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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Zihua Zhu

Interfacial Sciences & Simulation
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Zhu is a world famous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) expert with more than 17 years of experience. He earned his BS (1997) and MS (2000) degrees from Peking University, China. He earned his Ph.D. degree (2006) from Pennsylvania State University, USA. He joined PNNL to be a Research Scientist in 2006. Currently, he is a Senior Chemist in PNNL. He has published over 110 articles in prestigious journals. He is most known as one of the two inventors who developed in situ liquid SIMS.

Research Interests

  • Dr. Zhu’s research focuses on using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to resolve interesting scientific questions in biological, environmental and material fields. In situ liquid SIMS is a unique tool that was developed in Dr. Zhu’s lab. It has been extensively used to molecularly examine liquids and liquid interfaces (e.g., solid-liquid interface). In addition, nanoscale chemical imaging (including elemental, isotopic and molecular imaging) using SIMS has been an important direction in Dr. Zhu’s lab. Moreover, trace elemental depth profiling and molecular depth profiling using SIMS is of great interest in Dr. Zhu’s lab, too.

Education and Credentials

  • PhD, Analytical Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University (2006)
  • MS, Chemistry, Peking University (2000)
  • BS, Chemistry, Peking University (1997)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • American Vacuum Society (AVS)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2015 Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer Awards for Excellence in Technology Transfer (FLC award).
  • 2014 R&D 100 award

PNNL Publications


  • Terban MW, D Banerjee, S Ghose, BK Medasani, AK Shukla, BA Legg, Y Zhou, Z Zhu, ML Sushko, JJ De Yoreo, J Liu, PK Thallapally, and SL Billinge. 2018. "Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution." Nanoscale 10(9):4291-4300.  doi:10.1039/C7NR07949D


  • Komorek RE, W Wei, X Yu, EA Hill, J Yao, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2017. "In Situ Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MR1 Biofilms by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments (126):Article No. e55944.  doi:10.3791/55944
  • Chang Q, P Rudenko, D Miller, J Wen, D Berman, Y Zhang, BW Arey, Z Zhu, and A Erdemir. 2017. "Operando Formation Of An Ultra-low Friction Boundary Film From Synthetic Magnesium Silicon Hydroxide Additive." Tribology International 110:35-40.  doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2017.02.003
  • Fehrenbacher JS, AD Russell, CV Davis, AC Gagnon, HJ Spero, JB Cliff, III, Z Zhu, and P Martin. 2017. "Link between light-triggered Mg-banding and chamber formation in the planktic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei." Nature Communications 8:Article No. 15441.  doi:10.1038/ncomms15441
  • Green T, I Kuznetsov, DG Willingham, BE Naes, GC Eiden, Z Zhu, W Chao, JJ Rocca, CS Menoni, and AM Duffin. 2017. "Characterization of Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry for actinide Trace Analysis and Nanoscale Isotopic Imaging." Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 32(6):1092-1100.  doi:10.1039/C7JA00088J
  • Jiang W, J Zhang, DJ Edwards, NR Overman, Z Zhu, L Price, J Gigax, E Castanon, L Shao, and DJ Senor. 2017. "Nanostructural Evolution and Behavior of H and Li in Ion-Implanted Gamma-LiAlO2." Journal of Nuclear Materials 494:411-421.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.07.048
  • Jiang W, J Zhang, L Kovarik, Z Zhu, L Price, J Gigax, E Castanon, X Wang, L Shao, and DJ Senor. 2017. "Irradiation effects and hydrogen behavior in H2+ and He+ implanted gamma-LiAlO2 single crystals." Journal of Nuclear Materials 484:374-381.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2016.03.014
  • Riley BJ, JD Vienna, SM Frank, JO Kroll, JA Peterson, NL Canfield, Z Zhu, J Zhang, K Kruska, DK Schreiber, and JV Crum. 2017. "Glass Binder Development for a Glass-Bonded Sodalite Ceramic Waste Form." Journal of Nuclear Materials 489:42-63.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.03.041
  • Song HL, XF Yu, Q Huang, M Qiao, TJ Wang, J Zhang, Y Liu, P Liu, Z Zhu, and X Wang. 2017. "Microstructural, Mechanical and Optical Properties Research of a Carbon Ion-irradiated Y2SiO5 Crystal." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 406:618-623.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2017.01.038
  • Sui X, Y Zhou, F Zhang, J Chen, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2017. "Deciphering the Aqueous Chemistry of Glyoxal Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide Using Molecular Imaging." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19(31):20357-20366.  doi:10.1039/C7CP02071F
  • Wang J, MB Toloczko, K Kruska, DK Schreiber, DJ Edwards, Z Zhu, and J Zhang. 2017. "Carbon Contamination During Ion Irradiation - Accurate Detection and Characterization of its Effect on Microstructure of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels." Scientific Reports 7(1):Article No. 15813.  doi:10.1038/s41598-017-15669-y
  • Wang Z, Y Zhang, B Liu, K Wu, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, Z Zhu, XY Yu, and F Wang. 2017. "In Situ Mass Spectrometric Monitoring Of The Dynamic Electrochemical Process At The Electrode-Electrolyte Interface: A SIMS Approach." Analytical Chemistry 89(1):960-965.  doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04189
  • Wei W, Y Zhang, RE Komorek, AE Plymale, R Yu, B Wang, Z Zhu, F Liu, and XY Yu. 2017. "Characterization of Syntrophic Geobacter Communities Using ToF-SIMS." Biointerphases 12(5):05G601.  doi:10.1116/1.4986832
  • Yao J, D Lao, X Sui, Y Zhou, SK Nune, X Ma, T Troy, M Ahmed, Z Zhu, DJ Heldebrant, and XY Yu. 2017. "Two Coexisting Liquid Phases in Switchable Ionic Liquids." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 19(34):22627-22623.  doi:10.1039/C7CP03754F
  • Yao J, Y Zhou, X Sui, D Lao, DJ Heldebrant, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2017. "Errata: Switchable 1, 8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIM." Surface Science Spectra 24(1):018001.  doi:10.1116/1.4978877
  • Yu X, J Yu, Y Zhou, Y Zhang, J Wang, JE Evans, XY Yu, X Wang, and Z Zhu. 2017. "An Investigation of the Beam Damage Effect on In situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Analysis." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 31(23):2035-2042.  doi:10.1002/rcm.7983
  • Zhang J, JJ Neeway, Y Zhang, JV Ryan, W Yuan, T Wang, and Z Zhu. 2017. "Nanoscale Imaging of Alteration Layers of Corroded International Simple Glass Particles using ToF-SIMS." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 404:45-51.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2017.01.053
  • Zheng J, P Yan, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, Z Zhu, B Polzin, S Trask, J Xiao, C Wang, and J Zhang. 2017. "Suppressed Oxygen Extraction and Degradation of LiNi x Mn y Co z O2 Cathodes at High Charge Cut-off Voltages." Nano Research 10(12):4221-4231.  doi:10.1007/s12274-017-1761-6


