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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Scott Lea

Interfacial Sciences & Simulation
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352

PNNL Publications


  • Zhong L, MJ Truex, N Kananizadeh, Y Li, AS Lea, and X Yan. 2015. "Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 175-176:17-25.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.02.001


  • Craig IM, MS Taubman, AS Lea, MC Phillips, EE Josberger, and MB Raschke. 2013. "Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser." Optics Express 21(25):30401-30414.  doi:10.1364/OE.21.030401


  • Dimkpa CO, JE McLean, DW Britt, WP Johnson, BW Arey, AS Lea, and AJ Anderson. 2012. "Nanospecific Inhibition of Pyoverdine Siderophore Production in Pseudomonas Chlororaphis O6 by CuO Nanoparticles." Chemical Research in Toxicology 25(5):1066-1074.  doi:10.1021/tx3000285


  • Jiang W, JS McCloy, AS Lea, JA Sundararajan, Q Yao, and Y Qiang. 2011. "Magnetization and susceptibility of ion irradiated granular magnetite films." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 83(13):134435:1-8.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.134435
  • Lea AS, SR Higgins, KG Knauss, and KM Rosso. 2011. "A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide." Review of Scientific Instruments 82(4):Article No.: 043709. 
  • Brown GE, A Chaka, DK Shuh, EE Roden, CJ Werth, NJ Hess, AR Felmy, KM Rosso, DR Baer, VL Bailey, ME Bowden, JW Grate, DW Hoyt, LR Kuprat, AS Lea, KT Mueller, M Oostrom, G Orr, L Pasa-Tolic, C Plata, EW Robinson, RG Teller, S Thevuthasan, H Wang, HS Wiley, and MJ Wilkins. 2011. EMSL Geochemistry, Biogeochemistry and Subsurface Science-Science Theme Advisory Panel MeetingPNNL-20601, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Lea AS, BC Kabius, BW Arey, L Kovarik, CM Wang, G Orr, I Lyubinetsky, and RR Carper. 2011. "Quietly Building Capabilities: New Instruments, Expertise, "Quiet Wing" Available at DOE User Facility." Microscopy Today 19(5):48-53.  doi:10.1017/S1551929511000964


  • Lea AS, KR Swanson, JN Haack, JE Castle, SM Tougaard, and DR Baer. 2010. "An Application for Near Real-time Analysis of XPS Data." Surface and Interface Analysis 42(6-7):1061-1065.  doi:10.1002/sia.3304
  • Badireddy AR, S Chellam, PL Gassman, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, and KM Rosso. 2010. "Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in Bioflocculation of Activated Sludge Microorganisms under Glucose-Controlled Conditions." Water Research 44(2010):4505-4516.  doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.024
  • Baer DR, AS Lea, J Geller, JS Hammond, L Kover, CJ Powell, MP Seah, M Suzuki, JW Watts, and J Wolstenholme. 2010. "Approaches to analyzing insulators with Auger Electron Spectroscopy: Update and Overview." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 176(1-3, SP ISS):80-94. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, P Nachimuthu, TC Droubay, J Kim, B Lee, C Mathews, RL Opila, LV Saraf, WF Stickle, R Wallace, and BS Wright. 2010. "Comparison of the Sputter Rates of Oxide Films Relative to the Sputter Rate of SiO2." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 28(5):1060-1072.  doi:10.1116/1.3456123
  • Saraf LV, DR Baer, AS Lea, Z Zhu, JJ Strohm, SD Sitzman, and DL King. 2010. "Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(4):B463-B469.  doi:10.1149/1.3298442
  • Tarasevich BJ, AS Lea, and WJ Shaw. 2010. "The leucine rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) adsorbs as monomers or dimers onto surfaces." Journal of Structural Biology 169(3):266-276 . 


