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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Zihua Zhu

Interfacial Sciences & Simulation
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Zhu is a world famous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) expert with more than 17 years of experience. He earned his BS (1997) and MS (2000) degrees from Peking University, China. He earned his Ph.D. degree (2006) from Pennsylvania State University, USA. He joined PNNL to be a Research Scientist in 2006. Currently, he is a Senior Chemist in PNNL. He has published over 110 articles in prestigious journals. He is most known as one of the two inventors who developed in situ liquid SIMS.

Research Interests

  • Dr. Zhu’s research focuses on using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to resolve interesting scientific questions in biological, environmental and material fields. In situ liquid SIMS is a unique tool that was developed in Dr. Zhu’s lab. It has been extensively used to molecularly examine liquids and liquid interfaces (e.g., solid-liquid interface). In addition, nanoscale chemical imaging (including elemental, isotopic and molecular imaging) using SIMS has been an important direction in Dr. Zhu’s lab. Moreover, trace elemental depth profiling and molecular depth profiling using SIMS is of great interest in Dr. Zhu’s lab, too.

Education and Credentials

  • PhD, Analytical Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University (2006)
  • MS, Chemistry, Peking University (2000)
  • BS, Chemistry, Peking University (1997)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • American Vacuum Society (AVS)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2015 Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer Awards for Excellence in Technology Transfer (FLC award).
  • 2014 R&D 100 award

PNNL Publications


  • Bonnin E.A., Z. Zhu, J.S. Fehrenbacher, A.D. Russell, B. Honisch, H.J. Spero, and A.C. Gagnon. 2019. "Submicron Sodium Banding in Cultured Planktic Foraminifera Shells." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 253. PNNL-SA-142331. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.024
  • Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, Y. Xiong, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Molecular evidence of toxic effect on the biofilm and its matrix." The Analyst 144, no. 8:2498-2503. PNNL-SA-135367. doi:10.1039/C8AN02512F
  • Grant J.S., Z. Zhu, C.R. Anderton, and S.K. Shaw. 2019. "Chemical and Physical Morphology of Passively Sampled Environmental Films." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry. PNNL-SA-139413. doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00158
  • Lee K., B.J. Riley, H. Park, J. Choi, S. Han, J. Hur, and J.A. Peterson, et al. 2019. "Investigation of physical and chemical properties for upgraded SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5) waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt." Journal of Nuclear Materials 515, no. 2019:382-391. PNNL-SA-130870. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.01.004
  • Mulcahy J.R., S. He, D.S. Jin, W. Guo, S. Arteta, J.B. Cliff, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2019. "Experimental Insights into the Growth of Single Truncated Anatase Bipyramids." Chemistry - A European Journal 25, no. 4:993-996. PNNL-SA-140103. doi:10.1002/chem.201805773
  • Ren X., L. Zou, X. Cao, M.H. Engelhard, W. Liu, S.D. Burton, and H. Lee, et al. 2019. "Enabling High-Voltage Lithium-Metal Batteries under Practical Conditions." Joule 3, no. 7:1662-1676. PNNL-SA-140396. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.05.006
  • Wang J., Y. Zhang, X. Yu, X. Hua, F. Wang, Y. Long, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Direct Molecular Evidence of Proton Transfer and Mass Dynamics at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10, no. 2:251-258. PNNL-SA-140106. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b03282
  • Yao J., A.D. Guzman, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2019. "Imaging Corrosion at the Metal-Paint Interface Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-139971. doi:10.3791/59523
  • Zhang J., Y. Zhang, M. Collin, S. Gin, J.J. Neeway, T. Wang, and Z. Zhu. 2019. "Nanoscale Imaging of Hydrogen and Sodium in Alteration Layers of Corroded Glass using ToF-SIMS: Is an Auxiliary Sputtering Ion Beam Necessary?." Surface and Interface Analysis 51, no. 2:219-225. PNNL-SA-133548. doi:10.1002/sia.6571
  • Zhang Y., J. Wang, X. Yu, D.R. Baer, Y. Zhao, L. Mao, and F. Wang, et al. 2019. "Potential-Dynamic Surface Chemistry Controls the Electro-catalytic Processes of Ethanol Oxidation on Gold Surfaces." ACS Energy Letters 4, no. 1:215-221. PNNL-SA-139752. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.8b02019
  • Zhang Y., W. Zeng, L. Huang, W. Liu, E. Jia, Y. Zhao, and F. Wang, et al. 2019. "In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Surprisingly Soft Ionization Process for Investigation of Halide Ion Hydration." Analytical Chemistry 91, no. 11:7039-7046. PNNL-SA-140384. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.8b05804


