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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Zihua Zhu

Physiochemical Transform
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Zhu is a world famous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) expert. He earned his BS (1997) and MS (2000) degrees from Peking University, China. He earned his Ph.D. degree (2006) from Pennsylvania State University, USA. He joined PNNL to be a Research Scientist in 2006. Currently, he is a Senior Chemist in PNNL. He has published over 150 articles in prestigious journals. He is most known as one of the two inventors who developed in situ liquid SIMS.

Research Interests

  • Dr. Zhu’s research focuses on using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to resolve interesting scientific questions in biological, environmental and material fields. In situ liquid SIMS is a unique tool that was developed in Dr. Zhu’s lab. It has been extensively used to molecularly examine liquids and liquid interfaces (e.g., solid-liquid interface). In addition, nanoscale chemical imaging (including elemental, isotopic and molecular imaging) using SIMS has been an important direction in Dr. Zhu’s lab. Moreover, trace elemental depth profiling and molecular depth profiling using SIMS is of great interest in Dr. Zhu’s lab, too.

Education and Credentials

  • PhD, Analytical Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University (2006)
  • MS, Chemistry, Peking University (2000)
  • BS, Chemistry, Peking University (1997)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • American Vacuum Society (AVS)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2018 American Vacuum Society-ASSD Peter M.A. Sherwood Mid-Career Professional Award
  • 2015 Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer Awards for Excellence in Technology Transfer (FLC award)
  • 2014 R&D 100 award

PNNL Publications


  • Mei F., H. Wang, Z. Zhu, D. Zhang, Q. Zhang, J.D. Fast, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2024. "Bridging new observational capabilities and process-level simulation: Insights into aerosol roles in the Earth system." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 105, no. 3:E709-E724. PNNL-SA-189607. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-23-0110.1
  • Strange L.E., D.J. Heldebrant, S. Ravula, P. Chen, Z. Zhu, J. Bara, and J. Yao. 2024. "In-house Synthesized Poly(ether ether ketone) Ionenes. I. ToF-SIMS spectra in the positive ion mode." Surface Science Spectra 31, no. 1:Art. No. 015001. PNNL-SA-184766. doi:10.1116/6.0003132
  • Strange L.E., S. Ravula, Z. Zhu, J. Bara, P. Chen, D.J. Heldebrant, and J. Yao. 2024. "In-house synthesized poly(ether ether ketone) ionenes. II. ToF-SIMS spectra in the negative ion mode." Surface Science Spectra 31, no. 1:Art. No. 015002. PNNL-SA-184767. doi:10.1116/6.0003133
  • Zhao X., T. Rangel Guillen, T.R. Graham, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, S.T. Mergelsberg, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2024. "Incorporation of rare earth elements Sc, Y and La into gibbsite." Chemical Engineering Journal 485. PNNL-SA-189899. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2024.149809
  • Zhou Y., P. Jiang, P. Chen, E. Jia, C.S. Welch, Q. Zhao, and J.A. Dhas, et al. 2024. "Novel Principal Component Analysis Tool based on Python for Analysis of Complex Spectra of Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: International Journal Devoted to Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films A42, no. 2:Art. No. 023204. PNNL-SA-189615. doi:10.1116/6.0003355