  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, AR Felmy, JJ Ford, JZ Hu, AS Lea, P Nachimuthu, LV Saraf, JA Sears, Jr, and S Thevuthasan. 2009. "New Approaches for Characterizing Sensor and Other Modern Complex Materials." ECS Transactions 19(6):137-148.  doi:10.1149/1.3118546
  • Stadermann FJ, C Floss, MP Bose, and AS Lea. 2009. "The Use of Auger Spectroscopy for the in situ Elemental Characterization of Sub-micrometer Presolar Grains." Meteoritics and Planetary Science 44(7):1033-1049. 
  • Strohm JJ, DL King, LV Saraf, AS Lea, CM Wang, and P Singh. 2009. "Influence of Reduction Pretreatment and Methane Reforming on Nickel Solubility in YSZ Grains and Nickel Sintering within Ni-YSZ SOFC Anode Materials." In Preprint Papers, American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, The 238th ACS National Meeting, August 16-20, 2009, Washington, DC., p. FUEL 158  American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 
  • Tarasevich BJ, AS Lea, W Bernt, MH Engelhard, and WJ Shaw. 2009. "Adsorption of Amelogenin onto Self-Assembled and Fluoroapatite Surfaces." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113(7):1833-1842. 
  • Tarasevich BJ, AS Lea, W Bernt, MH Engelhard, and WJ Shaw. 2009. "Changes in the quaternary structure of amelogenin when adsorbed onto surfaces." Biopolymers 91(2):103-107.  doi:10.1002/bip.21095
  • Zhu Z, P Nachimuthu, and AS Lea. 2009. "Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study of C60n? Ions and Traditional Cs? and O2? Ions." Analytical Chemistry 81(20):8272-8279.  doi:10.1021/ac900553z


  • Badireddy AR, BR Korpol, S Chellam, PL Gassman, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, and KM Rosso. 2008. "Spectroscopic Characterization of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens: Suppression using Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Bismuth Thiols." Biomacromolecules 9(11):3079-3089.  doi:10.1021/bm800600p
  • Karagulian F, AS Lea, CW Dilbeck, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2008. "A New Mechanism for Ozonolysis of Unsaturated Organics on Solids: Phosphocholines on NaCl as A Model for Sea Salt particles." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 10(4):528-541.  doi:10.1039/b712715d
  • Yada T, C Floss, FJ Stadermann, E Zinner, T Nakamura, T Noguchi, and AS Lea. 2008. "Stardust in Antarctic Micrometeorites." Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43(8):1287-1298. 


  • Devineni DP, S Stormo, W Kempf, J Schenkel, R Behanan, AS Lea, and DW Galipeau. 2007. "Metal-oxide Nanowires for Toxic Gas Detection." In Nanotech 2005, vol. 2, ed. M Laudon and BF Romanowicz, pp. 519-522.  Nano Science and Technology Institute (NSTI), Danville, CA. 
  • Saraf LV, MH Engelhard, and AS Lea. 2007. "Fabrication of SiO2 Microdisk Arrays for Optics and Light Trapping Experiments." Microelectronic Engineering 84(12):2799-2803.  doi:10.1016/j.mee.2007.02.001
  • Saraf LV, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, AS Lea, DE McCready, V Shutthanandan, DR Baer, and SA Chambers. 2007. "Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6 tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor." Journal of Materials Research 22(5):1230-1234.  doi:10.1557/JMR.2007.0146
  • Saraf LV, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, AS Lea, DE McCready, V Shutthanandan, DR Baer, and SA Chambers. 2007. "Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor." Journal of Materials Research 22(5):1230-1234.  doi:10.1557/JMR.2007.0146
  • Saraf LV, MH Engelhard, P Nachimuthu, V Shutthanandan, CM Wang, SM Heald, DE McCready, AS Lea, DR Baer, and SA Chambers. 2007. "Nucleation and Growth of MOCVD Grown (Cr, Zn)O Films - Uniform Doping vs. Secondary Phase Formation." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 154(3):D134-D138.  doi:10.1149/1.2424422


  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, CM Wang, AS Lea, and KH Pecher. 2006. "The Challenges and Opportunities of Measuring Properties of Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials: Importance of a Multi-Technique Approach." In 2006 TAPPI International Conference on Nanotechnology : April 26-28, 2006, Atlanta, Georgia.  TAPPI, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Norcross, GA. 
  • Floss C, FJ Stadermann, JP Bradley, Z Dai, S Bajt, G Giles, and AS Lea. 2006. "Identification of Isotopically Primitive Interplanetary Dust Particles: A NanoSIMS Isotopic Imaging Study." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(9):2371-2399.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.01.023
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, DE McCready, P Nachimuthu, SM Heald, CM Wang, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, SA Chambers, and MF Toney. 2006. "Magnetic properties of epitaxial Co-doped anatase TiO2 thin films with excellent structural quality." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B--Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 24(4):2012-2017.  doi:10.1116/1.2216723
  • Liu G, J Wang, AS Lea, and Y Lin. 2006. "Bioassay Labels Based on Apoferritin Nanovehicles." Chembiochem 7(9):1315-1319.  doi:10.1002/cbic.200600225
  • Mcintire TM, R Smalley, JT Newberg, AS Lea, JC Hemminger, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2006. "Substrate Changes Associated with the Chemistry of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Silicon." Langmuir 22(13):5617-5624.  doi:10.1021/la060153l


