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Staff information


Arun Devaraj

Materials Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-93
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Arun Devaraj is a Material scientist in the Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate. His research focus is in microstructure-property relationship of metallic alloys, oxides and composite materials. Dr. Devaraj has extensive experience specifically in applying atom probe tomography (APT) for material characterization, in addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) and in-situ high energy x-ray diffraction (HEXRD) at beamlines of various DOE synchrotron facilities.

Specifically Dr. Devaraj is interested in microstructure evolution in metallic alloys used in various structural applications ranging from automotive applications, nuclear materials and other energy related applications. He is also additionally focused on nanoscale characterization of Li/Na ion battery materials, catalysts, high strength natural biomaterials.

Research Interests

  • Structure-property relationship of metallic alloys: Microstructural evolution, Thermodynamics and kinetics of Phase transformation, grain boundary segregation, precipitation, room temperature and elevated temperature mechanical property-microstructure correlation in bulk, surface and joints of materials, Influence of processing by thermo-mechanical treatments on microstructure, understanding effect of ion and neutron irradiation on material microstructure, correlating experimental results with atomic scale computational results from VASP DFT, or MD, montecarlo methods or FEM based theoretical calculations.
  • Atom Probe Tomography: Application of APT for metallic alloys systems, pushing boundaries of application of APT especially for analyzing nanoscale composition of complex oxides, nanoparticles and porous materials used for variety of energy and environmental applications, APT-TEM- level set or FEM APT simulation correlation for understanding and correcting for aberrations in atom probe tomography reconstructions for complex materials. Development of APT for analysis of hard biological materials like teeth of different animals.
  • Multimodal chemical imaging of energy materials by correlating APT analysis with variety of other characterization techniques including TEM, XAS, XRD, NMR and XPS.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Material science and engineering, University of North Texas, 2011
  • B. Tech, Metallurgical engineering and Material Science, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, 2005

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • TMS
  • MSA
  • IFES
  • MRS
  • AVS

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2016: Featured in PNNL director Steve Ashby's Column in Tri-City Herald titled "Making better 'stuff' at PNNL."
  • 2016, 2015: Elected as leader for the Microscopy Society of America Atom Probe Tomography Focused Interest Group (MSA APT FIG).
  • 2015: Featured in a news article titled “People behind science” in the local newspaper, Tri-City Herald, as an upcoming young researcher in PNNL.
  • 2016, 2015, 2014: Lead organizer of Atom Probe Tomography focus topic symposium at 61st American Vacuum Society National Meeting.
  • 2015, 2014: People’s choice winner of Science as Art 2014 and 2015 contest, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • 2014: Selected to represent lightweight vehicles materials research from EMSL at National User Facility Organization (NUFO) congressional science expo, June 10, Rayburn Building, Washington DC.
  • 2013: EMSL Director's award for creativity in research.
  • 2013: Scientist and Engineer Development Program, PNNL (2013-2015)
  • 2013: Elected as leader-elect officer for the Microscopy Society of America Atom Probe Tomography Focused Interest Group (MSA APT FIG).
  • 2011: Outstanding Leadership and Service Award by Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas
  • 2010: Outstanding International Graduate student award by Robert Toulouse Graduate School, University of North Texas.
  • 2008-2011: Elected Graduate Student Representativefor the Department of material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas.
  • 2008-2011: Elected President of Materials Advantage Chapter of University of North Texas
  • 2006: Highest performance rating of “Benchmark to Employee performance” in the annual employee performance review in Essar Steel Ltd

PNNL Publications


  • Devaraj A., W. Wang, V.R. Vemuri, L. Kovarik, X. Jiang, M.E. Bowden, and J.R. Trelewicz, et al. 2019. "Grain Boundary Segregation and Intermetallic Precipitation in Coarsening Resistant Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys." Acta Materialia 165. PNNL-SA-135423. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2018.09.038
  • El-Atwani O., N. Li, M. Li, A. Devaraj, J.K. Baldwin, M.M. Schneider, and D. Sobieraj, et al. 2019. "Outstanding Radiation Resistance of Tungsten-based High Entropy Alloys." Science Advances 5, no. 3:Article No. eaav2002. PNNL-SA-137124. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2002
  • Kovarik L., A. Devaraj, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2019. "Crystallographic and Compositional Analysis of impurity phase: U2MoSi2C in UMo Alloys." Journal of Nuclear Materials 519. PNNL-SA-140234. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.03.044
  • Murugesan V., M.J. Gray, M.F. Guo, H.M. Job, L. Kovarik, A. Devaraj, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2019. "Thermally Activated Nucleation and Growth of Cobalt and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on Porous Silica." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 37, no. 3:Article No. 031101. PNNL-SA-121414. doi:10.1116/1.5080448