  • Wang CM, Z Zhu, MH Engelhard, A Devaraj, and DR Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24(2):32-39. 
  • Branson O, EAA Bonnin, DE Perea, HJ Spero, Z Zhu, MA Winters, B Honisch, AD Russell, JS Fehrenbacher, and AC Gagnon. 2016. "Nanometer-Scale Chemistry of a Calcite Biomineralization Template: Implications for Skeletal Composition and Nucleation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(46):12934-12939.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1522864113
  • Chen L, DF Zhang, P Lv, J Zhang, X Du, W Yuan, S Nan, Z Zhu, and T Wang. 2016. "Evolutions of Molecular Oxygen Formation and Sodium Migration in Xe Ion Irradiated Borosilicate Glasses." Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 448:6-10.  doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2016.06.029
  • Ding Y, Y Zhou, J Yao, CJ Szymanski, JK Fredrickson, L Shi, B Cao, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2016. "In Situ Molecular Imaging of the Biofilm and Its Matrix." Analytical Chemistry 88(22):11244-11252.  doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03909
  • Hua X, CJ Szymanski, Z Wang, Y Zhou, X Ma, J Yu, JE Evans, G Orr, S Liu, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2016. "Chemical imaging of molecular changes in a hydrated single cell by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry and super-resolution microscopy." Integrative Biology 8(5):579-666.  doi:10.1039/c5ib00308c
  • Neeway JJ, SN Kerisit, J Liu, J Zhang, Z Zhu, BJ Riley, and JV Ryan. 2016. "Ion-Exchange Interdiffusion Model with Potential Application to Long-Term Nuclear Waste Glass Performance." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120(17):9374-9384.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b03681
  • Oudriss A, S Le Guernic, Z Wang, B Osman Hock, J Bouhattate, E Conforto, Z Zhu, D Li, and X Feaugas. 2016. "Meso-scale anisotropic hydrogen segregation near grain-boundaries in polycrystalline nickel characterized by EBSD/SIMS." Materials Letters 165:217-222.  doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2015.12.016
  • Proetto MT, CR Anderton, D Hu, CJ Szymanski, Z Zhu, JP Patterson, JK Kammeyer, LG Nilewski, AM Rush, NC Bell, JE Evans, G Orr, SB Howell, and NC Gianneschi. 2016. "Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy." ACS Nano 10(4):4046-4054.  doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b06477
  • Renslow RS, SR Lindemann, JK Cole, Z Zhu, and CR Anderton. 2016. "Quantifying element incorporation in multispecies biofilms using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry image analysis." Biointerphases 11(2):02A322.  doi:10.1116/1.4941764
  • Wang T, X Du, W Yuan, B Duan, J Zhang, L Chen, H Peng, D Yang, G Zhang, and Z Zhu. 2016. "Morphological Study Of Borosilicate Glass Surface Irradiated By Heavy Ions." Surface & Coatings Technology 306(Part A):245-250.  doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.06.018
  • Wang Z, J Liu, Y Zhou, JJ Neeway, DK Schreiber, JV Crum, JV Ryan, X Wang, F Wang, and Z Zhu. 2016. "Nanoscale Imaging of Li and B in Nuclear Waste Glass, a Comparison of ToF-SIMS, NanoSIMS and APT." Surface and Interface Analysis 48(13):1392-1401.  doi:10.1002/sia.6049
  • Yao J, Y Zhou, X Sui, D Lao, DJ Heldebrant, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2016. "Switchable 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIMS." Surface Science Spectra 23(1):9-28.  doi:10.1116/1.4948526
  • Yu J, Y Zhou, X Hua, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2016. "In Situ Characterization of Hydrated Proteins in Water by SALVI and ToF-SIMS." Journal of Visualized Experiments (108):Video No. e53708.  doi:10.3791/53708
  • Yu J, Y Zhou, X Hua, S Liu, Z Zhu, and XY Yu. 2016. "Capturing the transient species at the electrode-electrolyte interface by in situ dynamic molecular imaging." Chemical Communications 52(73):10952-10955.  doi:10.1039/C6CC02893D
  • Zhai Y, JS DuChene, YC Wang, J Qiu, AC Johnson-Peck, B You, W Guo, B DiCiaccio, K Qian, E Zhao, F Ooi, D Hu, D Su, EA Stach, Z Zhu, and WD Wei. 2016. "Polyvinylpyrrolidone-induced anisotropic growth of gold nanoprisms in plasmon-driven synthesis." Nature Materials 15(8):889-896.  doi:10.1038/nmat4683
  • Zhang KW, D Ding, CL Yang, Y Gan, S Li, WK Huang, YH Song, ZY Jia, XB Li, Z Zhu, J Wen, M Chen, and SC Li. 2016. "Real-space Characterization Of Reactivity Towards Water At The Bi2Te3(111) Surface." Physical Review B 93(23):Article No. 235445.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.93.235445
  • Zhang L, W Jiang, AC Dissanayake, T Varga, J Zhang, Z Zhu, D Hu, H Wang, CH Henager, Jr, and T Wang. 2016. "Grain growth of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC under Au ion irradiation at elevated temperatures." Journal of Physics D. Applied Physics 49(3):035304.  doi:10.1088/0022-3727/49/3/035304
  • Zhang L, W Jiang, AC Dissanayake, J Peng, W Ai, J Zhang, Z Zhu, T Wang, and V Shutthanandan. 2016. "Lattice damage and compositional changes in Xe ion irradiated InxGa1-xN (x = 0.32-1.0) single crystals." Journal of Applied Physics 119(24):Article No. 245704.  doi:10.1063/1.4954691
  • Zhou Y, J Yao, Y Ding, J Yu, X Hua, JE Evans, X Yu, D Lao, DJ Heldebrant, SK Nune, B Cao, ME Bowden, XY Yu, X Wang, and Z Zhu. 2016. "Improving the Molecular Ion Signal Intensity for In Situ Liquid SIMS Analysis." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 27(12):2006-2013.  doi:10.1007/s13361-016-1478-x


