Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Gokul Iyer

Human-Earth Sys Sci: Analysis
Systems Engineer


Gokul Iyer is a scientist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Joint Global Change Research Institute. Dr. Iyer's research focuses on investigating issues at the intersections of energy, land, water using multi-sector multi-scale human-Earth system models. Currently, he coordinates the development and application of a state-level model of the U.S. (GCAM-USA) embedded within a global human-Earth system model (GCAM).

Research Interests

  • Human-Earth system modeling
  • Energy system transformations
  • Technology and Technological change
  • Sustainable Development

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Environmental Policy, University of Maryland, USA.
  • Master of Technology, Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay, India.
  • Bachelor of Technology, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India.

PNNL Publications


  • Cohen S., G.C. Iyer, M. Brown, J. Macknick, M.A. Wise, M.T. Binsted, and N. Voisin, et al. 2021. "How structural differences influence cross-model consistency: An electric sector case study." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 144. PNNL-SA-149703. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111009
  • Duan H., S. Zhou, K. Jiang, C. Bertram, M. Harmsen, E. Kriegler, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2021. "Assessing China’s efforts to pursue the 1.5 degrees C warming limit." Science 372, no. 6540:378-385. PNNL-ACT-SA-10543. doi:10.1126/science.aba8767
  • Fragkos P., H. van Soest, R. Schaeffer, L. Reedman, A. Koberle, N. Macaluso, and S. Evangelopoulou, et al. 2021. "Energy System Transitions and Low-carbon Pathways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU-28, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, and United States." Energy 216. PNNL-ACT-SA-10480. doi:10.1016/
  • Graham N.T., G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, and M.T. Binsted. 2021. "Agricultural impacts of sustainable water use in the United States." Scientific Reports 11, no. 1:17917. PNNL-SA-155855. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96243-5
  • Harmsen M., E. Kriegler, D. vanVuuren, K. van der Wijst, G. Luderer, R. Cui, and O. Dessens, et al. 2021. "Integrated Assessment Model Diagnostics: Key indicators and model evolution." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 5:054046. PNNL-ACT-SA-10534. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abf964
  • Khan Z., G.C. Iyer, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, M.I. Hejazi, C.D. Burleyson, and M.A. Wise. 2021. "Impacts of long-term temperature change and variability on electricity investments." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:Article No. 1643. PNNL-SA-150975. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21785-1
  • Khan Z., T.B. Wild, G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, and C.R. Vernon. 2021. "The future evolution of energy-water-agriculture interconnectivity across the U.S." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 6:065010. PNNL-SA-159533. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac046c
  • Li X., Y. Zhou, M.I. Hejazi, M.A. Wise, C.R. Vernon, G.C. Iyer, and W. Chen. 2021. "Global urban growth between 1870 and 2100 from integrated high resolution mapped data and urban dynamic modeling." Communications Earth & Environment 2. PNNL-SA-158560. doi:10.1038/s43247-021-00273-w
  • Ou Y., M.T. Binsted, G.C. Iyer, P.L. Patel, and M.A. Wise. 2021. "US state-level capacity expansion pathways with improved modeling of the power sector dynamics within a multisector model." Energy Strategy Reviews 38. PNNL-SA-161771. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2021.100739
  • Peng W., G.C. Iyer, M.T. Binsted, J. Marlon, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and D. Victor. 2021. "The surprisingly inexpensive cost of state-driven emission control strategies." Nature Climate Change 11, no. 9:738-756. PNNL-ACT-SA-10452. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01128-0
  • Santos Da Silva S., M.I. Hejazi, G.C. Iyer, T. Wild, M.T. Binsted, F. Miralles-Wilhelm, and P.L. Patel, et al. 2021. "Power sector investment implications of climate impacts on renewable resources in Latin America and the Caribbean." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:Article No. 1276. PNNL-SA-154178. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21502-y
  • Zhao X., K.V. Calvin, M.A. Wise, and G.C. Iyer. 2021. "The role of global agricultural market integration in multiregional economic modeling: using hindcast experiments to validate an Armington model." Economic Analysis and Policy 72. PNNL-SA-158709. doi:10.1016/j.eap.2021.07.007


