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Staff information


Susannah Burrows

Earth System Modeling
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352

Research Interests

  • Primary biological aerosol particles
  • Source estimation and attribution for global climate models
  • Aerosol-cloud interactions

Education and Credentials

  • Dr. rer. nat., Meteorology (summa cum laude), Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany (2011); Thesis Advisor: Dr. Mark Lawrence
  • Diplom, Meteorology, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany (2008)
  • B.A., Physics (with high honors) and German Studies, Oberlin College (2005)

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Meteorological Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow (2006-2009)

PNNL Publications


  • Cornwell G.C., C. Mccluskey, T.C. Hill, E. Levin, N. Rothfuss, S. Tai, and M.D. Petters, et al. 2023. "Bioaerosols are the dominant source of warm-temperature immersion-mode INPs and drive uncertainties in INP predictability." Science Advances 9, no. 37:Art. No. eadg3715. PNNL-SA-179510. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adg3715
  • Raman A., T.C. Hill, P.J. DeMott, B. Singh, K. Zhang, P. Ma, and M. Wu, et al. 2023. "Long-term Variability in immersion-mode Marine Ice Nucleating Particles from Climate Model Simulations and Observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 23, no. 10:5735-5762. PNNL-SA-171035. doi:10.5194/acp-23-5735-2023
  • Russell L., R. Moore, S.M. Burrows, and P.K. Quinn. 2023. "Ocean Flux of Salt, Sulfate, and Organic Components to Atmospheric Aerosol." Earth-Science Reviews 239. PNNL-SA-175890. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104364
  • Silva S.J., S.M. Burrows, K.V. Calvin, P.J. Cameron-Smith, X. Shi, and T. Zhou. 2023. "Contrasting the biophysical and radiative effects of rising CO2 concentrations on ozone dry deposition fluxes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 6:Art. No. e2022JD037668. PNNL-SA-176677. doi:10.1029/2022JD037668
  • Zhao X., X. Liu, S.M. Burrows, P.J. DeMott, M. Diao, G. Mcfarquhar, and S. Patade, et al. 2023. "Important Ice Processes Are Missed by the Community Earth System Model in Southern Ocean Mixed-Phase Clouds: Bridging SOCRATES Observations to Model Developments." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 4:Art. No. e2022JD037513. PNNL-SA-176173. doi:10.1029/2022JD037513
  • Zhu Q., W. Riley, J. Tang, S.M. Burrows, B.E. Harrop, X. Shi, and X. Yang, et al. 2023. "Present and future changes in land-atmosphere coupling of water and energy over extratropical forest regions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 8:Art. No. e2022JD037887. PNNL-SA-177246. doi:10.1029/2022JD037887


  • Burrows S.M., C.S. Mccluskey, G.C. Cornwell, I. Steinke, K. Zhang, B. Zhao, and M. Zawadowicz, et al. 2022. "Ice-nucleating particles that impact clouds and climate: Observational and modeling research needs." Reviews of Geophysics 60, no. 2:Art. No. e2021RG000745. PNNL-SA-165298. doi:10.1029/2021RG000745
  • Burrows S.M., R.C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Ma, H. Wang, S. Elliott, and B. Singh, et al. 2022. "OCEANFILMS (Organic Compounds from Ecosystems to Aerosols: Natural Films and Interfaces via Langmuir Molecular Surfactants) sea spray organic aerosol emissions - implementation in a global climate model and impacts on clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 8:5223-5251. PNNL-SA-131643. doi:10.5194/acp-22-5223-2022
  • Harrop B.E., S.M. Burrows, K.V. Calvin, G.J. Kooperman, L. Leung, M.E. Maltrud, and X. Shi, et al. 2022. "Diurnal rainfall response to the physiological and radiative effects of CO2 in tropical forests in the Energy exascale earth system model v1." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 127, no. 10:Art. No. e2021JD036148. PNNL-SA-168093. doi:10.1029/2021JD036148
  • Kaufman D.E., S. Feng, K.V. Calvin, B.E. Harrop, and S.M. Burrows. 2022. "gdess: A framework for evaluating simulated atmospheric CO2 in Earth System Models." Journal of Open Source Software 7, no. 76:4326. PNNL-SA-166551. doi:10.21105/joss.04326
  • Steinke I., and S.M. Burrows. 2022. "Sensitivity of ice nucleation parameterizations to the variability in underlying ice nucleation rate coefficients." Environmental Science: Atmospheres 2, no. 5:1101-1107. PNNL-SA-170991. doi:10.1039/D2EA00019A
  • Steinke I., P.J. DeMott, G. Deane, T.C. Hill, M.E. Maltrud, A. Raman, and S.M. Burrows. 2022. "A numerical framework for simulating the atmospheric variability of supermicron marine biogenic ice nucleating particles." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 2:847-859. PNNL-SA-161127. doi:10.5194/acp-22-847-2022
  • Zhang K., W. Zhang, H. Wan, P.J. Rasch, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, and X. Shi, et al. 2022. "Effective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivities." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 13:9129-9160. PNNL-SA-169371. doi:10.5194/acp-22-9129-2022