  • Moll SJ, Y Zhang, A Debelle, L Thome, JP Crocombette, Z Zhu, J Jagielski, and WJ Weber. 2015. "Damage Processes In MgO Irradiated With Medium-energy Heavy Ions." Acta Materialia 88:314-322.  doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2015.01.011
  • Bradshaw NP, SY Severt, Z Wang, CV Fengel, JD Larson, Z Zhu, A Murphy, and JM Leger. 2015. "ToF-SIMS Characterization of Silk Fibroin and Polypyrrole Composite Actuators." Synthetic Metals 209:490-495.  doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2015.08.031
  • Choi KS, Z Zhu, X Sun, E De Moor, MD Taylor, J Speer, and DK Matlock. 2015. "Determination of carbon distributions in quenched and partitioned microstructures using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy." Scripta Materialia 104:79-82.  doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2015.03.027
  • Gin S, P Jollivet, M Fournie, C Berthon, Z Wang, AV Mitroshkov, Z Zhu, and JV Ryan. 2015. "The Fate Of Silicon During Glass Corrosion Under Alkaline Conditions: A Mechanistic And Kinetic Study With The International Simple Glass." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 151:68-85.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.12.009
  • Hua X, MJ Marshall, Y Xiong, X Ma, Y Zhou, AE Tucker, Z Zhu, S Liu, and XY Yu. 2015. "Two-dimensional and three-dimensional dynamic imaging of live biofilms in a microchannel by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry." Biomicrofluidics 9(3):Article No. 031101.  doi:10.1063/1.4919807
  • Jiang W, HJ Jung, L Kovarik, Z Wang, TJ Roosendaal, Z Zhu, DJ Edwards, SY Hu, CH Henager, Jr, RJ Kurtz, and Y Wang. 2015. "Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide." Journal of Nuclear Materials 458:146-155.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.12.071
  • Jiang W, HJ Jung, L Kovarik, Z Wang, TJ Roosendaal, Z Zhu, DJ Edwards, SY Hu, CH Henager, Jr, RJ Kurtz, and Y Wang. 2015. "MAGNESIUM PRECIPITATION AND DIFUSSION IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE." Chapter 3.3 in FUSION MATERIALS SEMIANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD ENDING December 31, 2014, vol. DOE-ER-0313/57, ed. PJ Pappano, pp. 85-86.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Jiang W, J Zhang, Z Zhu, TJ Roosendaal, SY Hu, CH Henager, Jr, RJ Kurtz, and Y Wang. 2015. "PROGRESS IN CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES AND DEFECT STRUCTURES IN Mg+ ION IMPLANTED CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE ." Chapter 3.3 in Fusion Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 2015, vol. 58, ed. G Nardella, pp. 119-122. DOE/ER-0313/58.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Kuhudzai RJ, J Malherbe, TT Hlatshwayo, NG van der Berg, A Devaraj, Z Zhu, and MI Nandasiri. 2015. "Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC." Journal of Nuclear Materials 467(Part 2):582-587.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.029
  • Shard AG, R Havelund, SJ Spencer, IS Gilmore, MR Alexander, TB Angerer, S Aoyagi, JP Barnes, A Benayad, A Bernasik, G Ceccone, JD Counsell, C Deeks, JS Fletcher, DJ Graham, C Heuser, TG Lee, C Marie, MM Marzec, G Mishra, D Rading, O Renault, DJ Scurr, HK Shon, V Spampinato, H Tian, F Wang, N Winograd, K Wu, A Wucher, Y Zhou, and Z Zhu. 2015. "Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 119(33):10784-10797.  doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b05625
  • Troiano J, LL Olenick, TR Kuech, ES Melby, D Hu, SE Lohse, AC Mensch, M Dogangun, AM Vartanian, M Torelli, E Ehimiaghe, SR Walter, L Fu, CR Anderton, Z Zhu, H Wang, G Orr, C Murphy, RJ Hamers, JA Pedersen, and FM Geiger. 2015. "Direct Probes of 4 nm Diameter Gold Nanoparticles Interacting with Supported Lipid Bylayers." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119(1):534-546.  doi:10.1021/jp512107z
  • Wang Z, B Liu, E Zhao, K Jin, Y Du, JJ Neeway, JV Ryan, D Hu, H Zhang, M Hong, S Le Guernic, S Thevuthasan, F Wang, and Z Zhu. 2015. "Argon Cluster Sputtering Source for ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Insulating Materials: High Sputter Rate and Accurate Interfacial Information." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 26(8):1283-1290.  doi:10.1007/s13361-015-1159-1
  • Xiang H, D Mei, P Yan, P Bhattacharya, SD Burton, AV Cresce, R Cao, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, Z Zhu, B Polzin, CM Wang, K Xu, J Zhang, and W Xu. 2015. "The Role of Cesium Cation in Controlling Interphasial Chemistry on Graphite Anode in Propylene Carbonate-Rich Electrolytes." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7(37):20687-20695.  doi:10.1021/acsami.5b05552
  • Xue H, HY Xiao, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, LL Snead, LA Boatner, WJ Weber, and Y Zhang. 2015. "Ag Out-surface Diffusion In Crystalline SiC With An Effective SiO2 Diffusion Barrier." Journal of Nuclear Materials 464:294-298.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.05.001
  • Yoon Y, Y Du, JC Garcia, Z Zhu, Z Wang, NG Petrik, GA Kimmel, Z Dohnalek, MA Henderson, RJ Rousseau, NA Deskins, and I Lyubinetsky. 2015. "Anticorrelation between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects and the Impact on the Redox Chemistry of TiO2(110)." Chemphyschem 16(2):313-321.  doi:10.1002/cphc.201402599
  • Zhu Z, Y Zhou, P Yan, VRS Vemuri, W Xu, R Zhao, X Wang, S Thevuthasan, DR Baer, and CM Wang. 2015. "In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries." Nano Letters 15(9):6170-6176.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02479


