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Staff information

Arun

Arun Devaraj

Materials Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: J7-10
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Arun Devaraj is a Material scientist in the Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate. His research focus is on atomic scale mechanisms of material degradation by oxidation, hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking. In addition he is also focused on revealing the material processing-microstructure-property relationships and phase transformation mechanisms of metals, oxides and composite materials, especially under non-equilibrium deformation based processing approaches such as solid phase processing. Dr. Devaraj has extensive experience specifically in applying atom probe tomography (APT) for material characterization, in addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) and in-situ high energy x-ray diffraction (HEXRD) at beamlines of various DOE synchrotron facilities.

Research Interests

  • Material degradation mechanisms: Atomic scale mechanisms of high temperature oxidation, stress corrosion cracking, aqueous corrosion, and hydrogen embrittlement.
  • Structure-property relationship of metals and alloys: Microstructural evolution, Thermodynamics and kinetics of Phase transformation, grain boundary segregation, precipitation, room temperature and elevated temperature mechanical property-microstructure correlation in bulk, surface and joints of materials, Influence of processing by thermo-mechanical treatments and deformation on microstructure, understanding the effect of ion and neutron irradiation on material microstructure, correlating experimental results with atomic scale computational results from VASP DFT, or MD, montecarlo methods or FEM based theoretical calculations.
  • Atom Probe Tomography: Application of APT for metals and alloys, pushing boundaries of application of APT especially for analyzing nanoscale composition of complex oxides, nanoparticles and porous materials used for variety of energy and environmental applications, APT-TEM- level set or FEM APT simulation correlation for understanding and correcting for aberrations in atom probe tomography reconstructions for complex materials. Development of APT for analysis of hard biological materials like teeth of different animals.
  • Multimodal chemical imaging of energy materials by correlating APT analysis with variety of other characterization techniques including TEM, XAS, XRD, NMR and XPS.

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Material science and engineering, University of North Texas, 2011
  • B. Tech, Metallurgical engineering and Material Science, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, 2005

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • TMS
  • MSA
  • IFES
  • MRS
  • AVS

Awards and Recognitions

  • TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Young Professional Leader Development Award 2022.
  • Vice president of the International Field Emission Society (IFES) from 2022.
  • DOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Material Science Division, Early Career Award 2020.
  • PNNL Ronald Ronald L. Brodzinski Award for Early Career Exceptional Achievement 2019.
  • PNNL National security directorate Carabiner award, 2018 for winning new funding from Department of Defense.
  • Outstanding Performance Award for 2016, Nuclear Processing Initiative, National Security Directorate, for enabling analysis of radioactive materials by advanced characterization methods.
  • 2016, 2015: Elected as leader for the Microscopy Society of America Atom Probe Tomography Focused Interest Group (MSA APT FIG).
  • 2015: Featured in a news article titled “People behind science” in the local newspaper, Tri-City Herald, as an upcoming young researcher in PNNL.
  • 2016, 2015, 2014: Lead organizer of Atom Probe Tomography focus topic symposium at 61st American Vacuum Society National Meeting.
  • 2015, 2014: People’s choice winner of Science as Art 2014 and 2015 contest, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • 2014: Selected to represent lightweight vehicles materials research from EMSL at National User Facility Organization (NUFO) congressional science expo, June 10, Rayburn Building, Washington DC.
  • 2013: EMSL Director's award for creativity in research.
  • 2013: Scientist and Engineer Development Program, PNNL (2013-2015)
  • 2013: Elected as leader-elect officer for the Microscopy Society of America Atom Probe Tomography Focused Interest Group (MSA APT FIG).
  • 2011: Outstanding Leadership and Service Award by Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas
  • 2010: Outstanding International Graduate student award by Robert Toulouse Graduate School, University of North Texas.
  • 2008-2011: Elected Graduate Student Representativefor the Department of material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas.
  • 2008-2011: Elected President of Materials Advantage Chapter of University of North Texas
  • 2006: Highest performance rating of “Benchmark to Employee performance” in the annual employee performance review in Essar Steel Ltd