  • Devaraj A., and P. Eisenlohr. 2018. "Atom probe tomography and correlative microscopy: 3D nanoscale characterization of metals, minerals and materials." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 9:1723-1724. PNNL-SA-136981. doi:10.1007/s11837-018-3007-9
  • Devaraj A., D.E. Perea, J. Liu, L.M. Gordon, T.J. Prosa, P.A. Parikh, and D.R. Diercks, et al. 2018. "Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography." International Materials Reviews 63, no. 2:68-101. PNNL-SA-117399. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728
  • Devaraj A., E.J. Kautz, L. Kovarik, S. Jana, N.R. Overman, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2018. "Phase transformation of metastable discontinuous precipitation products to equilibrium phases in U10Mo alloys." Scripta Materialia 156. PNNL-SA-134393. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.07.010
  • Devaraj A., L. Kovarik, E.J. Kautz, B.W. Arey, S. Jana, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2018. "Grain Boundary Engineering to Control the Discontinuous Precipitation in Multicomponent U10Mo Alloy." Acta Materialia 151. PNNL-SA-129167. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2018.03.039
  • Ishida T., E. Wakai, M. Hagiwara, S. Makimura, M. Tada, D.M. Asner, and A.M. Casella, et al. 2018. "Study of the radiation damage effect on Titanium metastable beta alloy by high intensity proton beam." Nuclear Materials and Energy 15. PNNL-SA-134718. doi:10.1016/j.nme.2018.04.006
  • Jiang W., S.R. Spurgeon, J. Liu, D.K. Schreiber, H. Jung, A. Devaraj, and D.J. Edwards, et al. 2018. "Precipitates and voids in cubic silicon carbide implanted with 25Mg+ ions." Journal of Nuclear Materials 498. PNNL-SA-124406. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.10.046
  • Kolli R.P., and A. Devaraj. 2018. "A Review of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys." Metals 8, no. 7:Article number 506. PNNL-SA-137081. doi:10.3390/met8070506
  • Lach T.G., A. Devaraj, and T. Byun. 2018. "Co-dependent microstructural evolution pathways in metastable d-Ferrite in cast austenitc stainless steels during thermal aging." Acta Materialia 510. PNNL-SA-134908. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.038
  • Lach T.G., A. Devaraj, K.J. Leonard, and T. Byun. 2018. "Co-dependent microstructural evolution pathways in metastable d-ferrite in cast austenitic stainless steels during thermal aging." Journal of Nuclear Materials 510. PNNL-SA-135407. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.038
  • Spurgeon S.R., P.V. Sushko, A. Devaraj, Y. Du, T.C. Droubay, and S.A. Chambers. 2018. "Onset of Phase Separation in the Double Perovskite Oxide La2MnNiO6." Physical Review B 97, no. 13:134110. PNNL-SA-123784. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.134110


  • Jana S., A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, B.W. Arey, L.E. Sweet, T. Varga, and C.A. Lavender, et al. 2017. "Kinetics of cellular transformation and competing precipitation mechanisms during sub-eutectoid annealing of U10Mo alloys." Journal of Alloys and Compounds 723. PNNL-SA-124502. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.06.292
  • Kautz E.J., A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2017. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy. PNNL-26790. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy
  • Kautz E.J., S. Jana, A. Devaraj, C.A. Lavender, L.E. Sweet, and V.V. Joshi. 2017. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils. PNNL-26862. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils
  • Kovarik L., N.M. Washton, R.K. Kukkadapu, A. Devaraj, A. Wang, Y. Wang, and J. Szanyi, et al. 2017. "Transformation of active sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts during hydrothermal aging: a spectroscopic, microscopic and kinetics study." ACS Catalysis 7, no. 4:2458-2470. PNNL-SA-123026. doi:10.1021/acscatal.6b03679
  • Mohanty D., B. Mazumder, A. Devaraj, A.S. Sefat, A. Huq, L.A. David, and E. Payzant, et al. 2017. "Resolving the degradation pathways in high-voltage oxides for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries; Alternation in chemistry, composition and crystal structures." Nano Energy 36. PNNL-SA-117930. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.04.008
  • Murcia Sanchez S.C., E. Lavoie, T.J. Linley, A. Devaraj, E.A. Ossa, and D.D. Arola. 2017. "The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales." JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, 73. PNNL-SA-129872. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.09.025
  • Shutthanandan V., S. Choudhury, S. Manandhar, T.C. Kaspar, C.M. Wang, A. Devaraj, and B.D. Wirth, et al. 2017. "Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 4, no. 14:Article No. 1700037. PNNL-SA-107725. doi:10.1002/admi.201700037
  • Zang H., W. Liu, T. Li, C. He, D. Yun, W. Jiang, and A. Devaraj, et al. 2017. "VACANCY EFFECTS ON THE FORMATION OF HELIUM AND KRYPTON CAVITIES IN 3C-SiC IRRADIATED AND ANNEALED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES." In Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31, 2016, edited by Dl Clark. 67-68. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-124009.


