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Staff information

Ben Bond-Lamberty

Integrat Analys & Dec Sci Team
Scientist

Biography

I am a Research Scientist at the Joint Global Change Research Institute, a collaboration between the DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Maryland, in College Park, Maryland.

My research concerns carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, particularly (but not exclusively) high-latitude northern ecosystems. As a forest ecologist with training in a variety of field, lab, and modeling techniques, I'm interested in several broad areas:

Disturbance effects and forest stress. Disturbances--in particular, stand-replacing wildfires--are increasing in many parts of the world, and dominate carbon cycling in most North American boreal forests. How will this affect forest structure and function, particularly if fire intensity is changing as well? Will boreal trees be able to cope with a warming climate and degrading permafrost?

Ecosystem respiration. We understand, and are able to model, photosynthesis much better than we do respiration. How will the heterotrophic component of this flux respond? What is the potential for ecosystems to lose some of their long-sequestered carbon?

Multiscale modeling. Some ecology and earth science questions can only be answered by computer models. Such models operate at scales from a single plant to the entire globe, and propagating results and insights between scales is tricky. How can our models be parameterized efficiently and effectively, run quickly, and their results understood and evaluated? Can science results be used effectively in policy-oriented integrated assessment models that are our only tool for evaluating global-level impacts of policy and climate change, particularly with regard to land use?

Research Interests

  • Carbon cycling
  • Disturbance effects
  • Ecosystem respiration
  • Multiscale modeling
  • Climate change

Education and Credentials

  • 2003: University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Ph.D. with Dr. Stith T. Gower (Forest Ecosystem Ecology): "Carbon Dynamics of a Boreal Black Spruce Fire Chronosequence".
  • 1993: Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts. BA in History and Computer Science. Prizes in both departments; Magna Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa.

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Ecological Society of America
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Section Editor, PLOS ONE

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Anderson-Teixeira K.J., M. Wang, J. Mcgarvey, V. Herrmann, A.J. Tepley, B. Bond-Lamberty, and D.S. Lebauer. 2018. "ForC: A global database of forest carbon stocks and fluxes." Ecology 99, no. 6:1507-1507. PNNL-SA-131388. doi:10.1002/ecy.2229
  • Bailey V.L., B. Bond-Lamberty, K. DeAngelis, A. Grandy, C.V. Hawkes, K. Heckman, and K. Lajtha, et al. 2018. "Soil carbon cycling proxies: understanding their critical role in predicting climate change feedbacks." Global Change Biology 24, no. 3:895-905. PNNL-SA-128644. doi:10.1111/gcb.13926
  • Barba J., A. Cueva, M. Bahn, G. Barron-Gafford, B. Bond-Lamberty, P.J. Hanson, and A. Jaimes, et al. 2018. "Comparing Ecosystem and Soil Respiration: Review and Key Challenges of Tower-Based and Soil Measurements." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 249. PNNL-SA-124283. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.10.028
  • Bond-Lamberty B. 2018. "Data sharing and scientific impact in eddy covariance research." Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 123, no. 4:1440-1443. PNNL-SA-133276. doi:10.1002/2018JG004502
  • Gulbeyaz O., B. Bond-Lamberty, Z. Akyurek, and T.O. West. 2018. "A New Approach to Evaluate MODIS Annual NPP Product (MOD17A3) Using Forest Field Data from Turkey." International Journal of Remote Sensing 39, no. 8:2560-2578. PNNL-SA-131709. doi:10.1080/01431161.2018.1430913
  • Harden J.W., G. Hugelius, A. Ahlstrom, J. Blankinship, B. Bond-Lamberty, C. Lawrence, and J. Loisel, et al. 2018. "Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter." Global Change Biology 24, no. 2:e705-e718. PNNL-SA-126246. doi:10.1111/gcb.13896
  • Li F., D.M. Lawrence, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2018. "Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories." Global and Planetary Change 162. PNNL-SA-128110. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2018.01.002
  • Petrakis S., J. Barba, B. Bond-Lamberty, and R. Vargas. 2018. "Using greenhouse gas fluxes to define soil functional types." Plant and Soil 423, no. 1-2:285-294. PNNL-SA-126427. doi:10.1007/s11104-017-3506-4