PNNL Publications

2022

  • Devaraj A., D.J. Barton, C. Li, S.M. Lambeets, T. Liu, A. Battu, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2022. "Visualizing the Nanoscale Oxygen and Cation Transport Mechanisms During the Early Stages of Oxidation of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloy Using In Situ Atom Probe Tomography." Advanced Materials Interfaces 9, no. 20:Art. No. 2200134. PNNL-SA-169147. doi:10.1002/admi.202200134
  • Escobar J.D., B. Gwalani, M.J. Olszta, J.A. Silverstein, T. Ajantiwalay, N.R. Overman, and W. Fu, et al. 2022. "Heterogenous activation of dynamic recrystallization and twinning during friction stir processing of a Cu-4Nb alloy." Journal of Alloys and Compounds 928. PNNL-SA-177343. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.167007
  • Gwalani B., J. Liu, S.M. Lambeets, M.J. Olszta, J. Poplawsky, A. Shyam, and A. Devaraj. 2022. "Rapid assessment of interfacial stabilization mechanisms of metastable precipitates to accelerate high-temperature Al-alloy development." Materials Research Letters 10, no. 12:771-779. PNNL-SA-172603. doi:10.1080/21663831.2022.2102947
  • Gwalani B., Q. Pang, A. Yu, W. Fu, L. Li, M. Pole, and C.J. Roach, et al. 2022. "Extended Shear Deformation of Immiscible Cu-Nb Alloy Resulting in Nanostructuring and Oxygen Ingress with Enhancement in Mechanical Properties." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7, no. 16:13721-13736. PNNL-SA-169151. doi:10.1021/acsomega.1c07368
  • Jungjohann K., D.E. Perea, J.D. Sugar, D.R. Diercks, K. Derr, and A. Devaraj. 2022. "MSA Focused Interest Groups: Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy and Focused Ion Beam Microscopy." Microscopy Today 30, no. 4:42-45. PNNL-SA-174322. doi:10.1017/S1551929522000876
  • Li S., C.A. Powell, S.N. Mathaudhu, B. Gwalani, A. Devaraj, and C. Wang. 2022. "Review of recent progress on in situ TEM shear deformation: a retrospective and perspective view." Journal of Materials Science 57, no. 26:12177-12201. PNNL-SA-169397. doi:10.1007/s10853-022-07331-4
  • Li S., L. Li, A. Soulami, C.A. Powell, S. Mathaudhu, A. Devaraj, and C. Wang. 2022. "In-situ observation of deformation twin associated sub-grain boundary formation in copper single crystal under bending." Materials Research Letters 10, no. 7:488-495. PNNL-SA-169389. doi:10.1080/21663831.2022.2057201
  • Li S., N. Chen, A. Rohatgi, Y. Li, C.A. Powell, S.N. Mathaudhu, and A. Devaraj, et al. 2022. "Nanotwin Assisted Reversible Formation of Low Angle Grain Boundary Upon Reciprocating Shear Load." Acta Materialia 230. PNNL-SA-167698. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2022.117850
  • Ma X., M.J. Olszta, J. Liu, M. Song, M. Pole, M. Pallaka, and J.A. Silverstein, et al. 2022. "Temperature-dependent formation of gradient structures with anomalous hardening in an Al-Si alloy." Materials Science and Engineering A. Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing 858. PNNL-SA-172014. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2022.144061
  • Parikh P.A., H. Chung, E.A. Vo, A. Banerjee, S. Meng, and A. Devaraj. 2022. "Nanoscale Compositional Mapping of Commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 Cathodes using Atom Probe Tomography." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 126, no. 34:14380-14388. PNNL-SA-174918. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c01217