  • Liu B, XY Yu, Z Zhu, X Hua, L Yang, and Z Wang. 2014. "In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS." Lab on a Chip 14(5):855-859.  doi:10.1039/C3LC50971K
  • Crum JV, V Maio, JS McCloy, C Scott, BJ Riley, B Benefiel, JD Vienna, K Archibald, CP Rodriguez, V Rutledge, Z Zhu, JV Ryan, and MJ Olszta. 2014. "Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment." Journal of Nuclear Materials 444(1-3):481-492.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.10.029
  • Fang M, MH Engelhard, Z Zhu, ML Helm, and JA Roberts. 2014. "Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon." ACS Catalysis 4(1):90-98.  doi:10.1021/cs400675u
  • Hua X, XY Yu, Z Wang, L Yang, B Liu, Z Zhu, AE Tucker, WB Chrisler, EA Hill, S Thevuthasan, Y Lin, S Liu, and MJ Marshall. 2014. "In situ molecular imaging of hydrated biofilm in a microfluidic reactor by ToF-SIMS." Analyst 139:1609-1613.  doi:10.1039/C3AN02262E
  • Jiang W, DJ Edwards, HJ Jung, Z Wang, Z Zhu, TJ Roosendaal, SY Hu, CH Henager, Jr, RJ Kurtz, and Y Wang. 2014. "DIFFUSION OF MAGNESIUM AND MICROSTRUCTURES IN Mg+ IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE." Chapter 3 in Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 2014, vol. 56; DOE-ER-0313/56, pp. 103-108.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Jiang W, L Kovarik, Z Zhu, T Varga, MH Engelhard, ME Bowden, TM Nenoff, and T Garino. 2014. "Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118(31):18160-18169.  doi:10.1021/jp5045223
  • Jin K, Y Zhang, Z Zhu, DA Grove, H Xue, J Xue, and WJ Weber. 2014. "Electronic Stopping Powers For Heavy Ions In SiC And SiO2." Journal of Applied Physics 115(4):Article No. 044903.  doi:10.1063/1.4861642
  • Jin K, Z Zhu, S Manandhar, J Liu, CH Chen, V Shutthanandan, S Thevuthasan, WJ Weber, and Y Zhang. 2014. "Angular Distribution and Recoil Effect for 1 MeV Au+ Ions through a Si3N4 Thin Foil ." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 332:346-350.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.093
  • Neeway JJ, SN Kerisit, S Gin, Z Wang, Z Zhu, and JV Ryan. 2014. "Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses." Journal of Non-crystalline Solids 405:83-90.  doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2014.08.053
  • Wang YC, DK Schreiber, JJ Neeway, S Thevuthasan, JE Evans, JV Ryan, Z Zhu, and W Wei. 2014. "NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater." Surface and Interface Analysis 46(S1):233-237.  doi:10.1002/sia.5585
  • Wang Z, K Jin, Y Zhang, F Wang, and Z Zhu. 2014. "ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?" Surface and Interface Analysis 46(S1):257-260.  doi:10.1002/sia.5419
  • Whitman TL, Z Zhu, and JC Lehmann. 2014. "Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon." Environmental Science & Technology 48(23):13727-13734.  doi:10.1021/es503331y
  • Yang L, Z Zhu, XY Yu, G Rodek, LV Saraf, S Thevuthasan, and JP Cowin. 2014. "In situ SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis of IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles at aqueous surfaces." Surface and Interface Analysis 46(4):224-228.  doi:10.1002/sia.5252
  • Zheng J, M Gu, A Genc, J Xiao, P Xu, X Chen, Z Zhu, W Zhao, L Pullan, CM Wang, and J Zhang. 2014. "Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution." Nano Letters 14(5):2628-2635.  doi:10.1021/nl500486y