  • Cheng C., Y. Zhou, H.M. Nelson, T. Ahmadullah, H. Piao, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, et al. 2023. "Molecular Identification of Wines Using In Situ Liquid SIMS and PCA Analysis." Frontiers in Chemistry 11. PNNL-SA-182032. doi:10.3389/fchem.2023.1124229
  • Cheng C., Y. Zhou, Y. Xu, H. Jia, J. Kim, W. Xu, and C. Wang, et al. 2023. "Dynamic Molecular Investigation of the Solid-Electrolyte Interphase of an Anode-Free Lithium Metal Battery Using In Situ Liquid SIMS and Cryo-TEM." Nano Letters 23, no. 18:8385-8391. PNNL-SA-185620. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c00709
  • Chrysler M., J. Gabel, T. Lee, Z. Zhu, T.C. Kaspar, M.E. Bowden, and P.V. Sushko, et al. 2023. "Surface termination control of charge transfer and band alignment across a semiconductor-crystalline-oxide heterojunction." Physical Review Materials 7, no. 8:Art. No.084604. PNNL-SA-183613. doi:10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.7.084604
  • Jiang W., L. Kovarik, M.G. Wirth, Z. Zhu, N.L. Canfield, L.M. Seymour, and L.M. Bagaasen, et al. 2023. "Ion irradiation study of lithium silicates for fusion blanket applications." Journal of Nuclear Materials 576. PNNL-SA-177177. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2023.154281
  • Li Y., Y. Zhou, W. Guo, X. Zhang, Y. Huang, E. He, and R. Li, et al. 2023. "Molecular imaging reveals two distinct mixing states of PM2.5 particles sampled in a typical Beijing winter pollution case." Environmental Science & Technology 57, no. 15:6273-6283. PNNL-SA-169463. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c08694
  • Matthews B.E., J.J. Neeway, L. Nava-Farias, J. Marcial, B.W. Arey, J.A. Soltis, and L. Kovarik, et al. 2023. "Micro- and Nanoscale Surface Analysis of Late Iron Age Glass from Broborg, a Vitrified Swedish Hillfort." Microscopy and Microanalysis 29, no. 1:50-68. PNNL-SA-163973. doi:10.1093/micmic/ozac032
  • Niedek C.R., F. Mei, M. Zawadowicz, Z. Zhu, B. Schmid, and Q. Zhang. 2023. "Quantitative Chemical Assay of Nanogram-Level Particulate Matter Using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Particles Collected from Uncrewed Atmospheric Measurement Platforms." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16, no. 4:955-968. PNNL-SA-176993. doi:10.5194/amt-16-955-2023
  • Weiser M., M.J. Olszta, M.H. Engelhard, Z. Zhu, and D.K. Schreiber. 2023. "Visualizing oxygen transport pathways during intergranular oxidation in Ni-Cr." npj Materials Degradation 7. PNNL-SA-182252. doi:10.1038/s41529-023-00387-w
  • Yang Z., L. Wang, J.A. Dhas, M.H. Engelhard, M.E. Bowden, W. Liu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2023. "Guided anisotropic oxygen transport in vacancy ordered oxides." Nature Communications 14. PNNL-SA-172244. doi:10.1038/s41467-023-40746-4