  • Chambers S.A., Y. Du, Z. Zhu, J. Wang, M.J. Wahila, L.J. Piper, and A. Prakash, et al. 2018. "Interconversion of intrinsic defects in SrTiO3(001)." Physical Review B 97, no. 24:245204. PNNL-SA-131613. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.245204
  • Fu Y., Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2018. "Does interfacial photochemistry play a role in the photolysis of pyruvic acid in water?." Atmospheric Environment 191. PNNL-SA-137894. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.07.061
  • Luo L., M. Su, P. Yan, L. Zou, D.K. Schreiber, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Atomic Origins of Water-Vapour-Promoted Alloy Oxidation." Nature Materials 17, no. 6:514-518. PNNL-SA-124752. doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0078-5
  • Terban M.W., D. Banerjee, S. Ghose, B.K. Medasani, A.K. Shukla, B.A. Legg, and Y. Zhou, et al. 2018. "Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution." Nanoscale 10, no. 9:4291-4300. PNNL-SA-132466. doi:10.1039/C7NR07949D
  • Yan F., L. Liu, T.R. Walsh, Y. Gong, P.Z. El-Khoury, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2018. "Controlled synthesis of highly-branched plasmonic gold nanoparticles through peptoid engineering." Nature Communications 9. PNNL-SA-118537. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04789-2
  • Yu X., J. Yao, D.B. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, D. Malhotra, and M. Nguyen, et al. 2018. "Mesoscopic Structure Facilitates Rapid CO2 Transport and Reactivity in CO2 Capture Solvents." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 9, no. 19:5765-5771. PNNL-SA-129707. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b02231
  • Zhang J., J. Zhao, W. Jiang, X. Guan, H. Peng, Z. Zhu, and T. Wang. 2018. "Formation of bubbles and blisters in hydrogen ion implanted polycrystalline tungsten." Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 173, no. 11-12:1027-1036. PNNL-SA-138548. doi:10.1080/10420150.2018.1531411
  • Zhang J., W. Jiang, Z. Zhu, L. Shao, L. Price, J. Zhao, and T. Wang. 2018. "Thermal Annealing Behavior of Hydrogen and Surface Topography of H2+ Ion Implanted Tungsten." Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology 55, no. 7:703-708. PNNL-SA-131482. doi:10.1080/00223131.2018.1428126
  • Zhang K.L., G. Li, S.R. Spurgeon, L. Wang, P. Yan, Z. Wang, and M. Gu, et al. 2018. "Creation and Ordering of Oxygen Vacancies at WO3-d and Perovskite Interfaces." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10, no. 20:17480-17486. PNNL-SA-132665. doi:10.1021/acsami.8b03278
  • Zhang Y., M. Su, X. Yu, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, R. Cao, and W. Xu, et al. 2018. "Investigation of Ion-Solvent Interactions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes Using in Situ Liquid SIMS." Analytical Chemistry 90, no. 5:3341-3348. PNNL-SA-131962. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04921