  • Cornwell G.C., H. Xiao, L.K. Berg, and S.M. Burrows. 2021. "Simulated dust transport in the convective boundary layer." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 5:e2020JD033429. PNNL-SA-156006. doi:10.1029/2020JD033429
  • Keeble J.M., B. Hassler, A. Banerjee, R. Checa-Garcia, G. Chiodo, S.M. Davis, and V. Eyring, et al. 2021. "Evaluating stratospheric ozone and water vapour changes in CMIP6 models from 1850-2100." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21, no. 6:5015-5061. PNNL-SA-158602. doi:10.5194/acp-21-5015-2021
  • Silva S.J., S.M. Burrows, M. Evans, and M. Halappanavar. 2021. "A Graph Theoretical Intercomparison of Atmospheric Chemical Mechanisms." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 1:Article No. e2020GL090481. PNNL-SA-155287. doi:10.1029/2020GL090481
  • Zhao X., X. Liu, S.M. Burrows, and Y. Shi. 2021. "Effects of Marine Organic Aerosols as Sources of Immersion-Mode Ice Nucleating Particles on High Latitude Mixed-Phase Clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21, no. 4:2305-2327. PNNL-SA-154775. doi:10.5194/acp-21-2305-2021


  • Burrows S.M., M.E. Maltrud, X. Yang, Q. Zhu, N. Jeffery, X. Shi, and D.M. Ricciuto, et al. 2020. "The DOE E3SM v1.1 biogeochemistry configuration: Description and Simulated Ecosystem-Climate Responses to Historical Changes in Forcing." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 9:e2019MS001766. PNNL-SA-144279. doi:10.1029/2019MS001766
  • Dasgupta A., H.X. Wang, N.D. O'Brien, and S.M. Burrows. 2020. "Separating the wheat from the chaff: Comparative visual cues for transparent diagnostics of competing models." IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 26, no. 1:1043-1053. PNNL-SA-129640. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2019.2934540
  • Jeffery N., M. Maltrud, E.C. Hunke, S. Wang, J. Wolfe, A.K. Turner, and S.M. Burrows, et al. 2020. "Investigating controls on sea ice algal production using E3SMv1.1-BGC." Annals of Glaciology 61, no. 82:51-72. PNNL-SA-151063. doi:10.1017/aog.2020.7
  • Mather J.H., S.M. Burrows, D. Chand, N.J. Hess, A. Laskin, A.C. Mccomiskey, and N. Sharma, et al. 2020. "An Atmospheric Aerosol Short Course for Early Career Scientists." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101, no. 9:E1562-E1567. PNNL-SA-149235. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0326.1
  • Raman A., S.M. Burrows, E. King, and L.M. Bramer. 2020. EBSD seed LDRD project: Does Corona Virus - 2019 (COVID-19) and Seasonal Flu have similar meteorology and air quality controls driving their spread?. PNNL-30778. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. EBSD seed LDRD project: Does Corona Virus - 2019 (COVID-19) and Seasonal Flu have similar meteorology and air quality controls driving their spread?
  • Wang H., R.C. Easter, R. Zhang, P. Ma, B. Singh, K. Zhang, and D. Ganguly, et al. 2020. "Aerosols in the E3SM Version 1: New Developments and Their Impacts on Radiative Forcing." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 1:Article No. e2019MS001851. PNNL-SA-146124. doi:10.1029/2019MS001851


  • Golaz J., P.M. Caldwell, L. Van Roekel, M.R. Petersen, Q. Tang, J. Wolfe, and G.W. Abeshu, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM coupled model version 1: Overview and evaluation at standard resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 7:2089-2129. PNNL-SA-141816. doi:10.1029/2018MS001603
  • Hecht M., M. Veneziani, W. Weijer, B.S. Kravitz, S.M. Burrows, D. Comeau, and E.C. Hunke, et al. 2019. "E3SMv0-HiLAT: A Modified Climate System Model Targeted for the Study of High=Latitude Processes." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 8:2814-2843. PNNL-SA-137621. doi:10.1029/2018MS001524
  • Mccluskey C.S., P.J. DeMott, P. Ma, and S.M. Burrows. 2019. "Numerical Representations of Marine Ice-Nucleating Particles in Remote Marine Environments Evaluated against Observations." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 13:7838-7847. PNNL-SA-140385. doi:10.1029/2018GL081861
  • Rasch P.J., S. Xie, P. Ma, W. Lin, H. Wang, Q. Tang, and S.M. Burrows, et al. 2019. "An Overview of the Atmospheric Component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 8:2377-2411. PNNL-SA-144927. doi:10.1029/2019MS001629