  • Devaraj A., L. Kovarik, V.V. Joshi, S. Jana, S. Manandhar, B.W. Arey, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure. PNNL-26020. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure
  • Devaraj A., R. Prabhakaran, V.V. Joshi, S.Y. Hu, E.J. McGarrah, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy. PNNL-SA-117284. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy
  • Devaraj A., S. Jana, C.A. McInnis, N.J. Lombardo, V.V. Joshi, L.E. Sweet, and S. Manandhar, et al. 2016. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo. PNNL-SA-120714. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo
  • Devaraj A., V. Murugesan, J. Bao, M.F. Guo, M.A. Derewinski, Z. Xu, and M.J. Gray, et al. 2016. "Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-113562. doi:10.1038/srep37586
  • Devaraj A., V.V. Joshi, A. Srivastava, S. Manandhar, V.S. Moxson, V. Duz, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. "A Low-Cost Hierarchical Nanostructured Beta-Titanium Alloy with High Strength." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-116064. doi:10.1038/ncomms11176
  • Leary A., V. Keylin, A. Devaraj, V. Degeorge, P. Ohodnicki, and M. McHenry. 2016. "Stress induced anisotropy in Co-rich magnetic nanocomposites for inductive applications." Journal of Materials Research 31, no. 20:3089-3107. PNNL-SA-122796. doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.324
  • Li X., C.T. Ma, J. Lu, A. Devaraj, S.R. Spurgeon, R.B. Comes, and J.S. Poon. 2016. "Exchange bias and bistable magneto-resistance states in amorphous TbFeCo thin films." Applied Physics Letters 108. PNNL-SA-113796. doi:10.1063/1.4939240
  • Poling W.A., V. Savic, L.G. Hector, A.K. Sachdev, X. Hu, A. Devaraj, and F. Abu-Farha. 2016. "Combined Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-assisted Steels." In SAE World Congress & Exhibition, April 12-14, 2016, Detroit, Michigan, SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0419. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:SAE International. PNNL-SA-113465. doi:10.4271/2016-01-0419
  • Prabhakaran R., A. Devaraj, V.V. Joshi, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. PProcedure for Uranium-Molybdenum Density Measurements and Porosity Determination. PNNL-25793. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PProcedure for Uranium-Molybdenum Density Measurements and Porosity Determination
  • Ramasamy K.K., M.J. Gray, H.M. Job, D.M. Santosa, X.S. Li, A. Devaraj, and A.J. Karkamkar, et al. 2016. "Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO-Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol." Topics in Catalysis 59, no. 1:46-54. PNNL-SA-110874. doi:10.1007/s11244-015-0504-8
  • Roder P.B., S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, E.J. Davis, and P.J. Pauzauskie. 2016. "Pulsed Photothermal Heating of One-Dimensional Nanostructures." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 38:21730-21739. PNNL-SA-120701. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b04592
  • Spurgeon S.R., Y. Du, T.C. Droubay, A. Devaraj, X. Sang, P. Longo, and P. Yan, et al. 2016. "Competing Pathways for Nucleation of the Double Perovskite Structure in the Epitaxial Synthesis of La2MnNiO6." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 11:3814-3822. PNNL-SA-115671. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00829
  • Trease N., I.D. Seymour, M. Radin, H. Liu, H. Liu, S. Hy, and N. Chernova, et al. 2016. "Identifying the distribution of Al3+ in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 22:8170-8180. PNNL-SA-121466. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02797
  • Wang C.M., Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, and D.R. Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24, no. 2:32-39. PNNL-SA-115445.
  • Wang S., M. Sina, P.A. Parikh, T. Uekert, B. Shahbazian, A. Devaraj, and Y.S. Meng. 2016. "Role of 4-tert-Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological Controller in Perovskite Solar Cells." Nano Letters 16, no. 9:5594-5600. PNNL-SA-121464. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02158
  • Zang H., W. Jiang, W. Liu, A. Devaraj, D.J. Edwards, C.H. Henager, and R.J. Kurtz, et al. 2016. "Vacancy effects on the formation of He and Kr cavities in 3C-SiC irradiated and annealed at elevated temperatures." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 389-390. PNNL-SA-119364. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2016.11.017