  • Chang Q., P. Rudenko, D. Miller, J. Wen, D. Berman, Y. Zhang, and B.W. Arey, et al. 2017. "Operando Formation Of An Ultra-low Friction Boundary Film From Synthetic Magnesium Silicon Hydroxide Additive." Tribology International 110. PNNL-SA-124211. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2017.02.003
  • Fehrenbacher J.S., A.D. Russell, C.V. Davis, A.C. Gagnon, H.J. Spero, J.B. Cliff, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "Link between light-triggered Mg-banding and chamber formation in the planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei." Nature Communications 8. PNNL-SA-123433. doi:10.1038/ncomms15441
  • Green T., I. Kuznetsov, D.G. Willingham, B.E. Naes, G.C. Eiden, Z. Zhu, and W. Chao, et al. 2017. "Characterization of Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry for actinide Trace Analysis and Nanoscale Isotopic Imaging." Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 32, no. 6:1092-1100. PNNL-SA-123647. doi:10.1039/C7JA00088J
  • Jiang W., J. Zhang, D.J. Edwards, N.R. Overman, Z. Zhu, L. Price, and J. Gigax, et al. 2017. "Nanostructural Evolution and Behavior of H and Li in Ion-Implanted Gamma-LiAlO2." Journal of Nuclear Materials 494. PNNL-SA-124540. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.07.048
  • Jiang W., J. Zhang, L. Kovarik, Z. Zhu, L. Price, J. Gigax, and E. Castanon, et al. 2017. "Irradiation effects and hydrogen behavior in H2+ and He+ implanted gamma-LiAlO2 single crystals." Journal of Nuclear Materials 484. PNNL-SA-114795. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2016.03.014
  • Komorek R.E., W. Wei, X. Yu, E.A. Hill, J. Yao, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "In Situ Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MR1 Biofilms by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-123316. doi:10.3791/55944
  • Riley B.J., J.D. Vienna, S.M. Frank, J.O. Kroll, J.A. Peterson, N.L. Canfield, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "Glass Binder Development for a Glass-Bonded Sodalite Ceramic Waste Form." Journal of Nuclear Materials 489. PNNL-SA-123338. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.03.041
  • Song H., X. Yu, Q. Huang, M. Qiao, T. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, et al. 2017. "Microstructural, Mechanical and Optical Properties Research of a Carbon Ion-irradiated Y2SiO5 Crystal." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 406. PNNL-SA-130400. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2017.01.038
  • Sui X., Y. Zhou, F. Zhang, J. Chen, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "Deciphering the Aqueous Chemistry of Glyoxal Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Molecular Imaging." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19, no. 31:20357-20366. PNNL-SA-118186. doi:10.1039/C7CP02071F
  • Wang C., P. Yan, Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, B.L. Mehdi, and M.I. Nandasiri, et al. 2017. "Multimodal and In-Situ Chemical Imaging of Critical Surfaces and Interfaces in Li Batteries." Journal of Surface Analysis 24, no. 2:141-150. PNNL-SA-125846.
  • Wang J., M.B. Toloczko, K. Kruska, D.K. Schreiber, D.J. Edwards, Z. Zhu, and J. Zhang. 2017. "Carbon Contamination During Ion Irradiation - Accurate Detection and Characterization of its Effect on Microstructure of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels." Scientific Reports 7, no. 1:Article No. 15813. PNNL-SA-129597. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15669-y
  • Wang Z., Y. Zhang, B. Liu, K. Wu, S. Thevuthasan, D.R. Baer, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2017. "In Situ Mass Spectrometric Monitoring Of The Dynamic Electrochemical Process At The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface: A SIMS Approach." Analytical Chemistry 89, no. 1:960-965. PNNL-SA-122793. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04189
  • Yao J., D. Lao, X. Sui, Y. Zhou, S.K. Nune, X. Ma, and T. Troy, et al. 2017. "Two Coexisting Liquid Phases in Switchable Ionic Liquids." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19, no. 34:22627-22623. PNNL-SA-122167. doi:10.1039/C7CP03754F
  • Yao J., Y. Zhou, X. Sui, D. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2017. "Errata: Switchable 1, 8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIM." Surface Science Spectra 24, no. 1:018001. PNNL-SA-124584. doi:10.1116/1.4978877
  • Yu X., J. Yu, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, J.E. Evans, and X. Yu, et al. 2017. "An Investigation of the Beam Damage Effect on In situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 31, no. 23:2035-2042. PNNL-SA-127706. doi:10.1002/rcm.7983
  • Zhang J., J.J. Neeway, Y. Zhang, J.V. Ryan, W. Yuan, T. Wang, and Z. Zhu. 2017. "Nanoscale Imaging of Alteration Layers of Corroded International Simple Glass Particles using ToF-SIMS." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 404. PNNL-SA-122961. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2017.01.053