  • Binsted M.T., G.C. Iyer, Y. Cui, Z. Khan, K.R. Dorheim, and L.E. Clarke. 2020. "Evaluating long-term model-based scenarios of the energy system." Energy Strategy Reviews 32. PNNL-SA-150857. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2020.100551
  • Burleyson C.D., G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, J.S. Rice, and A.D. Smith, et al. 2020. "Future western U.S. building electricity consumption in response to climate and population drivers: A comparative study of the impact of model structure." Energy 208. PNNL-SA-151017. doi:10.1016/
  • Edmonds J.A., C. Nichols, M. Adamantiades, J. Bistline, J.E. Huster, G.C. Iyer, and N. Johnson, et al. 2020. "Could congressionally mandated incentives lead to deployment of large-scale CO2 capture, facilities for enhanced oil recovery CO2 markets and geologic CO2 storage?." Energy Policy 146. PNNL-SA-154457. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111775
  • Feijoo F., G.C. Iyer, M.T. Binsted, and J.A. Edmonds. 2020. "US energy system transitions under cumulative emissions budgets." Climatic Change 162. PNNL-ACT-SA-10320. doi:10.1007/s10584-020-02670-0
  • Schaeffer R., A. Koberle, H. van Soest, C. Bertram, G. Luderer, K. Riahi, and V. Krey, et al. 2020. "Comparing Transformation Pathways Across Major Economies." Climatic Change 162, no. 4:1787-1803. PNNL-ACT-SA-10439. doi:10.1007/s10584-020-02837-9
  • Yalew S.G., M. Van Vliet, D. Gernaat, F. Ludwig, A. Miara, C. Park, and E. Byers, et al. 2020. "Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Systems in Global and Regional Scenarios." Nature Energy 5, no. 10:794-802. PNNL-SA-145429. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-0664-z


  • Cui R., N. Hultman, M.R. Edwards, L. He, A. Sen, K. Surana, and H.C. McJeon, et al. 2019. "Quantifying operational lifetimes for coal power plants under the Paris goals." Nature Communications 10. PNNL-ACT-SA-10417. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12618-3
  • Iyer G.C. 2019. "A Decent Life." Nature Energy 4, no. 12:1010-1011. PNNL-ACT-SA-10451. doi:10.1038/s41560-019-0496-x
  • Iyer G.C., M. Brown, S. Cohen, J. Macknick, P.L. Patel, M.A. Wise, and M.T. Binsted, et al. 2019. "Improving consistency among models of overlapping scope in multi-sector studies: The case of electricity capacity expansion scenarios." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 116. PNNL-SA-134710. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2019.109416
  • Krey V., F. Guo, P. Kolp, W. Zhou, R. Schaeffer, A. Awasthy, and C. Bertram, et al. 2019. "Looking under the hood: A comparison of techno-economic assumptions across national and global integrated assessment models." Energy 172. PNNL-ACT-SA-10389. doi:10.1016/
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, G.C. Iyer, and B. Forman. 2019. "Implications of water constraints on electricity capacity expansion in the United States." Nature Sustainability 2, no. 3:206-213. PNNL-SA-129550. doi:10.1038/s41893-019-0235-0
  • Luderer G., M. Pehl, A. Arvesen, T. Gibon, B. Bodirsky, H. Sytze de Boer, and O. Fricko, et al. 2019. "Environmental co-benefits and adverse side-effects of alternative power sector decarbonization strategies." Nature Communications 10. PNNL-ACT-SA-10352. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-13067-8
  • Wise M.A., P.L. Patel, Z. Khan, S.H. Kim, M.I. Hejazi, and G.C. Iyer. 2019. "Representing power sector detail and flexibility in a multi-sector model." Energy Strategy Reviews 26. PNNL-SA-138629. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2019.100411