2021

  • Bard A., X. Zhou, X. Xia, G. Zhu, M.B. Lim, S. Kim, and M.C. Johnson, et al. 2021. "Reply to Comment on “A Mechanistic Understanding of Nonclassical Crystal Growth in Hydrothermally Synthesized Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Nanowires”." Chemistry of Materials 33, no. 10:3862-3864. PNNL-SA-160782. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c04469
  • Cui Y., J. Zhuchen, B. Peng, L. Kovarik, A. Devaraj, Z. Li, and M. Tao, et al. 2021. "Onset of high methane combustion rates over supported palladium catalysts: from isolated Pd cations to PdO nanoparticles." JACS Au 1, no. 4:369-408. PNNL-SA-153415. doi:10.1021/jacsau.0c00109
  • Devaraj A., B.E. Matthews, B.W. Arey, L.M. Bagaasen, E.C. Buck, G.J. Sevigny, and D.J. Senor. 2021. "Neutron Irradiation Induced Changes in Isotopic Abundance of 6Li and 3D Nanoscale Distribution of Tritium in LiAlO2 Pellets Analyzed by Atom Probe Tomography." Materials Characterization 176. PNNL-SA-157659. doi:10.1016/j.matchar.2021.111095
  • Efe M., B. Gwalani, J. Tao, M. Song, T.C. Kaspar, A. Devaraj, and A. Rohatgi. 2021. "Nanomechanical Scratching Induced Local Shear Deformation and Microstructural Evolution in Single Crystalline Copper." Applied Surface Science 562. PNNL-SA-158843. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2021.150132
  • Gwalani B., W. Fu, M.J. Olszta, J.A. Silverstein, D. Yadav, P. Manimunda, and A.D. Guzman, et al. 2021. "Lattice misorientation evolution and grain refinement in Al-Si alloys under high-strain shear deformation." Materialia 18. PNNL-SA-160821. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2021.101146
  • Kaspar T.C., Q. Pang, P.V. Sushko, M.E. Bowden, J. Tao, B. Gwalani, and M.J. Olszta, et al. 2021. "Metastable orientation relationships in thin film Cu-Cr bilayers." Scripta Materialia 194. PNNL-SA-156813. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2020.113635
  • Kautz E.J., A. Devaraj, D.J. Senor, and S.S. Harilal. 2021. "Hydrogen isotopic analysis of nuclear reactor materials using ultrafast laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy." Optics Express 29, no. 4:4936-4946. PNNL-SA-157227. doi:10.1364/OE.412351
  • Kautz E.J., D.K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, and B. Gwalani. 2021. "Mechanistic insights into selective oxidation and corrosion of multi-principal element alloys from high resolution and in situ microscopy." Materialia 18. PNNL-SA-160297. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2021.101148
  • Kautz E.J., E.C. Ronnebro, A. Devaraj, D.J. Senor, and S.S. Harilal. 2021. "Detection of hydrogen isotopes in Zircaloy-4 via femtosecond LIBS." Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 36, no. 6:1217-1227. PNNL-SA-159411. doi:10.1039/d1ja00034a
  • Kautz E.J., J.B. Cliff, T.G. Lach, D.D. Reilly, and A. Devaraj. 2021. "Correlating Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Uranium Enrichment in Metallic Nuclear Fuel." Analyst 146, no. 1:69-74. PNNL-SA-155746. doi:10.1039/D0AN01831G
  • Kautz E.J., S. Shahrezaei, M.T. Athon, M.A. Frank, A.L. Schemer-Kohrn, A. Soulami, and C.A. Lavender, et al. 2021. "Evaluating the microstructure and origin of nonmetallic inclusions in as-cast U-10 Mo fuel." Journal of Nuclear Materials 554. PNNL-SA-158125. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2021.152949
  • Li S., M.J. Olszta, L. Li, B. Gwalani, A. Soulami, C.A. Powell, and S. Mathaudhu, et al. 2021. "In-situ TEM Observation of Shear Induced Microstructure Evolution in Cu-Nb Alloy." Scripta Materialia 205, no. 2021:114214. PNNL-SA-165104. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2021.114214
  • Liu T., M.J. Olszta, B. Gwalani, C. Park, S. Mathaudhu, and A. Devaraj. 2021. "Phase Transformations, Microstructural Refinement and Defect Evolution Mechanisms in Al-Si Alloys under Non-Hydrostatic Diamond Anvil Cell Compression." Materialia 15. PNNL-SA-158218. doi:10.1016/j.mtla.2021.101049
  • Ohodnicki P., E.J. Kautz, A. Devaraj, Y. Yu, N. Aronhime, Y. Krimer, and M. McHenry, et al. 2021. "Nanostructure and Compositional Segregation of Soft Magnetic FeNi-Based Nanocomposites with Multiple Nanocrystalline Phases." Journal of Materials Research 36, no. 1:105-113. PNNL-SA-155230. doi:10.1557/s43578-020-00066-5
  • Oleksak R.P., R. Addou, B. Gwalani, J. Baltrus, T. Liu, J. Diulus, and A. Devaraj, et al. 2021. "Molecular-scale investigation of the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys in hightemperature CO2." npj Materials Degradation 5, no. 1:46. PNNL-SA-165464. doi:10.1038/s41529-021-00194-1
  • Schofield R.M., J. Bailey, J. Coon, A. Devaraj, R. Garret, m. Goggans, and M. Hebner, et al. 2021. "The homogenous alternative to biomineralization: Zn- and Mn-rich materials enable sharp organismal “tools” that reduce force requirements." Scientific Reports 11. PNNL-SA-163566. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-91795-y
  • Shutthanandan V., A.I. Martinez, T. Varga, A. Devaraj, S. Roy, E.V. Stephens, and O.A. Marina, et al. 2021. "Evolution of Metastable Phases During Mg Metal Corrosion: An In Situ Cryogenic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study." Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: International Journal Devoted to Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 39, no. 6:Article No. 063213. PNNL-SA-164275. doi:10.1116/6.0001305
  • Yadav D., D. Zhao, J.K. Baldvin, A. Devaraj, M. Demkowicz, and K.Y. Xie. 2021. "Persistence of crystal orientations across sub-micron-scale "super-grains" in self-organized Cu-W nanocomposites." Scripta Materialia 194. PNNL-SA-158971. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2020.113677