  • Chen L., D.F. Zhang, P. Lv, J. Zhang, X. Du, W. Yuan, and S. Nan, et al. 2016. "Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses." Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 448. PNNL-SA-119310. doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2016.06.029
  • Ding Y., Y. Zhou, J. Yao, C.J. Szymanski, J.K. Fredrickson, L. Shi, and B. Cao, et al. 2016. "In Situ Molecular Imaging of the Biofilm and Its Matrix." Analytical Chemistry 88, no. 22:11244-11252. PNNL-SA-121602. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03909
  • Hua X., C.J. Szymanski, Z. Wang, Y. Zhou, X. Ma, J. Yu, and J.E. Evans, et al. 2016. "Chemical imaging of molecular changes in a hydrated single cell by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and super-resolution microscopy." Integrative Biology 8, no. 5:579-666. PNNL-SA-110602. doi:10.1039/c5ib00308c
  • Neeway J.J., S.N. Kerisit, J. Liu, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, B.J. Riley, and J.V. Ryan. 2016. "Ion-Exchange Interdiffusion Model with Potential Application to Long-Term Nuclear Waste Glass Performance." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 17:9374-9384. PNNL-SA-116172. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b03681
  • Oudriss A., S. Le Guernic, Z. Wang, B. Osman Hock, J. Bouhattate, E. Conforto, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2016. "Meso-scale anisotropic hydrogen segregation near grain-boundaries in polycrystalline nickel characterized by EBSD/SIMS." Materials Letters 165. PNNL-SA-115815. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2015.12.016
  • Proetto M.T., C.R. Anderton, D. Hu, C.J. Szymanski, Z. Zhu, J.P. Patterson, and J.K. Kammeyer, et al. 2016. "Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy." ACS Nano 10, no. 4:4046-4054. PNNL-SA-106955. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b06477
  • Wang C.M., Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, and D.R. Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24, no. 2:32-39. PNNL-SA-115445.
  • Wang T., X. Du, W. Yuan, B. Duan, J. Zhang, L. Chen, and H. Peng, et al. 2016. "Morphological Study Of Borosilicate Glass Surface Irradiated By Heavy Ions." Surface & Coatings Technology 306, no. Part A:245-250. PNNL-SA-122619. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.06.018
  • Wang Z., J. Liu, Y. Zhou, J.J. Neeway, D.K. Schreiber, J.V. Crum, and J.V. Ryan, et al. 2016. "Nanoscale Imaging of Li and B in Nuclear Waste Glass, a Comparison of ToF-SIMS, NanoSIMS and APT." Surface and Interface Analysis 48, no. 13:1392-1401. PNNL-SA-115059. doi:10.1002/sia.6049
  • Yao J., Y. Zhou, X. Sui, D. Lao, D.J. Heldebrant, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "Switchable 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIMS." Surface Science Spectra 23, no. 1:9-28. PNNL-SA-114576. doi:10.1116/1.4948526
  • Yu J., Y. Zhou, X. Hua, S. Liu, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "Capturing the transient species at the electrode-electrolyte interface by in situ dynamic molecular imaging." Chemical Communications 52, no. 73:10952-10955. PNNL-SA-120282. doi:10.1039/C6CC02893D
  • Yu J., Y. Zhou, X. Hua, Z. Zhu, and X. Yu. 2016. "In Situ Characterization of Hydrated Proteins in Water by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments. PNNL-SA-110334. doi:10.3791/53708
  • Zhai Y., J.S. DuChene, Y. Wang, J. Qiu, A.C. Johnson-Peck, B. You, and W. Guo, et al. 2016. "Polyvinylpyrrolidone-induced anisotropic growth of gold nanoprisms in plasmon-driven synthesis." Nature Materials 15, no. 8:889-896. PNNL-SA-107281. doi:10.1038/nmat4683
  • Zhang K., D. Ding, C. Yang, Y. Gan, S. Li, W. Huang, and Y. Song, et al. 2016. "Real-space Characterization Of Reactivity Towards Water At The Bi2Te3(111) Surface." Physical Review B 93, no. 23:Article No. 235445. PNNL-SA-119439. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.93.235445
  • Zhang L., W. Jiang, A.C. Dissanayake, J. Peng, W. Ai, J. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2016. "Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals." Journal of Applied Physics 119, no. 24:Article No. 245704. PNNL-SA-116750. doi:10.1063/1.4954691
  • Zhang L., W. Jiang, A.C. Dissanayake, T. Varga, J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and D. Hu, et al. 2016. "Grain growth of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC under Au ion irradiation at elevated temperatures." Journal of Physics D. Applied Physics 49, no. 3:035304. PNNL-SA-110626. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/49/3/035304
  • Zhou Y., J. Yao, Y. Ding, J. Yu, X. Hua, J.E. Evans, and X. Yu, et al. 2016. "Improving the Molecular Ion Signal Intensity for In Situ Liquid SIMS Analysis." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 27, no. 12:2006-2013. PNNL-SA-118036. doi:10.1007/s13361-016-1478-x