  • Barnes P., Y. Zuo, K. Dixon, D. Hou, S. Lee, Z. Ma, and J. Connell, et al. 2022. "Electrochemically Induced Amorphous-to-Rock-Salt Phase Transformation in Niobium Oxide Electrode for Li-Ion Batteries." Nature Materials 21, no. 7:795-803. PNNL-SA-170216. doi:10.1038/s41563-022-01242-0
  • Bhattacharjee A., O. Qafoku, J. Richardson, L.N. Anderson, K.C. Schwarz, L.M. Bramer, and G.X. Lomas, et al. 2022. "A Mineral-Doped Micromodel Platform Demonstrates Fungal Bridging of Carbon Hot Spots and Hyphal Transport of Mineral-Derived Nutrients." mSystems 7, no. 6:Art. No. e00913-22. PNNL-SA-167557. doi:10.1128/msystems.00913-22
  • Fujii Yamagata A.L., S.A. Saslow, J.J. Neeway, T. Varga, L.R. Reno, Z. Zhu, and K.A. Rod, et al. 2022. "The Behavior of Iodine in Stabilized Granular Activated Carbon and Silver Mordenite in Cementitious Waste Forms." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 244-245. PNNL-SA-165944. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2022.106824
  • Ho J., Z. Zhu, P. Stallworth, S.G. Greenbaum, S. Zhang, and K. Xu. 2022. "Quantifying Lithium Ion Exchange in Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) on Graphite Anode Surfaces." Inorganics 10, no. 5:Art. No. 64. PNNL-SA-173994. doi:10.3390/inorganics10050064
  • Jiang W., L. Kovarik, Z. Zhu, T. Varga, M.E. Bowden, B.E. Matthews, and Z. Hu, et al. 2022. "Microstructural evolution and precipitation in gamma-LiAlO2 during ion irradiation." Journal of Applied Physics 131, no. 21:Art. No. 215902. PNNL-SA-170674. doi:10.1063/5.0089865
  • Li L., M. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, Y. Wu, and Y. Wang, et al. 2022. "Manipulating the Insulator-Metal Transition though Tip-Induced Hydrogenation." Nature Materials 21, no. 1:1246-1251. PNNL-SA-159760. doi:10.1038/s41563-022-01373-4
  • Roy C.R., Y. Zhou, D. Kohler, Z. Zhu, J.C. Wright, and S. Jin. 2022. "Intrinsic Halide Immiscibility in 2D Mixed-Halide Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskites." ACS Energy Letters 7, no. 1:3423-3431. PNNL-SA-177388. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.2c01631
  • Yu X., B.E. Matthews, S.L. Riechers, S.R. Spurgeon, Z. Zhu, G.J. Sevigny, and W.G. Luscher. 2022. "Multimodal Imaging of the Evolving Interface of the Irradiated Aluminide-coated Stainless-steel Cladding." Microscopy and Microanalysis 28, no. Suppl 1:996 - 997. PNNL-SA-170393. doi:10.1017/S1431927622004317
  • Zhang Y., R.E. Komorek, Z. Zhu, Q. Huang, W. Chen, J.K. Jansson, and G.C. Jansson, et al. 2022. "Mass Spectral Imaging Showing the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria’s Effect on the Brachypodium Awn." Biointerphases 17, no. 3:Art. No. 031006. PNNL-SA-168695. doi:10.1116/6.0001949