2020

  • Bard A., X. Zhou, X. Xia, G. Zhu, M.B. Lim, S. Kim, and M.C. Johnson, et al. 2020. "A Mechanistic Understanding of Nonclassical Crystal Growth in Hydrothermally Synthesized Sodium Yttrium Fluoride Nanowires." Chemistry of Materials 32, no. 7:2753-2763. PNNL-SA-147967. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b04076
  • Frank M., S.S. Nene, Y. Chen, B. Gwalani, E.J. Kautz, A. Devaraj, and K. An, et al. 2020. "Correlating work hardening with co-activation of stacking fault strengthening and transformation in a high entropy alloy using in-situ neutron diffraction." Scientific Reports 10, no. 1:Article No. 22263. PNNL-SA-157863. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-79492-8
  • Gwalani B., M.J. Olszta, S. Varma, L. Li, A. Soulami, E.J. Kautz, and S. Pathak, et al. 2020. "Extreme Shear-Deformation-Induced Modification of Defect Structures and Hierarchical Microstructure in an Al-Si Alloy." Communications Materials 1. PNNL-SA-153669. doi:10.1038/s43246-020-00087-x
  • Jiang W., S.R. Spurgeon, B.E. Matthews, A.K. Battu, S. China, T. Varga, and A. Devaraj, et al. 2020. "Carbonaceous deposits on aluminide coatings in tritium-producing assemblies." Nuclear Materials and Energy 25. PNNL-SA-153196. doi:10.1016/j.nme.2020.100797
  • Kautz E.J., B. Gwalani, S.M. Lambeets, L. Kovarik, D.K. Schreiber, D.E. Perea, and D.J. Senor, et al. 2020. "Rapid assessment of structural and compositional changes during early stages of zirconium alloy oxidation." npj Materials Degradation 4, no. 1:Article No. 29. PNNL-SA-150333. doi:10.1038/s41529-020-00133-6
  • Kautz E.J., W. Ma, S. Jana, A. Devaraj, V.V. Joshi, B. Yener, and D.J. Lewis. 2020. "An image-driven machine learning approach to kinetic modeling of a discontinuous precipitation reaction." Materials Characterization 166. PNNL-SA-144375. doi:10.1016/j.matchar.2020.110379
  • Manandhar S., A.K. Battu, A. Devaraj, V. Shutthanandan, S. Thevuthasan, and C.V. Ramana. 2020. "Rapid Response High Temperature Oxygen Sensor Based on Titanium Doped Gallium Oxide." Scientific Reports 10, no. 1:Article No. 178. PNNL-SA-134484. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54136-8
  • McCarroll I.E., P. Bagot, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, and J. Cairney. 2020. "New frontiers in atom probe tomography: a review of research enabled by cryo and/or vacuum transfer systems." Materials Today Advances 7. PNNL-SA-153475. doi:10.1016/j.mtadv.2020.100090
  • Sobieraj D., J.S. Wrobel, T. Rygier, K.J. Kurzydlowski, O. El-Atwani, A. Devaraj, and E. Martinez Saez, et al. 2020. "Chemical short-range order in derivative Cr-Ta-Ti-V-W high entropy alloys from the first-principles thermodynamic study." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 22, no. 41:23929-23951. PNNL-SA-161182. doi:10.1039/D0CP03764H

2019

  • Ballor J.P., M. Ikeda, E.J. Kautz, C. Boehlert, and A. Devaraj. 2019. "Composition-Dependent Microstructure-Property Relationships of Fe and Al Modified Ti-12Cr (wt.%)." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 71, no. 7:2321-2330. PNNL-SA-148014. doi:10.1007/s11837-019-03467-y
  • Devaraj A., W. Wang, V.R. Vemuri, L. Kovarik, X. Jiang, M.E. Bowden, and J.R. Trelewicz, et al. 2019. "Grain Boundary Segregation and Intermetallic Precipitation in Coarsening Resistant Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys." Acta Materialia 165. PNNL-SA-135423. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2018.09.038
  • El-Atwani O., N. Li, M. Li, A. Devaraj, J.K. Baldwin, M.M. Schneider, and D. Sobieraj, et al. 2019. "Outstanding Radiation Resistance of Tungsten-based High Entropy Alloys." Science Advances 5, no. 3:Article No. eaav2002. PNNL-SA-137124. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2002
  • Jana S., N.R. Overman, A. Devaraj, L.E. Sweet, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2019. "Discontinuous Precipitation in U-10 wt.%Mo Alloy: Reaction Kinetics, Effect of Prior gamma-UMo Microstructure, the Role of Grain-Boundary Misorientation, and the Effect of Ternary Alloying Addition." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 71, no. 8:2770-2779. PNNL-SA-141543. doi:10.1007/s11837-019-03588-4
  • Kautz E.J., D. Burkes, V.V. Joshi, C.A. Lavender, and A. Devaraj. 2019. "Nanoscale spatially resolved mapping of uranium enrichment." Scientific Reports 9, no. 1:Article No. 12302. PNNL-SA-139895. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-48479-5
  • Kovarik L., A. Devaraj, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2019. "Crystallographic and Compositional Analysis of impurity phase: U2MoSi2C in UMo Alloys." Journal of Nuclear Materials 519. PNNL-SA-140234. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2019.03.044
  • Murugesan V., M.J. Gray, M.F. Guo, H.M. Job, L. Kovarik, A. Devaraj, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2019. "Thermally Activated Nucleation and Growth of Cobalt and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on Porous Silica." Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: International Journal Devoted to Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 37, no. 3:Article No. 031101. PNNL-SA-121414. doi:10.1116/1.5080448
  • Perea D.E., D.K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, D. Reilly, S. Lambeets, E.J. Kautz, and T.G. Lach, et al. 2019. "Exploring New Science Domains with Atom Probe Tomography Enabled by an Environmental Transfer Hub." In Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2019, August 4-8, 2019, Portland, OR, 25, 276-277. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-147028. doi:10.1017/S1431927619002113
  • Settle A., N.S. Cleveland, C. Farberow, D. Conklin, X. Huo, A. Dameron, and R. Tracy, et al. 2019. "Enhanced Catalyst Durability for Bio-Based Adipic Acid Production by Atomic Layer Deposition." Joule 3, no. 9:2219-2240. PNNL-SA-144252. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2019.06.022
  • Yan P., J. Zheng, Z. Tang, A. Devaraj, G. Chen, K. Amine, and J. Zhang, et al. 2019. "Injection of oxygen vacancies in the bulk lattice of layered cathodes." Nature Nanotechnology 14, no. 6:602-609. PNNL-SA-141286. doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0428-8