  • Moll SJ, Y Zhang, Z Zhu, PD Edmondson, F Namavar, and WJ Weber. 2013. "Comparison Between Simulated And Experimental Au-ion Profiles Implanted in nanocrystalline ceria." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 307:93-97.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2012.12.119
  • Jensen DS, SS Kanyal, N Madaan, JM Hancock, A Dadson, MA Vail, R Vanfleet, V Shutthanandan, Z Zhu, MH Engelhard, and MR Linford. 2013. "Multi-Instrument Characterization of the Surfaces and Materials in Microfabricated, Carbon Nanotube-Templated Thin Layer Chromatography Plates. An Analogy to ‘The Blind Men and the Elephant’." Surface Interface Analysis 45(8):1273-1282.  doi:10.1002/sia.5268
  • Jiang W, Z Zhu, T Varga, ME Bowden, S Manandhar, TJ Roosendaal, SY Hu, CH Henager, Jr, RJ Kurtz, and Y Wang. 2013. "PROPERTIES OF DEFECTS AND IMPLANTS IN Mg+ IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE ." Chapter 3.2 in Fusion Reactor Materials Semiannual Progress Report for the Period Ending June 30, 2013. DOE/ER-0313/54, vol. 54, ed. Peter J. Pappano, pp. 70-75.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Jin K, Y Zhang, H Xue, Z Zhu, and WJ Weber. 2013. "Ion Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In Silicon Carbide." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 307:65-70.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2013.02.051
  • Shoji TD, Z Zhu, and JM Leger. 2013. "Characterizing Ion Profiles in Dynamic Junction Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 5(22):11509-11514.  doi:10.1021/am403805j
  • Yang L, Z Zhu, XY Yu, S Thevuthasan, and JP Cowin. 2013. "Performance of a Microfluidic Device for In Situ ToF-SIMS Analysis of Selected Organic Molecules at Aqueous Surfaces." Analytical Methods 5(10):2515-2522.  doi:10.1039/c3ay26513g