  • Chrysler M., J. Gabel, T. Lee, A. Penn, B.E. Matthews, D.M. Kepaptsoglou, and Q. Ramasse, et al. 2021. "Tuning band alignment at a semiconductor-crystalline oxide heterojunction via electrostatic modulation of the interfacial dipole." Physical Review Materials 5, no. 10:104603. PNNL-SA-163062. doi:10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.104603
  • Huang L., Q. Yu, W. Liu, J. Wang, E. Jia, Q. Zeng, and R. Qin, et al. 2021. "Molecular Determination of Organic Adsorption Sites on Smectite During Fe-redox Processes Using ToF-SIMS Analysis." Environmental Science & Technology 55, no. 10:7123-7134. PNNL-SA-160724. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c08407
  • Kaspar T.C., S.D. Taylor, K.H. Yano, T.G. Lach, Y. Zhou, Z. Zhu, and A. Kohnert, et al. 2021. "Bulk and short-circuit anion diffusion in epitaxial Fe2O3 films quantified using buried isotopic tracer layers." Advanced Materials Interfaces 8, no. 9:2001768. PNNL-SA-155914. doi:10.1002/admi.202001768
  • Murugesan V., Z. Nie, X. Zhang, P. Gao, Z. Zhu, Q. Huang, and L. Yan, et al. 2021. "Accelerated design of vanadium redox flow battery electrolytes through tunable solvation chemistry." Cell Reports Physical Science 2, no. 2:Article No. 100323. PNNL-SA-161062. doi:10.1016/j.xcrp.2021.100323
  • Roy C.R., D. Pan, Y. Wang, M.P. Hautzinger, Y. Zhao, J.C. Wright, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2021. "Anion Exchange of Ruddlesden-Popper Lead Halide Perovskites Produces Stable Lateral Heterostructures." Journal of the American Chemical Society 143, no. 13:5212-5221. PNNL-SA-160905. doi:10.1021/jacs.1c01573
  • Wang Y., D. Song, Y. Zhou, C. Cheng, Y. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, and Z. Wang, et al. 2021. "Molecular examination of ion-pair competition in alkaline aluminate solutions using in situ liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 93, no. 2:1068-1075. PNNL-SA-156223. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04070
  • Yu X., J. Yao, B.E. Matthews, S.R. Spurgeon, S.L. Riechers, G.J. Sevigny, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2021. "Evidence of lithium mobility under neutron irradiation." Journal of Materials Research and Technology 14. PNNL-SA-159010. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.06.066
  • Zhang Y., J. Tang, Z. Ni, Y. Zhao, F. Jia, Q. Luo, and L. Mao, et al. 2021. "Real-time Characterization of the Fine Structure and Dynamics of an Electrical Double Layer at Electrode-electrolyte Interfaces." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 12, no. 22:5279-5285. PNNL-SA-162872. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01134
  • Zhang Y., R.E. Komorek, J. Son, S.L. Riechers, Z. Zhu, J.K. Jansson, and G.C. Jansson, et al. 2021. "Molecular imaging of plant-microbe interactions on the Brachypodium seed surface." Analyst 146, no. 19:5855-5865. PNNL-SA-153357. doi:10.1039/D1AN00205H
  • Zhu Y., S.F. Yuk, J. Zheng, M. Nguyen, M. Lee, J. Szanyi, and L. Kovarik, et al. 2021. "Environment of Metal-O-Fe Bonds Enabling High Activity in CO2 Reduction on Single Metal Atoms and on Supported Nanoparticles." Journal of the American Chemical Society 143, no. 14:5540-5549. PNNL-SA-160804. doi:10.1021/jacs.1c02276