2018

  • Albuquerque G.H., K. Kim, J.I. Lopez, A. Devaraj, S. Manandhar, Y. Liu, and J. Guo, et al. 2018. "Multimodal characterization of solution-processed Cu3SbS4 absorbers for thin film solar cells." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6, no. 18:8682-8692. PNNL-SA-136825. doi:10.1039/c8ta00001h
  • Arola D.D., S.C. Murcia Sanchez, M. Stossel, R. Pahuja, T.J. Linley, A. Devaraj, and M. Ramulu, et al. 2018. "The limiting layer of fish scales: structure and properties." Acta Biomaterialia 67. PNNL-SA-136535. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.011
  • Devaraj A., and P. Eisenlohr. 2018. "Atom probe tomography and correlative microscopy: 3D nanoscale characterization of metals, minerals and materials." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 9:1723-1724. PNNL-SA-136981. doi:10.1007/s11837-018-3007-9
  • Devaraj A., D.E. Perea, J. Liu, L.M. Gordon, T.J. Prosa, P.A. Parikh, and D.R. Diercks, et al. 2018. "Three-dimensional nanoscale characterisation of materials by atom probe tomography." International Materials Reviews 63, no. 2:68-101. PNNL-SA-117399. doi:10.1080/09506608.2016.1270728
  • Devaraj A., E.J. Kautz, L. Kovarik, S. Jana, N.R. Overman, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2018. "Phase transformation of metastable discontinuous precipitation products to equilibrium phases in U10Mo alloys." Scripta Materialia 156. PNNL-SA-134393. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.07.010
  • Devaraj A., L. Kovarik, E.J. Kautz, B.W. Arey, S. Jana, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2018. "Grain Boundary Engineering to Control the Discontinuous Precipitation in Multicomponent U10Mo Alloy." Acta Materialia 151. PNNL-SA-129167. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2018.03.039
  • Devaraj A., Z. Xu, F. Abu-Farha, X. Sun, and L.G. Hector. 2018. "Nanoscale Solute Partitioning and Carbide Precipitation in a Multiphase TRIP Steel Analyzed by Atom Probe Tomography." JOM. The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 70, no. 9:1752-1757. PNNL-SA-132326. doi:10.1007/s11837-018-2974-1
  • Elsaidi S.K., M.A. Sinnwell, A. Devaraj, T.C. Droubay, Z. Nie, V. Murugesan, and B.P. McGrail, et al. 2018. "Extraction of Rare Earth Elements using Magnetite@MOF Composites." Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6, no. 38:18438-18443. PNNL-SA-136516. doi:10.1039/c8ta04750b
  • Ishida T., E. Wakai, M. Hagiwara, S. Makimura, M. Tada, D.M. Asner, and A.M. Casella, et al. 2018. "Study of the radiation damage effect on Titanium metastable beta alloy by high intensity proton beam." Nuclear Materials and Energy 15. PNNL-SA-134718. doi:10.1016/j.nme.2018.04.006
  • Jiang W., S.R. Spurgeon, J. Liu, D.K. Schreiber, H. Jung, A. Devaraj, and D.J. Edwards, et al. 2018. "Precipitates and voids in cubic silicon carbide implanted with 25Mg+ ions." Journal of Nuclear Materials 498. PNNL-SA-124406. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2017.10.046
  • Kolli R.P., and A. Devaraj. 2018. "A Review of Metastable Beta Titanium Alloys." Metals 8, no. 7:Article number 506. PNNL-SA-137081. doi:10.3390/met8070506
  • Lach T.G., A. Devaraj, and T. Byun. 2018. "Co-dependent microstructural evolution pathways in metastable d-Ferrite in cast austenitc stainless steels during thermal aging." Acta Materialia 510. PNNL-SA-134908. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.038
  • Lach T.G., A. Devaraj, K.J. Leonard, and T. Byun. 2018. "Co-dependent microstructural evolution pathways in metastable d-ferrite in cast austenitic stainless steels during thermal aging." Journal of Nuclear Materials 510. PNNL-SA-135407. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.08.038
  • Spurgeon S.R., P.V. Sushko, A. Devaraj, Y. Du, T.C. Droubay, and S.A. Chambers. 2018. "Onset of Phase Separation in the Double Perovskite Oxide La2MnNiO6." Physical Review B 97, no. 13:134110. PNNL-SA-123784. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.134110