  • Degeorge V., A. Devaraj, V. Keylin, J. Cui, and M. McHenry. 2015. "Mass Balance and Atom Probe Tomography Characterization of Soft Magnetic (Fe65Co35)79.5B13Si2Nb4Cu1.5 Nanocomposites." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 51, no. 6:Article No. 2001704. PNNL-SA-101630. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2373333
  • Devaraj A., M. Gu, R.J. Colby, P. Yan, C.M. Wang, J. Zheng, and J. Xiao, et al. 2015. "Visualizing Nanoscale 3D Compositional Fluctuation of Lithium in Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-111262. doi:10.1038/ncomms9014
  • Kuhudzai R.J., J. Malherbe, T.T. Hlatshwayo, N.G. van der Berg, A. Devaraj, Z. Zhu, and M.I. Nandasiri. 2015. "Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC." Journal of Nuclear Materials 467, no. Part 2:582-587. PNNL-SA-114800. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.029
  • Kulkarni G.R., M.I. Nandasiri, A. Zelenyuk, J. Beranek, N. Madaan, A. Devaraj, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2015. "Effects Of Crystallographic Properties On The Ice Nucleation Properties Of Volcanic Ash Particles." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 8:3048-3055. PNNL-SA-109130. doi:10.1002/2015GL063270
  • Smith B.E., P.B. Roder, J.L. Hanson, S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, and W. Kim, et al. 2015. "Singlet-Oxygen Generation From Individual Semiconducting and Metallic Nanostructures During Near-Infrared Laser Trapping." ACS Photonics 2, no. 4:559-564. PNNL-SA-108413. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00022
  • Xu Z., D. Li, W. Xu, A. Devaraj, R.J. Colby, S. Thevuthasan, and B.P. Geiser, et al. 2015. "Simulation of Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip Shapes Evolution during Field Evaporation Using a Level Set Method and Different Evaporation Models." Computer Physics Communications 189. PNNL-SA-102867. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2014.12.016


  • Devaraj A., R.J. Colby, F. Vurpillot, and S. Thevuthasan. 2014. "Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation." Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, no. 8:1361-1367. PNNL-SA-100171. doi:10.1021/jz500259c
  • Devaraj A., T.C. Kaspar, S. Ramanan, S.K. Walvekar, M.E. Bowden, V. Shutthanandan, and R.J. Kurtz. 2014. "Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation." Journal of Applied Physics 116, no. 19:Article No. 193512. PNNL-SA-105687. doi:10.1063/1.4901465
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy with Enhanced Magnetic Properties." Journal of Applied Physics 115, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-98806. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure Of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy With Enhanced Magnetic Properties." Journal of Applied Physics 115, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-100163. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties." Journal of Applied Physics 15, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-103611. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Setyawan W., M.D. Gerboth, B. Yao, C.H. Henager, A. Devaraj, V.S. Vemuri, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2014. "Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al-Ti nanolayers." Journal of Nuclear Materials 445, no. 1-3:261-271. PNNL-SA-96969. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.11.012
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, E.D. Walter, S.D. Burton, A.K. Shukla, A. Devaraj, and J. Xiao, et al. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 16, no. 22:10923-10932. PNNL-SA-99942. doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H


  • Devaraj A., R.J. Colby, W.P. Hess, D.E. Perea, and S. Thevuthasan. 2013. "Role of Photoexcitation and Field Ionization in the Measurement of Accurate Oxide Stoichiometry by Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4, no. 6:993-998. PNNL-SA-92674. doi:10.1021/jz400015h
  • Devaraj A., S. Nag, and R. Banerjee. 2013. "Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography." Scripta Materialia 69, no. 7:513-516. PNNL-SA-94665. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.06.011
  • Katakam S.K., A. Devaraj, M.E. Bowden, S. Santhanakrishnan, C. Smith, R. Ramanujan, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2013. "Laser Assisted Crystallization of Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons: A Multimodal Characterization and Thermal Model Study." Journal of Applied Physics 114, no. 18:Article No. 184901. PNNL-SA-96372. doi:10.1063/1.4829279
  • Wang C.M., T.C. Kaspar, V. Shutthanandan, A.G. Joly, L. Kovarik, B.W. Arey, and M. Gu, et al. 2013. "Structure And Radiation Damage Behavior Of Epitaxial CrxMo1-x Alloy Thin Films On MgO." Journal of Nuclear Materials 437, no. 1-3:55-61. PNNL-SA-92123. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.345
  • Yang F., D.R. Coughlin, P.J. Phillips, L. Yang, A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, and R.D. Noebe, et al. 2013. "Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy." Acta Materialia 61, no. 9:3335-3346. PNNL-SA-91683. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2013.02.023


  • Perea D.E., D.K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, S. Thevuthasan, J. Yoo, S.A. Dayeh, and S.T. Picraux. 2012. "Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires." Microscopy and Microanalysis 18, no. Suppl. 2:1860-1861. PNNL-SA-91518. doi:10.1017/S1431927612011154

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