  • Guo W., M. Kanski, W.N. Liu, M. Golunski, Y. Zhou, Y. Wang, and C. Cheng, et al. 2020. "Three-Dimensional Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Biological Structures Using a Vacuum-Compatible Microfluidic Device." Analytical Chemistry 92, no. 20:13785-13793. PNNL-SA-153326. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c02204
  • Jia F., K. Wu, Y. Che, Y. Zhang, F. Zeng, Q. Luo, and X. Yu, et al. 2020. "ToF-SIMS Analysis of Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Beijing." Surface and Interface Analysis 52, no. 5:272-282. PNNL-SA-148819. doi:10.1002/sia.6710
  • Jiang W., T. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, L. Shao, and D.J. Senor. 2020. "Deuterium diffusion in gamma-LiAlO2 pellets irradiated with He+ and D2+ ions." Journal of Nuclear Materials 538. PNNL-SA-150710. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152357
  • Jiang W., W.G. Luscher, T. Wang, Z. Zhu, L. Shao, and D.J. Senor. 2020. "A quantitative study of retention and release of deuterium and tritium during irradiation of y-LiAlO2 pellets." Journal of Nuclear Materials 542. PNNL-SA-154763. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2020.152532
  • Keles O., B. Karahan, L. Eryilmaz, R. Amine, A. Abouimrane, Z. Chen, and X. Zuo, et al. 2020. "Superlattice-Structured Films by Magnetron Sputtering as New Era Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries." Nano Energy 76. PNNL-SA-154905. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105094
  • Liu J., E. Jia, K.A. Stoerzinger, L. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Yang, and D. Shen, et al. 2020. "Dynamic Lattice Oxygen Participation on Perovskite LaNiO3 During Oxygen Evolution Reaction." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 124, no. 28:15386-15390. PNNL-SA-152668. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c04808
  • Liu W., L. Huang, R.E. Komorek, P. Handakumbura, Y. Zhou, D. Hu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2020. "Correlative Surface Imaging Reveals Chemical Signatures for Bacterial Hotspots on Plant Roots." Analyst 145, no. 2:393-401. PNNL-SA-149225. doi:10.1039/C9AN01954E
  • Sabale S.R., D. Barpaga, J. Yao, L. Kovarik, Z. Zhu, S. Chatterjee, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2020. "Understanding Time Dependence on Zinc Metal-Organic Framework Growth Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 12, no. 4:5090-5098. PNNL-SA-148177. doi:10.1021/acsami.9b19991
  • Shen Y., J. Yao, J. Son, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2020. "Liquid ToF-SIMS revealing the oil, water, and surfactant interface evolution." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 22, no. 21:11771-11782. PNNL-SA-147881. doi:10.1039/D0CP00528B
  • Shen Y., Y. Fu, J. Yao, D.B. Lao, S.K. Nune, Z. Zhu, and D.J. Heldebrant, et al. 2020. "Revealing the structural evolution of green rust synthesized in ionic liquids by in situ molecular imaging." Advanced Materials Interfaces. PNNL-SA-151430. doi:10.1002/admi.202000452
  • Song J., K. Wang, J. Zheng, M.H. Engelhard, B. Xiao, E. Hu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Controlling Surface Phase Transition and Chemical Reactivity of O3-Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes for High-Performance Na-ion Batteries." ACS Energy Letters 5, no. 6:1718-1725. PNNL-SA-141318. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00700
  • Wei W., A.E. Plymale, Z. Zhu, X. Ma, F. Liu, and X. Yu. 2020. "In Vivo Molecular Insights into Syntrophic Geobacter Aggregates." Analytical Chemistry 92, no. 15:10402-10411. PNNL-SA-151938. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00653
  • Xia Q., X. Wang, Q. Zeng, D. Guo, Z. Zhu, H. Chen, and H. Dong. 2020. "Mechanisms of Enhanced Antibacterial Activity by Reduced Chitosan-intercalated Nontronite." Environmental Science & Technology 54, no. 8:5207-5217. PNNL-SA-152192. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b07185
  • Yu J., Y. Zhou, M.H. Engelhard, Y. Zhang, J. Son, S. Liu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "In situ molecular imaging of adsorbed protein films in water indicating hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity." Scientific Reports 10, no. 1:Article No. 3695. PNNL-SA-152103. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-60428-1
  • Yu X., J. Yao, E.C. Buck, and Z. Zhu. 2020. "In situ liquid SIMS analysis of uranium oxide." Surface Interface Analysis 52, no. 7:454-459. PNNL-SA-134363. doi:10.1002/sia.6799
  • Zeng Q., L. Huang, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, H. Chen, Q. Shi, and W. Liu, et al. 2020. "Bio-reduction of Ferrihydrite-montmorillonite-organic Matter Complexes: Effect of Montmorillonite and Fate of Organic Matter." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 276. PNNL-SA-152385. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2020.03.011
  • Zhang Y., W. Zeng, F. Jia, J. Ye, Y. Zhao, Q. Luo, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2020. "Cisplatin-Induced Alteration on Membrane Composition of A549 Cells Revealed by ToF-SIMS." Surface and Interface Analysis 52, no. 5:256-263. PNNL-SA-152291. doi:10.1002/sia.6714
  • Zhao Y., H. Huang, Y. Zhang, K. Wu, F. Zeng, J. Wang, and X. Yu, et al. 2020. "Atmospheric Particulate Characterization by ToF-SIMS in an Urban Site in Beijing." Atmospheric Environment 220. PNNL-SA-148815. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.117090
  • Zhou Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Ren, and R. Cao, et al. 2020. "Real-time mass spectrometric characterization of the solid-electrolyte interphase of a lithium-ion battery." Nature Nanotechnology 15, no. 3:224-230. PNNL-SA-144845. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0618-4
  • Zuo H., R.K. Kukkadapu, Z. Zhu, S. Ni, L. Huang, Q. Zeng, and C. Liu, et al. 2020. "Role of clay-associated humic substances in catalyzing bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32." Science of the Total Environment 741. PNNL-SA-153739. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140213