  • Arjunan V, J Lamb, D Chandra, J Daemen, DA Jones, MH Engelhard, and AS Lea. 2005. "Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Low Carbon I-Beam Steels In Simulated Yucca Mountain Repository Environment." Corrosion 61(4):381-391. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, and LV Saraf. 2005. "Simple Method for Estimating and Comparing of X-Ray Damage Rates." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 23(6):1740-1744.  doi:10.1116/1.2073387
  • Kaspar TC, TC Droubay, CM Wang, SM Heald, AS Lea, and SA Chambers. 2005. "Co-doped Anatase TiO2 Heteroepitaxy on Si(001)." Journal of Applied Physics 97(7):073511-073511-10.  doi:10.1063/1.1868854
  • Lyubinetsky I, AS Lea, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2005. "Formation of Epitaxial Oxide Nanodots on Oxide Substrate: Cu2O on SrTiO3(100)." Surface Science 589(1-3):120-128. 
  • Mcintire TM, AS Lea, DJ Gaspar, N Jaitly, Y Dubowski, Q Li, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2005. "Unusual aggregates from the oxidation of alkene self-assembled monolayers: a previously unrecognized mechanism for SAM ozonolysis?" Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 7:3605-3609.  doi:10.1039/b508147e


  • Deodeshmukh V, A Venugopal, D Chandra, A Yilmaz, J Daemen, DA Jones, AS Lea, and MH Engelhard. 2004. "X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Analyses of Corrosion Products Formed on Rock Bolt Carbon Steel in Chloride Media with Bicarbonate and Silicate Ions." Corrosion Science 46(11):2629-2649. 
  • Kim YJ, S Thevuthasan, TC Droubay, AS Lea, CM Wang, V Shutthanandan, SA Chambers, R Sears, B Taylor, and B Sinkovic. 2004. "Growth and Properties of molecular beam epitaxially grown ferromagnetic Fe-doped TiO2 rutile films on TiO2." Applied Physics Letters 84(18):3531-3533. 
  • Lyubinetsky I, A El-Azab, AS Lea, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2004. "Initial Stages of Oxide Nanodot Heteroepitaxial Growth: Cu2O on SrTiO3(100)." Applied Physics Letters 85(19):4481-4483. 
  • Saraf LV, JS Young, AS Lea, S Thevuthasan, GC Dunham, JW Grate, and DR Baer. 2004. "Lateral Ordering of Microfabricated SiO2 Nanotips." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7(1):C7-C9. 
  • Williford RE, DR Baer, JE Amonette, and AS Lea. 2004. "Dissolution and Growth of (10(1) over-bar4) Calcite in Flowing Water: Estimation of Back Reaction Rates via Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations." Journal of Crystal Growth 262(1-4):503-518. 


  • Lea AS, MH Engelhard, and DR Baer. 2003. "Electron Beam Damage in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) and Poly(Acrylonitrile) as Observed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy." Surface Science Spectra 10:67-79. 
  • Lea AS, TT Hurt, A El-Azab, JE Amonette, and DR Baer. 2003. "Heteroepitaxial Growth of a Manganese Carbonate secondary Nano-Phase on the (101_4) Surface of Calcite in Solution." Surface Science 524(1-3):63-77. 
  • Baer DR, DJ Gaspar, MH Engelhard, and AS Lea. 2003. "Beam Effects During AES and XPS Analysis." Chapter 9 in Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.  IM Publications, Chichester, United Kingdom. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, and DJ Gaspar. 2003. "Appendix F: Comparing Beam Damage Rates Using Susceptibility Tables." In Surface Analysis by Auger and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ed. D. Briggs and J.T. Grant, pp. 845-856.  SurfaceSpectra Ltd. & IM Publications, Manchester, United Kingdom. 
  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, and AS Lea. 2003. "Introduction to Surface Science Spectra Data on Electron and X-ray Damage: Sample Degradation during XPS and AES Measurements." Surface Science Spectra 10(1-4):47-56. 
  • Chambers SA, TC Droubay, CM Wang, AS Lea, RFC Farrow, L Folks, V Deline, and S Anders. 2003. "Clusters and Magnetism in Epitaxial Co-doped TiO2 Anatase." Applied Physics Letters 82(8):1257-1259. 
  • Engelhard MH, DR Baer, and AS Lea. 2003. "Beam damage of poly(2-chloroethyl methylacrylate) [PCEMA] films as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K, and 373 K." Surface Science Spectra 10:80-100. 
  • Engelhard MH, DR Baer, and AS Lea. 2003. "Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K." Surface Science Spectra 10:101-116. 
  • Nachimuthu P, S Thevuthasan, YJ Kim, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, MH Engelhard, DR Baer, SA Chambers, DK Shuh, D Lindle, EM Gullikson, and RC Perera. 2003. "Investigation of Copper(I) Oxide Quantum Dots by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy." Chemistry of Materials 20(15):3939-3946. 