2017

  • Devaraj A., V. Murugesan, J. Bao, M.F. Guo, M.A. Derewinski, Z. Xu, and M.J. Gray, et al. 2017. "Nanoscale Compositional Mapping of Spent HZSM-5: An Atom Probe Tomography Study." In Proceedings of the North American Catalysis Society Meeting (NAM25), June 4-9, 2017, Denver, CO. PNNL-SA-122368.
  • Elsaidi S.K., M.A. Sinnwell, D. Banerjee, A. Devaraj, R.K. Kukkadapu, T.C. Droubay, and Z. Nie, et al. 2017. "Reduced Magnetism in Core-Shell Magnetite@MOF Composites." Nano Letters 17, no. 11:6968-6973. PNNL-SA-122221. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03451
  • Jana S., A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, B.W. Arey, L.E. Sweet, T. Varga, and C.A. Lavender, et al. 2017. "Kinetics of cellular transformation and competing precipitation mechanisms during sub-eutectoid annealing of U10Mo alloys." Journal of Alloys and Compounds 723. PNNL-SA-124502. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.06.292
  • Jiang W., S.R. Spurgeon, J. Liu, D.K. Schreiber, H. Jung, A. Devaraj, and D.J. Edwards, et al. 2017. "PRECIPITATES AND VOIDS IN CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE IMPLANTED WITH 25Mg+ IONS." In Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31,2017, edited by FW Wiffen and S Melton. 73-74. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY. PNNL-SA-132445.
  • Kautz E.J., A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, C.A. Lavender, and V.V. Joshi. 2017. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy. PNNL-26790. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Effect of Silicon in U-10Mo Alloy
  • Kautz E.J., S. Jana, A. Devaraj, C.A. Lavender, L.E. Sweet, and V.V. Joshi. 2017. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils. PNNL-26862. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Detecting the Extent of Cellular Decomposition after Sub-Eutectoid Annealing in Rolled UMo Foils
  • Kovarik L., N.M. Washton, R.K. Kukkadapu, A. Devaraj, A. Wang, Y. Wang, and J. Szanyi, et al. 2017. "Transformation of active sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts during hydrothermal aging: a spectroscopic, microscopic and kinetics study." ACS Catalysis 7, no. 4:2458-2470. PNNL-SA-123026. doi:10.1021/acscatal.6b03679
  • Mohanty D., B. Mazumder, A. Devaraj, A.S. Sefat, A. Huq, L.A. David, and E. Payzant, et al. 2017. "Resolving the degradation pathways in high-voltage oxides for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries; Alternation in chemistry, composition and crystal structures." Nano Energy 36. PNNL-SA-117930. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.04.008
  • Murcia Sanchez S.C., E. Lavoie, T.J. Linley, A. Devaraj, E.A. Ossa, and D.D. Arola. 2017. "The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales." Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 73. PNNL-SA-129872. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.09.025
  • Murugesan V., M.J. Gray, M.F. Guo, H.M. Job, A. Devaraj, C.J. Szymanski, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2017. "Thermal Evaluation of Metal Oxides on Silica Supports." In North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 4-9, 2017, Denver, CO, Paper No. P-T-BRM-44. PNNL-SA-122369.
  • Shutthanandan V., S. Choudhury, S. Manandhar, T.C. Kaspar, C.M. Wang, A. Devaraj, and B.D. Wirth, et al. 2017. "Radiation Tolerant Interfaces: Influence of Local Stoichiometry at the Misfit Dislocation on Radiation Damage Resistance of Metal/Oxide Interfaces." Advanced Materials Interfaces 4, no. 14:Article No. 1700037. PNNL-SA-107725. doi:10.1002/admi.201700037
  • Wang C., P. Yan, Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, B.L. Mehdi, and M.I. Nandasiri, et al. 2017. "Multimodal and In-Situ Chemical Imaging of Critical Surfaces and Interfaces in Li Batteries." Journal of Surface Analysis 24, no. 2:141-150. PNNL-SA-125846. doi:10.1384/jsa.24.141
  • Zang H., W. Liu, T. Li, C. He, D. Yun, W. Jiang, and A. Devaraj, et al. 2017. "VACANCY EFFECTS ON THE FORMATION OF HELIUM AND KRYPTON CAVITIES IN 3C-SiC IRRADIATED AND ANNEALED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES." In Fusion Materials Semiannual Progress Report For Period Ending December 31, 2016, edited by Dl Clark. 67-68. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-124009.