  • Bonnin E.A., Z. Zhu, J.S. Fehrenbacher, A.D. Russell, B. Honisch, H.J. Spero, and A.C. Gagnon. 2019. "Submicron Sodium Banding in Cultured Planktic Foraminifera Shells." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 253. PNNL-SA-142331. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.024
  • Cui W., X. Zhang, C.I. Pearce, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Liu, and M.H. Engelhard, et al. 2019. "Cr(III) adsorption by cluster formation on boehmite nanoplates in highly alkaline solution." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 18:11043-11055. PNNL-SA-143650. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b02693
  • Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, Y. Xiong, B. Cao, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Molecular evidence of a toxic effect on a biofilm and its matrix." Analyst 144, no. 8:2498-2503. PNNL-SA-135366. doi:10.1039/C8AN02512F
  • Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, Y. Xiong, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Molecular evidence of toxic effect on the biofilm and its matrix." The Analyst 144, no. 8:2498-2503. PNNL-SA-135367. doi:10.1039/C8AN02512F
  • Grant J.S., P.M. Richards, C.R. Anderton, Z. Zhu, T.E. Mattes, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Passively Sampled Environmental Films Show Geographic Variability and Host a Variety of Microorganisms." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 12:2726-2735. PNNL-SA-148657. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00234
  • Grant J.S., Z. Zhu, C.R. Anderton, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Chemical and Physical Morphology of Passively Sampled Environmental Films." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry. PNNL-SA-139413. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00158
  • Grant J.S., Z. Zhu, C.R. Anderton, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Physical and Chemical Morphology of Passively Sampled Environmental Films." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3, no. 2:305-313. PNNL-SA-141016. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00158
  • Lee K., B.J. Riley, H. Park, J. Choi, S. Han, J. Hur, and J.A. Peterson, et al. 2019. "Investigation of physical and chemical properties for upgraded SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5) waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt." Journal of Nuclear Materials 515, no. 2019:382-391. PNNL-SA-130870. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.01.004
  • Lim Z., N. Quackenbush, A. Penn, M. Chrysler, M.E. Bowden, Z. Zhu, and J. Ablett, et al. 2019. "Charge Transfer and Built-in Electric Fields between a Crystalline Oxide and Silicon." Physical Review Letters 123, no. 2:Article No.026805. PNNL-SA-138000. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.026805
  • Lim Z., N. Quackenbush, A. Penn, M. Chrysler, M.E. Bowden, Z. Zhu, and J. Ablett, et al. 2019. "Charge Transfer and Built-in Electric Fields Between a Crystalline Oxide and Silicon." Physical Review Letters 123, no. 2:Article Number 026805. PNNL-SA-144010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.026805
  • Mulcahy J.R., S. He, D.S. Jin, W. Guo, S. Arteta, J.B. Cliff, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2019. "Experimental Insights into the Growth of Single Truncated Anatase Bipyramids." Chemistry - A European Journal 25, no. 4:993-996. PNNL-SA-140103. doi:10.1002/chem.201805773
  • Ren X., L. Zou, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, W. Liu, S.D. Burton, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Enabling High-Voltage Lithium-Metal Batteries under Practical Conditions." Joule 3, no. 7:1662-1676. PNNL-SA-140396. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.006
  • Wang J., Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Hua, F. Wang, Y. Long, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Direct Molecular Evidence of Proton Transfer and Mass Dynamics at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10, no. 2:251-258. PNNL-SA-140106. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b03282
  • Yao J., A.D. Guzman, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Imaging Corrosion at the Metal-Paint Interface Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-139971. doi:10.3791/59523
  • Zhang F., X. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Dark air-liquid interfacial chemistry of glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 2, no. 1:Article No. 28. PNNL-SA-146695. doi:10.1038/s41612-019-0085-5
  • Zhang F., X. Yu, X. Sui, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Evolution of aqSOA from the air-liquid interfacial photochemistry of glyoxal and hydroxyl radicals." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 17:10236-10245. PNNL-SA-135488. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b03642
  • Zhang J., Y. Zhang, M. Collin, S. Gin, J.J. Neeway, T. Wang, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Nanoscale Imaging of Hydrogen and Sodium in Alteration Layers of Corroded Glass using ToF-SIMS: Is an Auxiliary Sputtering Ion Beam Necessary?." Surface and Interface Analysis 51, no. 2:219-225. PNNL-SA-133548. doi:10.1002/sia.6571
  • Zhang Y., J. Wang, X. Yu, D.R. Baer, Y. Zhao, L. Mao, and F. Wang, et al. 2019. "Potential-Dynamic Surface Chemistry Controls the Electro-catalytic Processes of Ethanol Oxidation on Gold Surfaces." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 1:215-221. PNNL-SA-139752. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b02019
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  • Edmondson P.D., Y. Zhang, F. Namavar, C.M. Wang, Z. Zhu, and W.J. Weber. 2011. "Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2/SiO2/Si Interfaces." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 269, no. 2:126-132. PNNL-SA-75918. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2010.10.014
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  • Chambers S.A., M.H. Engelhard, V. Shutthanandan, Z. Zhu, T.C. Droubay, L. Qiao, and P.V. Sushko, et al. 2010. "Instability, intermixing and electronic structure at the epitaxial LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunction." Surface Science Reports 65, no. 10-12:317-352. PNNL-SA-73191. doi:10.1016/j.surfrep.2010.09.001
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  • Jiang W., H. Wang, I. Kim, I. Bae, G. Li, P. Nachimuthu, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2009. "Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 80, no. 16:Art. No.161301(R). PNNL-SA-66487. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.80.161301
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  • Li Y., T.C. Kaspar, T.C. Droubay, A.G. Joly, P. Nachimuthu, Z. Zhu, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2008. "A Study of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 104, no. 5:Article no. 053711. PNNL-SA-62192. doi:10.1063/1.2975219
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  • Hadjar O., P. Wang, J.H. Futrell, Y. Dessiaterik, Z. Zhu, J.P. Cowin, and M.J. Iedema, et al. 2007. "Design and Performance of a Novel Instrument for Soft-Landing of Biomolecular Ions on Surfaces." Analytical Chemistry 79, no. 17:6566-6574. PNNL-SA-54579. doi:10.1021/ac070600h
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