2017

  • Bailey V.L., A.P. Smith, M.M. Tfaily, S.J. Fansler, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2017. "Differences in Soluble Organic Carbon Chemistry in Pore Waters Sampled from Different Pore Size Domains." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 107. PNNL-SA-118268. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.11.025
  • Butler E.E., A. Datta, H. Flores-Moreno, M. Chen, K. Wythers, F. Fazayeli, and F. Banerjee, et al. 2017. "Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114, no. 51:E10937-E10946. PNNL-SA-121738. doi:10.1073/pnas.1708984114
  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Chen M., R. Rafique, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, P. Ciais, F. Zhao, and C. Reyer, et al. 2017. "Regional Contribution to Variability and Trends of Global Gross Primary Productivity." Environmental Research Letters 12, no. 10:105005. PNNL-SA-128641. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8978
  • Kravitz B.S., C.D. Lynch, C.A. Hartin, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2017. "Exploring precipitation pattern scaling methodologies and robustness among CMIP5 models." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 5:1889-1902. PNNL-SA-121575. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-1889-2017
  • Le Page Y., D. Morton, C.A. Hartin, B. Bond-Lamberty, J.M. Pereira, G.C. Hurtt, and G.R. Asrar. 2017. "Synergy between land use and climate change increases future fire risk in Amazon forests." Earth System Dynamics 8, no. 4:1237-1246. PNNL-SA-119758. doi:10.5194/esd-8-1237-2017
  • Li F., D.M. Lawrence, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2017. "Impact of fire on global land surface air temperature and energy budget for the 20th century due to changes within ecosystems." Environmental Research Letters 12, no. 4:Article No. 044014. PNNL-SA-120341. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa6685
  • Liu S., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.R. Boysen, J.D. Ford, A. Fox, K. Gallo, and J. Hatfield, et al. 2017. "Grand Challenges in Understanding the Interplay of Climate and Land Changes." Earth Interactions 21, no. 2:1-43. PNNL-SA-117168. doi:10.1175/EI-D-16-0012.1
  • Lynch C.D., C.A. Hartin, B. Bond-Lamberty, and B.S. Kravitz. 2017. "An open-access CMIP5 pattern library for temperature and precipitation: Description and methodology." Earth System Science Data 9, no. 1:281-292. PNNL-SA-125442. doi:10.5194/essd-2016-68
  • Phillips C., B. Bond-Lamberty, A.R. Desai, M. Lavoie, D. Risk, J. Tang, and K. Todd-Brown, et al. 2017. "The value of soil respiration measurements for interpreting and modeling terrestrial carbon cycling." Plant and Soil 413, no. 1:1-25. PNNL-SA-118375. doi:10.1007/s11104-016-3084-x
  • Smith A.P., B. Bond-Lamberty, B.W. Benscoter, M.M. Tfaily, R. Hinkle, C. Liu, and V.L. Bailey. 2017. "Shifts in pore connectivity from precipitation versus groundwater rewetting increases soil carbon loss after drought." Nature Communications 8. PNNL-SA-121121. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01320-x
  • Stegen J.C., C.G. Anderson, B. Bond-Lamberty, A.R. Crump, X. Chen, and N.J. Hess. 2017. "Soil respiration across a permafrost transition zone: spatial structure and environmental correlates." Biogeosciences 14, no. 18:4341-4354. PNNL-SA-122396. doi:10.5194/bg-14-4341-2017
  • Thornton P.E., K.V. Calvin, A.D. Jones, A. Di Vittorio, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.M. Chini, and X. Shi, et al. 2017. "Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems." Nature Climate Change 7. PNNL-SA-111042. doi:10.1038/nclimate3310
  • Wang X., C. Wang, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2017. "Quantifying and reducing the differences in forest CO2-fluxes estimated by eddy covariance, biometric and chamber methods: A global synthesis." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 247. PNNL-SA-124998. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.07.023

2016

  • Abbott B., J.B. Jones, E.A. Schuur, F. Chapin, W.B. Bowden, M. Bret-Harte, and H.E. Epstein, et al. 2016. "Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 3:Article No. 034014. PNNL-SA-105300. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/3/034014
  • Bond-Lamberty B., A.P. Smith, and V.L. Bailey. 2016. "Running an open experiment: transparency and reproducibility in soil and ecosystem science." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 8:084004. PNNL-SA-118309. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084004
  • Bond-Lamberty B., A.P. Smith, and V.L. Bailey. 2016. "Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils." Biogeosciences 13, no. 24:6669-6681. PNNL-SA-118337. doi:10.5194/bg-13-6669-2016
  • Bond-Lamberty B., D. Epron, J.W. Harden, M. Harmon, F.M. Hoffman, J. Kumar, and A. McGuire, et al. 2016. "Estimating heterotrophic respiration at large scales: challenges, approaches, and next steps." Ecosphere 7, no. 6:e01380. PNNL-SA-114259. doi:10.1002/ecs2.1380
  • Bond-Lamberty B., H. Bolton, S.J. Fansler, A. Heredia-Langner, C. Liu, L.A. McCue, and J.L. Smith, et al. 2016. "Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment." PLoS One 11, no. 3:e0150599. PNNL-SA-94916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150599
  • Gough C., P. Curtis, B. Hardiman, C. Scheuermann, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2016. "Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests." Ecosphere 7, no. 6:e01375. PNNL-SA-111197. doi:10.1002/ecs2.1375
  • Hartin C.A., B. Bond-Lamberty, P.L. Patel, and A. Mundra. 2016. "Ocean acidification over the next three centuries using a simple global climate carbon-cycle model: projections and sensitivities." Biogeosciences 13, no. 15:4329-4342. PNNL-SA-115266. doi:10.5194/bg-13-4329-2016
  • Hoffman F.M., C.D. Koven, G. Kappel-Aleks, D.M. Lawrence, W. Riley, J.T. Randerson, and A. Ahlstrom, et al. 2016. International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Workshop Report, Technical Report DOE/SC-0186. PNNL-26550. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Stegen J.C., A.H. Hurlbert, B. Bond-Lamberty, X. Chen, C.G. Anderson, R.K. Chu, and F. Dini-Andreote, et al. 2016. "Aligning the Measurement of Microbial Diversity with Macroecological Theory." Frontiers in Microbiology 7. PNNL-SA-122085. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.01487
  • Yan Z., C. Liu, K. Todd-Brown, Y. Liu, B. Bond-Lamberty, and V.L. Bailey. 2016. "Pore-scale Investigation on the Response of Heterotrophic Respiration to Moisture Conditions in Heterogeneous Soils." Biogeochemistry 131, no. 1:121-134. PNNL-SA-117668. doi:10.1007/s10533-016-0270-0