2016

  • Devaraj A., L. Kovarik, V.V. Joshi, S. Jana, S. Manandhar, B.W. Arey, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure. PNNL-26020. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure
  • Devaraj A., R. Prabhakaran, V.V. Joshi, S.Y. Hu, E.J. McGarrah, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy. PNNL-SA-117284. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy
  • Devaraj A., S. Jana, C.A. McInnis, N.J. Lombardo, V.V. Joshi, L.E. Sweet, and S. Manandhar, et al. 2016. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo. PNNL-SA-120714. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo
  • Devaraj A., V. Murugesan, J. Bao, M.F. Guo, M.A. Derewinski, Z. Xu, and M.J. Gray, et al. 2016. "Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-113562. doi:10.1038/srep37586
  • Devaraj A., V.V. Joshi, A. Srivastava, S. Manandhar, V.S. Moxson, V. Duz, and C.A. Lavender. 2016. "A Low-Cost Hierarchical Nanostructured Beta-Titanium Alloy with High Strength." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-116064. doi:10.1038/ncomms11176
  • Leary A., V. Keylin, A. Devaraj, V. Degeorge, P. Ohodnicki, and M. McHenry. 2016. "Stress induced anisotropy in Co-rich magnetic nanocomposites for inductive applications." Journal of Materials Research 31, no. 20:3089-3107. PNNL-SA-122796. doi:10.1557/jmr.2016.324
  • Li X., C.T. Ma, J. Lu, A. Devaraj, S.R. Spurgeon, R.B. Comes, and J.S. Poon. 2016. "Exchange bias and bistable magneto-resistance states in amorphous TbFeCo thin films." Applied Physics Letters 108. PNNL-SA-113796. doi:10.1063/1.4939240
  • Poling W.A., V. Savic, L.G. Hector, A.K. Sachdev, X. Hu, A. Devaraj, and F. Abu-Farha. 2016. "Combined Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-assisted Steels." In SAE World Congress & Exhibition, April 12-14, 2016, Detroit, Michigan, SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0419. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:SAE International. PNNL-SA-113465. doi:10.4271/2016-01-0419
  • Ramasamy K.K., M.J. Gray, H.M. Job, D.M. Santosa, X.S. Li, A. Devaraj, and A.J. Karkamkar, et al. 2016. "Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO-Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol." Topics in Catalysis 59, no. 1:46-54. PNNL-SA-110874. doi:10.1007/s11244-015-0504-8
  • Roder P.B., S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, E.J. Davis, and P.J. Pauzauskie. 2016. "Pulsed Photothermal Heating of One-Dimensional Nanostructures." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 120, no. 38:21730-21739. PNNL-SA-120701. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b04592
  • Shinde D., L. Arnoldi, A. Devaraj, and A. Vella. 2016. "Laser-material interaction during atom probe tomography of oxides with embedded metal nanoparticles." Journal of Applied Physics 120, no. 16:Article No. 164308. PNNL-SA-122789. doi:10.1063/1.4966122
  • Spurgeon S.R., Y. Du, T.C. Droubay, A. Devaraj, X. Sang, P. Longo, and P. Yan, et al. 2016. "Competing Pathways for Nucleation of the Double Perovskite Structure in the Epitaxial Synthesis of La2MnNiO6." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 11:3814-3822. PNNL-SA-115671. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00829
  • Trease N., I.D. Seymour, M. Radin, H. Liu, H. Liu, S. Hy, and N. Chernova, et al. 2016. "Identifying the distribution of Al3+ in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2." Chemistry of Materials 28, no. 22:8170-8180. PNNL-SA-121466. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b02797
  • Wang C.M., Z. Zhu, M.H. Engelhard, A. Devaraj, and D.R. Baer. 2016. "Multimodal and in-situ chemical imaging of critical surfaces and interfaces in Li batteries." Microscopy Today 24, no. 2:32-39. PNNL-SA-115445.
  • Wang S., M. Sina, P.A. Parikh, T. Uekert, B. Shahbazian, A. Devaraj, and Y.S. Meng. 2016. "Role of 4-tert-Butylpyridine as a Hole Transport Layer Morphological Controller in Perovskite Solar Cells." Nano Letters 16, no. 9:5594-5600. PNNL-SA-121464. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02158
  • Zang H., W. Jiang, W. Liu, A. Devaraj, D.J. Edwards, C.H. Henager, and R.J. Kurtz, et al. 2016. "Vacancy effects on the formation of He and Kr cavities in 3C-SiC irradiated and annealed at elevated temperatures." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 389-390. PNNL-SA-119364. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2016.11.017

2015

  • Degeorge V., A. Devaraj, V. Keylin, J. Cui, and M. McHenry. 2015. "Mass Balance and Atom Probe Tomography Characterization of Soft Magnetic (Fe65Co35)79.5B13Si2Nb4Cu1.5 Nanocomposites." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 51, no. 6:Article No. 2001704. PNNL-SA-101630. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2373333
  • Devaraj A., M. Gu, R.J. Colby, P. Yan, C.M. Wang, J. Zheng, and J. Xiao, et al. 2015. "Visualizing Nanoscale 3D Compositional Fluctuation of Lithium in Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes." Nature Communications 6. PNNL-SA-111262. doi:10.1038/ncomms9014
  • Kuhudzai R.J., J. Malherbe, T.T. Hlatshwayo, N.G. van der Berg, A. Devaraj, Z. Zhu, and M.I. Nandasiri. 2015. "Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC." Journal of Nuclear Materials 467, no. Part 2:582-587. PNNL-SA-114800. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.029
  • Kulkarni G.R., M.I. Nandasiri, A. Zelenyuk, J. Beranek, N. Madaan, A. Devaraj, and V. Shutthanandan, et al. 2015. "Effects Of Crystallographic Properties On The Ice Nucleation Properties Of Volcanic Ash Particles." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 8:3048-3055. PNNL-SA-109130. doi:10.1002/2015GL063270
  • Madaan N., J. Bao, M.I. Nandasiri, Z. Xu, S. Thevuthasan, and A. Devaraj. 2015. "Impact of Dynamic Specimen Shape Evolution on the Atom Probe Tomography Results of Doped Epitaxial Oxide Multilayers: Comparison of Experiment and Simulation." Applied Physics Letters 107, no. 9:Article No. 091601. PNNL-SA-109596. doi:10.1063/1.4929705
  • Smith B.E., P.B. Roder, J.L. Hanson, S. Manandhar, A. Devaraj, D.E. Perea, and W. Kim, et al. 2015. "Singlet-Oxygen Generation From Individual Semiconducting and Metallic Nanostructures During Near-Infrared Laser Trapping." ACS Photonics 2, no. 4:559-564. PNNL-SA-108413. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.5b00022
  • Xu Z., D. Li, W. Xu, A. Devaraj, R.J. Colby, S. Thevuthasan, and B.P. Geiser, et al. 2015. "Simulation of Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip Shape Evolution during Field Evaporation Using a Level Set Method and Different Evaporation Models." Computer Physics Communications 189. PNNL-SA-98577. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2014.12.016
  • Xu Z., D. Li, W. Xu, A. Devaraj, R.J. Colby, S. Thevuthasan, and B.P. Geiser, et al. 2015. "Simulation of Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip Shapes Evolution during Field Evaporation Using a Level Set Method and Different Evaporation Models." Computer Physics Communications 189. PNNL-SA-102867. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2014.12.016