  • Burrows S.M., A. Dasgupta, S.M. Reehl, L.M. Bramer, P. Ma, P.J. Rasch, and Y. Qian. 2018. "Characterizing the relative importance assigned to physical variables by climate scientists when assessing atmospheric climate model fidelity." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 35, no. 9:1101-1113. PNNL-SA-129346. doi:10.1007/s00376-018-7300-x
  • China S., S.M. Burrows, B. Wang, T. Harder, J. Weis, M. Tanarhte, and L.V. Rizzo, et al. 2018. "Fungal spores as a source of sodium salt particles in the Amazon basin." Nature Communications 9. PNNL-SA-130861. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07066-4
  • Elliott S., S.M. Burrows, P. Cameron-Smith, F.M. Hoffman, E.C. Hunke, N. Jeffery, and Y. Liu, et al. 2018. "Does Marine Surface Tension have Global Biogeography? Addition for the OCEANFILMS Package." Atmosphere 9, no. 6:Article No. 216. PNNL-SA-134654. doi:10.3390/atmos9060216
  • Schill S.R., S.M. Burrows, E.S. Hasenecz, E. Stone, and T.H. Bertram. 2018. "The Impact of Divalent Cations on the Enrichment of Soluble Saccharides in Primary Sea Spray Aerosol." Atmosphere 9, no. 12:476. PNNL-SA-140085. doi:10.3390/atmos9120476
  • Schuerger A.C., D. Smith, D.W. Griffin, D. Jaffe, B. Wawrik, S.M. Burrows, and B.C. Christner, et al. 2018. "Science questions and knowledge gaps to study microbial transport and survival in Asian and African dust plumes reaching North America." Aerobiologia 34, no. 4:425-435. PNNL-SA-133720. doi:10.1007/s10453-018-9541-7
  • Wang S., M. Maltrud, S.M. Burrows, S. Elliott, and P. Cameron-Smith. 2018. "Impacts of shifts in phytoplankton community on clouds and climate via the sulfur cycle." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 32, no. 6:1005-1026. PNNL-SA-131065. doi:10.1029/2017GB005862
  • Zhang K., P.J. Rasch, M. Taylor, H. Wan, L. Leung, P. Ma, and J. Golaz, et al. 2018. "Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAM V1)." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 5:1971-1988. PNNL-SA-129738. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1971-2018


  • Dasgupta A., S.M. Burrows, K. Han, and P.J. Rasch. 2017. "Empirical Analysis of the Subjective Impressions and Objective Measures of Domain Scientists’ Analytical Judgment Using Visualizations." In Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2017), May 6-11, 2017, Denver, Colorado, 1193-1204. New York, New York:ACM. PNNL-SA-121199. doi:10.1145/3025453.3025882
  • Dasgupta A., S.M. Burrows, K. Han, and P.J. Rasch. 2017. "Empirical Analysis of the Subjective Impressions and Objective Measures of Domain Scientists’ Visual Analytic Judgments." In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2017), May 6-11, 2017, Denver, Colorado, 1193-1204. New York, New York:ACM. PNNL-SA-123318. doi:10.1145/3025453.3025882
  • Engel A., H.W. Bange, M. Cunliffe, S.M. Burrows, G. Friedrichs, L. Galgani, and H. Herrmann, et al. 2017. "The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer." Frontiers in Marine Science 4. PNNL-SA-127523. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00165
  • Vergara Temprado J., B.J. Murray, T.W. Wilson, D. O'Sullivan, J. Browse, K.J. Pringle, and K. Ardon-Dryer, et al. 2017. "Contribution of feldspar and marine organic aerosols to global ice nucleating particle concentrations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 5:3637-3658. PNNL-SA-120290. doi:10.5194/acp-17-3637-2017
  • Wang X., G.B. Deane, K.A. Moore, O.S. Ryder, M. Stokes, C.M. Beall, and D.B. Collins, et al. 2017. "The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 114, no. 27:6978-6983. PNNL-SA-124917. doi:10.1073/pnas.1702420114