  • Zhu Z, and V Shutthanandan. 2012. "Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry?" Surface and Interface Analysis 44(1):89-93.  doi:10.1002/sia.3776
  • Zhu Z, V Shutthanandan, and MH Engelhard. 2012. "An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS." Surface and Interface Analysis 44(2):232-237.  doi:10.1002/sia.3826
  • Chang Y, Y Zhang, Z Zhu, PD Edmondson, and WJ Weber. 2012. "MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 286:173-179.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2012.01.017
  • Chen R, H Wagner, A Dastgheib-Shirazi, M Kessler, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, PP Altermatt, and ST Dunham. 2012. "A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si." Journal of Applied Physics 112(12):Article No.124912.  doi:10.1063/1.4771672
  • Hackett GA, KR Gerdes, X Song, Y Chen, V Shutthanandan, MH Engelhard, Z Zhu, S Thevuthasan, and R Gemmen. 2012. "Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process." Journal of Power Sources 214:142-152.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.04.050
  • Jiang W, ME Bowden, Z Zhu, PA Jozwik, J Jagielski, and A Stonert. 2012. "Defects and Minor Phases in O+ and Zr+ Ion Co-implanted SrTiO3." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 51(2):621-628.  doi:10.1021/ie200267n
  • Lan C, J Xue, Y Zhang, JR Morris, Z Zhu, Y Gao, Y Wang, S Yan, and WJ Weber. 2012. "Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 286:45-50.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2012.01.020
  • Shutthanandan V, Z Zhu, ML Stutzman, F Hannon, C Hernandez-Garcia, MI Nandasiri, SVNT Kuchibhatla, S Thevuthasan, and WP Hess. 2012. "Surface Science Analysis of GaAs Photocathodes Following Sustained Electron Beam Delivery." Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 15(6):063501.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.063501
  • Toshner SB, Z Zhu, IV Kosilkin, and JM Leger. 2012. "Characterization of Ion Profiles in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 4(3):1149-1153. 
  • Xue H, Y Zhang, Z Zhu, W Zhang, IT Bae, and WJ Weber. 2012. "Damage Profiles and Ion Distribution in Pt-irradiated SiC." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 286:114-118.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2012.02.014


