effect of Chemical Lithium Intercalation into Rutile TiO2 Nanorods." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 32:14567-14574. PNNL-SA-66004. doi:10.1021/jp904148z
  • Vijayakumar M., S.N. Kerisit, Z. Yang, G.L. Graff, J. Liu, J.A. Sears, and S.D. Burton, et al. 2009. "A Combined 6,7Li NMR and Molecular Dynamics Study of Li Diffusion in Li2TiO3." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113, no. 46:20108-20116. PNNL-SA-67583. doi:10.1021/jp9072125

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