  • Burrows S.M., E.A. Gobrogge, L. Fu, K.A. Link, S. Elliott, H. Wang, and R.A. Walker. 2016. "OCEANFILMS-2: Representing Coadsorption of Saccharides in Marine Flms and Potential Impacts on Modeled Marine Aerosol Chemistry." Geophysical Research Letters 43, no. 15:8306-8313. PNNL-SA-115449. doi:10.1002/2016GL069070
  • Frohlich-Nowoisky J., C. Kampf, B. Weber, A. Huffman, C. Pohlker, M.O. Andreae, and N. Lang-Yona, et al. 2016. "Bioaerosols in the Earth System: Climate, Health, and Ecosystem Interactions." Atmospheric Research 182. PNNL-SA-118665. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.07.018
  • Twohy C.H., G.R. McMeeking, P.J. DeMott, C. McCluskey, T.J. Hill, S.M. Burrows, and G.R. Kulkarni, et al. 2016. "Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 13:8205-8225. PNNL-SA-115217. doi:10.5194/acp-16-8205-2016
  • Wood R., M. Jensen, J. Wang, C.S. Bretherton, S.M. Burrows, A.D. Del Genio, and A.M. Fridlind, et al. 2016. "Planning the next decade of coordinated research to better understand and simulate marine low clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97, no. 9:1699-1702. PNNL-SA-118876. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0160.1
  • Xu L., L.M. Russell, and S.M. Burrows. 2016. "Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flower in the pan-Arctic region." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 18:10,840-10,856. PNNL-SA-115198. doi:10.1002/2015JD024713


  • Chang D., Y. Cheng, P. Reutter, J. Trentmann, S.M. Burrows, P. Spichtinger, and S. Nordmann, et al. 2015. "Comprehensive Mapping and Characteristic Regimes of Aerosol Effects on the Formation and Evolution of Pyro-Convective Clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, no. 18:10325-10348. PNNL-SA-100498. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10325-2015
  • McCoy D., S.M. Burrows, R. Wood, D.P. Grosvenor, S. Elliott, P. Ma, and P.J. Rasch, et al. 2015. "Natural Aerosols Explain Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of Southern Ocean Cloud Albedo." Science Advances 1, no. 6:Art. No. e1500157. PNNL-SA-106456. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500157
  • Ogunro O., S.M. Burrows, S. Elliott, A. Frossard, F.M. Hoffman, R. Letscher, and J.K. Moore, et al. 2015. "Global Distribution and Surface Activity of Macromolecules in Offline Simulations of Marine Organic Chemistry." Biogeochemistry 126, no. 1:25-56. PNNL-SA-106391. doi:10.1007/s10533-015-0136-x
  • Wilson T.W., L.A. Ladino, P.A. Alpert, M.N. Breckels, I.M. Brooks, J. Browse, and S.M. Burrows, et al. 2015. "A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles." Nature 525, no. 7568:234-238. PNNL-SA-109270. doi:10.1038/nature14986


  • Burrows S.M., O. Ogunro, A. Frossard, L.M. Russell, P.J. Rasch, and S. Elliott. 2014. "A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 24:13601-13629. PNNL-SA-100411. doi:10.5194/acp-14-13601-2014
  • Elliott S., S.M. Burrows, C. Deal, X. Liu, M. Long, O. Ogunro, and L.M. Russell, et al. 2014. "Prospects for Simulating Macromolecular Surfactant Chemistry at the Ocean-Atmosphere Boundary." Environmental Research Letters 9, no. 6:064012. PNNL-SA-92243. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064012
  • Frossard A., L. Russell, S.M. Burrows, S. Elliott, T.S. Bates, P.K. Quinn, and P.K. Quinn. 2014. "Sources and Composition of Submicron Organic Mass in Marine Aerosol Particles." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 22:12,977-13,003. PNNL-SA-101597. doi:10.1002/2014JD021913
  • Haga D.I., S.M. Burrows, R. Iannone, M.J. Wheeler, R. Mason, J. Chen, and E.A. Polishchuk, et al. 2014. "Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 16:8611-8630. PNNL-SA-99695. doi:10.5194/acp-14-8611-2014


  • Burrows S.M., C. Hoose, U. Poschl, and M. Lawrence. 2013. "Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 1:245-267. PNNL-SA-92061. doi:10.5194/acp-13-245-2013
  • Burrows S.M., P. Rayner, T. Butler, and M. Lawrence. 2013. "Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 11:5473-5488. PNNL-SA-91651. doi:10.5194/acp-13-5473-2013

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