  • Qiao L, TC Droubay, T Varga, ME Bowden, V Shutthanandan, Z Zhu, TC Kaspar, and SA Chambers. 2011. "Epitaxial growth, structure and intermixing at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface as the film stoichiometry is varied." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 83(8):085408.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.83.085408
  • Vasko SE, A Kapetanovic, V Talla, MD Brasino, Z Zhu, A Scholl, JD Torrey, and M Rolandi. 2011. "Serial and parallel Si, Ge, and SiGe direct-write with scanning probes and conducting stamps." Nano Letters 11(6):2386-2389.  doi:10.1021/nl200742x
  • Edmondson PD, Y Zhang, F Namavar, CM Wang, Z Zhu, and WJ Weber. 2011. "Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2/SiO2/Si Interfaces ." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 269(2):126-132.  doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2010.10.014
  • Jensen DS, V Gupta, RE Olsen, AT Miller, RC Davis, D Ess, Z Zhu, MA Vail, A Dadson, and MR Linford. 2011. "Functionalization/passivation of porous graphitic carbon with di-tert-amylperoxide." Journal of Chromatography A 1218(46):8362-8369.  doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.09.041
  • Kouzes RT, Z Zhu, and MH Engelhard. 2011. Germanium-76 Sample Analysis: Revision 3PNNL-20368 Revision 3, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Kouzes RT, and Z Zhu. 2011. NID Copper Sample AnalysisPNNL-20373, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Kouzes RT, and Z Zhu. 2011. NID Copper Sample AnalysisPNNL-20373 Revision 1, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Kouzes RT, MH Engelhard, and Z Zhu. 2011. Germanium-76 Sample AnalysisPNNL-20368, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Liu Y, B Minofar, Y Desyaterik, EE Dames, Z Zhu, JP Cain, RJ Hopkins, MK Gilles, H Wang, P Jungwirth, and A Laskin. 2011. "Internal Structure, Hygroscopic and Reactive Properties of Mixed Sodium Methanesulfonate-Sodium Chloride Particles." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(25):11846-11857.  doi:10.1039/c1cp20444k
  • Look D, TC Droubay, JS McCloy, Z Zhu, and SA Chambers. 2011. "Ga-doped ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition in H2: the roles of Ga and H." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 29(3):Article No.: 03A102.  doi:10.1116/1.3523296
  • Yang L, XY Yu, Z Zhu, MJ Iedema, and JP Cowin. 2011. "Probing Liquid Surfaces under Vacuum Using SEM and TOF-SIMS." Lab on a Chip 11(15):2481-2484.  doi:10.1039/C0LC00676A
  • Yang L, XY Yu, Z Zhu, S Thevuthasan, and JP Cowin. 2011. "Making a Hybrid Microfluidic Platform Compatible for In Situ Imaging by Vacuum-Based Techniques." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 29(6):Article No. 061101.  doi:10.1116/1.3654147
  • Yu XY, L Yang, Z Zhu, JP Cowin, and MJ Iedema. 2011. "Probing Aqueous Surfaces by ToF-SIMS." LCGC North America (Oct 2011/Supplement S):34-38. 