  • Feijoo F., G.C. Iyer, C. Avraam, S.A. Siddiqui, L.E. Clarke, S. Sankaranarayanan, and M.T. Binsted, et al. 2018. "The future of natural gas infrastructure development in the United states." Applied Energy 228. PNNL-SA-132268. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.037
  • Fragkos P., K. Fragkiadakis, L. Paroussos, R. Pierfederici, S.S. Vishwanathan, A. Koberle, and G.C. Iyer, et al. 2018. "Coupling national and global models to explore policy impacts of NDCs." Energy Policy 118. PNNL-ACT-SA-10309. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.04.002
  • Hodson E.L., M. Brown, S. Cohen, S. Showalter, M.A. Wise, F. Wood, and J. Caron, et al. 2018. "U.S. Energy Sector Impacts of Technology Innovation, Fuel Price, and Electric Sector CO2 Policy: Results from the EMF 32 Model Intercomparison Study." Energy Economics 73. PNNL-SA-133176. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2018.03.027
  • Iyer G.C., and J.A. Edmonds. 2018. "Energy modeling: Interpreting energy scenarios." Nature Energy 3. PNNL-ACT-SA-10305. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0145-9
  • Iyer G.C., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, C.A. Hartin, and H.C. McJeon, et al. 2018. "Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across nationally determined contributions." Nature Climate Change 8. PNNL-SA-121202. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0039-z
  • McCollum D., W. Zhou, C. Bertram, H. Sytze de Boer, V. Bosetti, S. Busch, and J. Despres, et al. 2018. "Energy investment needs for fulfilling the Paris Agreement and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals." Nature Energy 3, no. 7:589-599. PNNL-ACT-SA-10308. doi:10.1038/s41560-018-0179-z


  • Davidson C.L., R.T. Dahowski, H.C. McJeon, L.E. Clarke, G.C. Iyer, and M. Muratori. 2017. "The value of CCS under current policy scenarios: NDCs and beyond." Energy Procedia 114. PNNL-SA-121411. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1885
  • Iyer G.C., and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "Emission scenarios: Explaining differences." Nature Climate Change 7. PNNL-ACT-SA-10208. doi:10.1038/nclimate3200
  • Iyer G.C., C.M. Ledna, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.C. McJeon, P. Kyle, and J. Williams. 2017. "Measuring Progress from Nationally Determined Contributions to Mid-Century Strategies." Nature Climate Change 7. PNNL-ACT-SA-10269. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0005-9


  • Aldy J., W. Pizer, M. Tavoni, L. Reis, K. Akimoto, G.J. Blanford, and C. Carraro, et al. 2016. "Economic Tools to Promote Transparency and Comparability in the Paris Agreement." Nature Climate Change 6. PNNL-ACT-SA-10174. doi:10.1038/nclimate3106
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and N. Hultman. 2016. "Do national-level policies to promote low-carbon technology deployment pay off for the investor countries?." Energy Policy 98. PNNL-ACT-SA-10178. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.08.017


  • Fawcett A., G.C. Iyer, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, H.C. McJeon, and J. Rogelj, et al. 2015. "Can Paris pledges avert severe climate change?." Science 350, no. 6265:1168-1169. PNNL-ACT-SA-10111. doi:10.1126/science.aad5761
  • Iyer G.C., J.A. Edmonds, A.A. Fawcett, N. Hultman, J. Alsalam, G.R. Asrar, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 12:Article No. 125002. PNNL-SA-111720. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/125002
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, B.P. Flannery, N. Hultman, H.C. McJeon, and D. Victor. 2015. "Improved Representation of Investment Decisions in Assessments of CO2 Mitigation." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 5:436-440. PNNL-ACT-SA-10042. doi:10.1038/nclimate2553
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, and H.C. McJeon. 2015. "Long-term payoffs of near-term low-carbon deployment policies." Energy Policy 86. PNNL-ACT-SA-10084. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.08.004
  • Iyer G.C., N. Hultman, J. Eom, H.C. McJeon, P.L. Patel, and L.E. Clarke. 2015. "Diffusion of low-carbon technologies and the feasibility of long-term climate targets." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, no. Part A:103-118. PNNL-SA-93434. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.08.025


  • Iyer G.C., N. Hultman, S. Fetter, and S.H. Kim. 2014. "Implications of Small Modular Reactors for Climate Change Mitigation." Energy Economics 45. PNNL-ACT-SA-10015. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.06.023

Science at PNNL

Core Research Areas

User Facilities

Centers & Institutes

Research Highlights

View All Research Highlights & Staff Accomplishments

RSS Feed