  • Bradshaw N.P., S.Y. Severt, Z. Wang, C.V. Fengel, J.D. Larson, Z. Zhu, and A. Murphy, et al. 2015. "ToF-SIMS Characterization of Silk Fibroin and Polypyrrole Composite Actuators." Synthetic Metals 209. PNNL-SA-112903. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2015.08.031
  • Choi K., Z. Zhu, X. Sun, E. De Moor, M.D. Taylor, J. Speer, and D.K. Matlock. 2015. "Determination of carbon distributions in quenched and partitioned microstructures using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy." Scripta Materialia 104. PNNL-SA-107815. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.03.027
  • Gin S., P. Jollivet, M. Fournie, C. Berthon, Z. Wang, A.V. Mitroshkov, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2015. "The Fate Of Silicon During Glass Corrosion Under Alkaline Conditions: A Mechanistic And Kinetic Study With The International Simple Glass." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 151. PNNL-SA-105688. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.12.009
  • Hua X., M.J. Marshall, Y. Xiong, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, A.E. Tucker, and Z. Zhu, et al. 2015. "Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry." Biomicrofluidics 9, no. 3:Article No. 031101. PNNL-SA-105631. doi:10.1063/1.4919807
  • Jiang W., H. Jung, L. Kovarik, Z. Wang, T.J. Roosendaal, Z. Zhu, and D.J. Edwards, et al. 2015. "Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide." Journal of Nuclear Materials 458. PNNL-SA-105877. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.12.071
  • Jiang W., H. Jung, L. Kovarik, Z. Wang, T.J. Roosendaal, Z. Zhu, and D.J. Edwards, et al. 2015. "MAGNESIUM PRECIPITATION AND DIFUSSION IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE." In FUSION MATERIALS SEMIANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD ENDING December 31, 2014, edited by PJ Pappano. 85-86. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-107486.
  • Jiang W., J. Zhang, Z. Zhu, T.J. Roosendaal, S.Y. Hu, C.H. Henager, and R.J. Kurtz, et al. 2015. "PROGRESS IN CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES AND DEFECT STRUCTURES IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE." In Fusion Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 2015, edited by G Nardella. 119-122. DOE/ER-0313/58. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-112370.
  • Kuhudzai R.J., J. Malherbe, T.T. Hlatshwayo, N.G. van der Berg, A. Devaraj, Z. Zhu, and M.I. Nandasiri. 2015. "Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC." Journal of Nuclear Materials 467, no. Part 2:582-587. PNNL-SA-114800. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.029
  • Moll S.J., Y. Zhang, A. Debelle, L. Thome, J. Crocombette, Z. Zhu, and J. Jagielski, et al. 2015. "Damage Processes In MgO Irradiated With Medium-energy Heavy Ions." Acta Materialia 88. PNNL-SA-108417. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2015.01.011