2014

  • Devaraj A., R.J. Colby, F. Vurpillot, and S. Thevuthasan. 2014. "Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5, no. 8:1361-1367. PNNL-SA-100171. doi:10.1021/jz500259c
  • Devaraj A., T.C. Kaspar, S. Ramanan, S.K. Walvekar, M.E. Bowden, V. Shutthanandan, and R.J. Kurtz. 2014. "Nanoscale Phase Separation In Epitaxial Cr-Mo and Cr-V Alloy Thin Films Studied Using Atom Probe Tomography: Comparison Of Experiments And Simulation." Journal of Applied Physics 116, no. 19:Article No. 193512. PNNL-SA-105687. doi:10.1063/1.4901465
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy with Enhanced Magnetic Properties." Journal of Applied Physics 115, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-98806. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure Of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy With Enhanced Magnetic Properties." Journal of Applied Physics 115, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-100163. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Jiang X., A. Devaraj, B. Balamurugan, J. Cui, and J.E. Shield. 2014. "Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties." Journal of Applied Physics 15, no. 6:Article No. 063902. PNNL-SA-103611. doi:10.1063/1.4865298
  • Setyawan W., M.D. Gerboth, B. Yao, C.H. Henager, A. Devaraj, V.S. Vemuri, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2014. "Asymmetry of radiation damage properties in Al-Ti nanolayers." Journal of Nuclear Materials 445, no. 1-3:261-271. PNNL-SA-96969. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.11.012
  • Vijayakumar M., N. Govind, E.D. Walter, S.D. Burton, A.K. Shukla, A. Devaraj, and J. Xiao, et al. 2014. "Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 16, no. 22:10923-10932. PNNL-SA-99942. doi:10.1039/c4cp00889H

2013

  • Devaraj A., R.J. Colby, W.P. Hess, D.E. Perea, and S. Thevuthasan. 2013. "Role of Photoexcitation and Field Ionization in the Measurement of Accurate Oxide Stoichiometry by Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography." The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4, no. 6:993-998. PNNL-SA-92674. doi:10.1021/jz400015h
  • Devaraj A., S. Nag, and R. Banerjee. 2013. "Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography." Scripta Materialia 69, no. 7:513-516. PNNL-SA-94665. doi:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.06.011
  • Katakam S.K., A. Devaraj, M.E. Bowden, S. Santhanakrishnan, C. Smith, R. Ramanujan, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2013. "Laser Assisted Crystallization of Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons: A Multimodal Characterization and Thermal Model Study." Journal of Applied Physics 114, no. 18:Article No. 184901. PNNL-SA-96372. doi:10.1063/1.4829279
  • Wang C.M., T.C. Kaspar, V. Shutthanandan, A.G. Joly, L. Kovarik, B.W. Arey, and M. Gu, et al. 2013. "Structure And Radiation Damage Behavior Of Epitaxial CrxMo1-x Alloy Thin Films On MgO." Journal of Nuclear Materials 437, no. 1-3:55-61. PNNL-SA-92123. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.345
  • Xu Z., D. Li, W. Xu, A. Devaraj, R.J. Colby, and S. Thevuthasan. 2013. "A Level Set Evaporation Model for Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip." In Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2013, August 4-8, 2013, Indianapolis, Indiana, 19, 934-935. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-94999. doi:10.1017/S1431927613006661
  • Xu Z., D. Li, W. Xu, A. Devaraj, R.J. Colby, and S. Thevuthasan. 2013. "A Level Set Evaporation Model for Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip." In Proceedings of Microscopy & Microanalysis 2013, 19, 934-935. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-93961. doi:10.1017/S1431927613006661
  • Yang F., D.R. Coughlin, P.J. Phillips, L. Yang, A. Devaraj, L. Kovarik, and R.D. Noebe, et al. 2013. "Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy." Acta Materialia 61, no. 9:3335-3346. PNNL-SA-91683. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2013.02.023

2012

  • Perea D.E., D.K. Schreiber, A. Devaraj, S. Thevuthasan, J. Yoo, S.A. Dayeh, and S.T. Picraux. 2012. "Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires." Microscopy and Microanalysis 18, no. Suppl. 2:1860-1861. PNNL-SA-91518. doi:10.1017/S1431927612011154

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