Robust Online Sequential RVFLNs for Data Modeling of Dynamic Time-Varying Systems with Application of an Ironmaking Blast Furnace
In a world where the increasing complexity of modern industrial processes brings difficulties for accurate mathematical modeling, taking advantage of data has become an efficient solution to complex dynamic process modeling issue. In this paper, we develop a novel robust online sequential version of random vector functional-link networks (RVFLNs) for data-driven modeling of dynamic time-varying system and applied it in a blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process. First, to overcome the time-varying dynamics of process and to enable the RVFLNs to learn online with avoiding data saturation, an improved online sequential version of RVFLNs (OS-RFVLNs) is first presented by online sequential learning with forgetting factor. This improved OS-RVFLNs algorithm is not only suitable for the real-time and large data transfer situation, but also can adjust the sensitivity of the algorithm to different samples with the help of the introduced forgetting factor. Second, since the output weights of the improved OS-RVFLNs as well as other RVFLNs algorithms are obtained by the least squares approach, a robustness problem may occur when the training dataset is contaminated with various outliers. To solve this problem, a Cauchy distribution weighted M-estimator is introduced to improve the robustness of the improved OS- RVFLNs. For this proposed robust OS-RVFLNs (R-OS- RVFLNs), since the weights of different outlier data are properly determined by the Cauchy distribution function, their corresponding contribution on modeling can be properly distinguished. Thus robust and better modeling results can be achieved. Experiments using actual industrial data of BF ironmaking process and comparative studies have demonstrated that the proposed method produces a better estimation accuracy and stronger robustness than other methods.