  • Shard A.G., R. Havelund, S.J. Spencer, I.S. Gilmore, M.R. Alexander, T.B. Angerer, and S. Aoyagi, et al. 2015. "Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 119, no. 33:10784-10797. PNNL-SA-111761. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b05625
  • Troiano J., L.L. Olenick, T.R. Kuech, E.S. Melby, D. Hu, S.E. Lohse, and A.C. Mensch, et al. 2015. "Direct Probes of 4 nm Diameter Gold Nanoparticles Interacting with Supported Lipid Bylayers." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, no. 1:534-546. PNNL-SA-102945. doi:10.1021/jp512107z
  • Wang Z., B. Liu, E. Zhao, K. Jin, Y. Du, J.J. Neeway, and J.V. Ryan, et al. 2015. "Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 26, no. 8:1283-1290. PNNL-SA-105691. doi:10.1007/s13361-015-1159-1
  • Xiang H., D. Mei, P. Yan, P. Bhattacharya, S.D. Burton, A.V. Cresce, and R. Cao, et al. 2015. "The Role of Cesium Cation in Controlling Interphasial Chemistry on Graphite Anode in Propylene Carbonate-Rich Electrolytes." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7, no. 37:20687-20695. PNNL-SA-110487. doi:10.1021/acsami.5b05552
  • Xue H., H.Y. Xiao, Z. Zhu, V. Shutthanandan, L.L. Snead, L.A. Boatner, and W.J. Weber, et al. 2015. "Ag Out-surface Diffusion In Crystalline SiC With An Effective SiO2 Diffusion Barrier." Journal of Nuclear Materials 464. PNNL-SA-111733. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.05.001
  • Yoon Y., Y. Du, J.C. Garcia, Z. Zhu, Z. Wang, N.G. Petrik, and G.A. Kimmel, et al. 2015. "Anticorrelation between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects and the Impact on the Redox Chemistry of TiO2(110)." ChemPhysChem 16, no. 2:313-321. PNNL-SA-105906. doi:10.1002/cphc.201402599
  • Zhu Z., Y. Zhou, P. Yan, V.S. Vemuri, W. Xu, R. Zhao, and X. Wang, et al. 2015. "In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15, no. 9:6170-6176. PNNL-SA-110748. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02479


  • Crum J.V., V. Maio, J.S. McCloy, C. Scott, B.J. Riley, B. Benefiel, and J.D. Vienna, et al. 2014. "Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment." Journal of Nuclear Materials 444, no. 1-3:481-492. PNNL-SA-95078. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.10.029
  • Fang M., M.H. Engelhard, Z. Zhu, M.L. Helm, and J.A. Roberts. 2014. "Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon." ACS Catalysis 4, no. 1:90-98. PNNL-SA-97777. doi:10.1021/cs400675u
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  • Hadjar O., P. Wang, J.H. Futrell, Y. Dessiaterik, Z. Zhu, J.P. Cowin, and M.J. Iedema, et al. 2007. "Design and Performance of a Novel Instrument for Soft-Landing of Biomolecular Ions on Surfaces." Analytical Chemistry 79, no. 17:6566-6574. PNNL-SA-54579. doi:10.1021/ac070600h
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