  • Qiao L, TC Droubay, V Shutthanandan, Z Zhu, PV Sushko, and SA Chambers. 2010. "Thermodynamic Instability at the Stoichiometric LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) Interface." Journal of Physics. Condensed matter 22(31):Art. No. 312201.  doi:10.1088/0953-8984/22/31/312201
  • Zhu Z, V Shutthanandan, and P Nachimuthu. 2010. "Using C60? Sputtering to Improve Detection Limit of Nitrogen in Zinc Oxide." Surface and Interface Analysis 43(1-2):661-663.  doi:10.1002/sia.3414
  • Chambers SA, MH Engelhard, V Shutthanandan, Z Zhu, TC Droubay, L Qiao, PV Sushko, T Feng, HD Lee, T Gustafsson, E Garfunkel, AB Shah, JM Zuo, and QM Ramasse. 2010. "Instability, intermixing and electronic structure at the epitaxial LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunction." Surface Science Reports 65(10-12):317-352.  doi:10.1016/j.surfrep.2010.09.001
  • Finsterbusch M, A Lussier, E Negusse, Z Zhu, RJ Smith, JA Schaefer, and YU Idzerda. 2010. "Effect of Cr2O3 on the O-18 Tracer Incorporation in SOFC Materials." Solid State Ionics 181(13-14):640-645.  doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2010.03.007
  • Mcintire TM, O Ryder, PL Gassman, Z Zhu, S Ghosal, and BJ Finlayson-Pitts. 2010. "Why Ozonolysis May Not Increase the Hydrophilicity of Particles." Atmospheric Environment 44(7):939-944.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.009
  • Saraf LV, DR Baer, AS Lea, Z Zhu, JJ Strohm, SD Sitzman, and DL King. 2010. "Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(4):B463-B469.  doi:10.1149/1.3298442
  • Torrey JD, SE Vasko, A Kapetanovic, Z Zhu, A Scholl, and M Rolandi. 2010. "Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures." Advanced Materials 22(41):4639-4642.  doi:10.1002/adma.201001987
  • Zhang Y, M Ishimaru, J Jagielski, W Zhang, Z Zhu, LV Saraf, W Jiang, L Thome, and WJ Weber. 2010. "Damage and Microstructure Evolution in GaN under Au Ion Irradiation." Journal of Physics D. Applied Physics 43(8):085303.  doi:10.1088/0022-3727/43/8/085303
  • Zhang Y, W Jiang, CM Wang, F Namavar, PD Edmondson, Z Zhu, F Gao, J Lian, and WJ Weber. 2010. "Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 82(18):184105:1-7.  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.82.184105
  • Zhou XD, JW Templeton, Z Zhu, YS Chou, GD Maupin, Z Lu, RK Brow, and JW Stevenson. 2010. "Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: III. Role of volatile boron species on LSM/YSZ and LSCF." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(7):B1019-B1023.  doi:10.1149/1.3397854


  • Zhu Z, P Nachimuthu, and AS Lea. 2009. "Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study of C60n? Ions and Traditional Cs? and O2? Ions." Analytical Chemistry 81(20):8272-8279.  doi:10.1021/ac900553z
  • Zhu Z, V Shutthanandan, Y Li, and SA Chambers. 2009. "Quantitative Determination of Deuterium Atom Concentration in Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry." In Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 20th International Conference . AIP Conference Proceedings , vol. 1099, pp. 343-346.  American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY.  doi:10.1063/1.3120047
  • Jiang W, H Wang, I Kim, IT Bae, G Li, P Nachimuthu, Z Zhu, Y Zhang, and WJ Weber. 2009. "Response of Nanocrystalline 3C Silicon Carbide to Heavy-Ion Irradiation." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter 80(16):Art. No.161301(R).  doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.80.161301
  • Saraf LV, Z Zhu, CM Wang, and MH Engelhard. 2009. "Microstructure and Secondary Phase Segregation Correlation in Epitaxial/Oriented ZnO Films with Unfavorable Cr Dopant." Journal of Materials Research 24(2):506-515. 
  • Zhang Y, IT Bae, K Sun, CM Wang, M Ishimaru, Z Zhu, W Jiang, and WJ Weber. 2009. "Damage Profile and Ion Distribution of Slow Heavy Ions in Compounds." Journal of Applied Physics 105(10):104901:1-12.  doi:10.1063/1.3118582
  • Zhang Y, J Lian, Z Zhu, WD Bennett, LV Saraf, JL Rausch, CA Hendricks, RC Ewing, and WJ Weber. 2009. "Response of Strontium Titanate to Ion and Electron Irradiation." Journal of Nuclear Materials 389(2):303-310.  doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2009.02.014


  • Li Y, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, AG Joly, P Nachimuthu, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, and SA Chambers. 2008. "A Study of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition." Journal of Applied Physics 104(5):Article no. 053711.  doi:10.1063/1.2975219
  • Li Y, TC Kaspar, TC Droubay, Z Zhu, V Shutthanandan, P Nachimuthu, and SA Chambers. 2008. "Electronic properties of H and D doped ZnO epitaxial films." Applied Physics Letters 92(15):Art. No. 152105. 


  • Hadjar O, P Wang, JH Futrell, Y Dessiaterik, Z Zhu, JP Cowin, MJ Iedema, and J Laskin. 2007. "Design and Performance of a Novel Instrument for Soft-Landing of Biomolecular Ions on Surfaces." Analytical Chemistry 79(17):6566-6574.  doi:10.1021/ac070600h
  • Marina OA, LR Pederson, DJ Edwards, CA Coyle, JW Templeton, MH Engelhard, and Z Zhu. 2007. "Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation." ECS Transactions 11(33):63-70. 

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