  • Baer DR, MH Engelhard, DJ Gaspar, AS Lea, and CF Windisch, Jr. 2002. "Use and Limitations of Electron Flood Gun Control of Surface Potential During XPS: Two Non-homogeneous Sample Types." Surface and Interface Analysis 33:781-790. 
  • Baer DR, Y Liang, AS Lea, JE Amonette, and NG Colton. 2002. "Scanning Force Microscopy Measurements of Dissolution and Growth Processes: CaCO3 Examples." In State-of-the-Art Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis Methods to Environmental Material Interactions: In Honor of James E. Castle's 65th Year, vol. 2001-5, ed. D.R. Baer, C.R. Clayton, G.D. Davis, et. al., pp. 139-148.  The Electrochemical Society, Inc., Pennington, NJ. 
  • Chambers SA, CM Wang, S Thevuthasan, TC Droubay, DE McCready, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, and CF Windisch, Jr. 2002. "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of MBE Grown Ferromagnetic Co-doped TiO2 Anatase Films on SrTiO3(001) and LaAlO3(001)." Thin Solid Films 418(2):197-210. 
  • Gaspar DJ, AS Lea, MH Engelhard, DR Baer, R Miehr, and PG Tratnyek. 2002. "Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron." Langmuir 18(20):7688-7693. 
  • Lea AS, JE Amonette, AA El-Azab, DR Baer, SM Heald, and NG Colton. 2002. "Manganese at Calcite Surfaces: Molecular-Scale Studies of Dissolution and Heteroepitaxy." In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, April 7-11, 2002, Orlando, FL, vol. 223, p. U605.  American Chemical Society, Washington DC. 
  • Rouse AA, C Szeles, JO Ndap, S Soldner, KB Parnham, DJ Gaspar, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, V Shutthanandan, S Thevuthasan, and DR Baer. 2002. "Interfacial Chemistry and the Performance of Bromine-etched CdZnTe Radiation Detector Devices." IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 49(4):2005-2009. 


  • Lea AS, JE Amonette, DR Baer, Y Liang, and NG Colton. 2001. "Microscopic Effects of Carbonate, Manganese, and Strontium ions on Calcite Dissolution." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65 (3):369-379. 
  • Liang Y, AS Lea, DE McCready, and P Meethunkij. 2001. "Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Assembled Cu2O Nano-Dots." In State-of-the-art application of surface and interface analysis methods to environmental material interactions: in honor of James E. Castle's 65th year, proceedings of the international symposium held from March 26-27, 2001, in Washington. Proceedings -- Electrochemical Society , vol. 2001, no. 5, ed. D.R. Baer, C.R. Clayton, G.P. Halada, G.D. David, pp. 125-133.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Paparazzo E, AS Lea, DR Baer, and JP Northover. 2001. "Scanning Auger Microscopy Studies of an Ancient Bronze." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 19(4 PT 1):1126-1133. 


  • Petrik NG, K Knutsen, E Paparazzo, AS Lea, DM Camaioni, and TM Orlando. 2000. "Electron Beam Induced Damage of NaNO3 Single Crystals: An Energy, Temperature, and Quantum State Resolved Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 104(7):1563-1571. 
  • Gao Y, S He, PV Alluri, AS Lea, J Finder, B Melnick, and RL Hance. 2000. "Effects of Precursors and Substrate Materials on Microstructure, Dielectric Properties and Step Coverage of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition ." Journal of Applied Physics 87(1):124-132. 
  • Gao Y, S He, PV Alluri, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, JM Finder, B Melnick, and RL Hance. 2000. "Effects of precursors and substrate materials on microstructure dielectric properties, and step coverage of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 87(1):124-132. 


  • Gao Y, PV Alluri, S He, MH Engelhard, AS Lea, B Melnick, and RL Hance. 1999. "Surface Roughness and Growth Texture of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Thin Films Formed by MOCVD." In Ferroelectric Thin Films VII, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 541, ed. R.E. Jones, pp. 29-34.  Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA. 

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