2015

  • Bond-Lamberty B., J.P. Fisk, J. Holm, V.L. Bailey, G. Bohrer, and C. Gough. 2015. "Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models." Biogeosciences 12, no. 2:513-526. PNNL-SA-103663. doi:10.5194/bg-12-513-2015
  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, J.A. Edmonds, M.I. Hejazi, S.T. Waldhoff, M.A. Wise, and Y. Zhou. 2015. "The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions on Mitigation Policy Stringency." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:35-50. PNNL-SA-94788. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-1026-7
  • Collins W.D., A.P. Craig, J.E. Truesdale, A. Di Vittorio, A.D. Jones, B. Bond-Lamberty, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality." Biogeosciences 8. PNNL-SA-110647. doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2203-2015
  • Falster D., R. Duursma, M. Ishihara, D. Barneche, R. Fitzjohn, A. Varhammar, and M. Aiba, et al. 2015. "BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants." Ecology 96, no. 5:1445-1446. PNNL-SA-103891. doi:10.1890/14-1889.1
  • Hartin C.A., P.L. Patel, A. Schwarber, R.P. Link, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2015. "A simple object-oriented and open source model for scientific and policy analyses of the global climate system-Hector v1.0." Geoscientific Model Development 8, no. 4:939-955. PNNL-SA-104722. doi:10.5194/gmd-8-939-2015
  • Le Page Y., D. Morton, B. Bond-Lamberty, J.M. Pereira, and G.C. Hurtt. 2015. "HESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather drivers." Biogeosciences 12, no. 3:887-903. PNNL-SA-107843. doi:10.5194/bg-12-887-2015
  • Yang X., C. Liu, Y. Fang, R. Hinkle, H. Li, V.L. Bailey, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2015. "Simulations of Ecosystem Hydrological Processes Using a Unified Multi-Scale Model." Ecological Modelling 296. PNNL-SA-102861. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.032
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, K. Zhao, M.L. Imhoff, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, and G.R. Asrar, et al. 2015. "A global map of urban extent from nightlights." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 5:Article No. 054011. PNNL-SA-107842. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054011

2014

  • Bond-Lamberty B., A. Rocha, K.V. Calvin, B. Holmes, C. Wang, and M.L. Goulden. 2014. "Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest." Global Change Biology 20, no. 1:216-227. PNNL-SA-95459. doi:10.1111/gcb.12404
  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.V. Calvin, A.D. Jones, J. Mao, P.L. Patel, X. Shi, and A.M. Thomson, et al. 2014. "On linking an Earth system model to the equilibrium carbon representation of an economically optimizing land use model." Geoscientific Model Development 7, no. 6:2545-2555. PNNL-SA-100308. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2545-2014
  • Di Vittorio A., L.M. Chini, B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Mao, X. Shi, J.E. Truesdale, and A.P. Craig, et al. 2014. "From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations." Biogeosciences 11, no. 23:6435-6450. PNNL-SA-101139. doi:10.5194/bg-11-6435-2014
  • Le Page Y., D. Morton, B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Pereira, and G. Hurtt. 2014. "HESFIRE: an explicit fire model for projections in the coupled Human-Earth System." Biogeosciences 11, no. 7:10779-10826. PNWD-SA-10357. doi:10.5194/bgd-11-10779-2014
  • Levy O., B. Ball, B. Bond-Lamberty, K. Cheruvelil, A.O. Finley, N. Lottig, and S.W. Punyasena, et al. 2014. "Approaches to advancescientific understanding of macrosystems ecology." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12, no. 1:15-23. PNNL-SA-90793. doi:10.1890/130019
  • Li F., B. Bond-Lamberty, and S. Levis. 2014. "Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century." Biogeosciences 11, no. 5:1345-1360. PNNL-SA-98884. doi:10.5194/bg-11-1345-2014
  • Ruegg J., C. Gries, B. Bond-Lamberty, G. Bowen, B. Felzer, N. McIntyre, and P. Soranno, et al. 2014. "Closing the data life cycle: using information management in macrosystems ecology research." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12, no. 1:24-30. PNNL-SA-91091. doi:10.1890/120375

2013

  • Bond-Lamberty B. 2013. "Global vegetation model diversity and the risks of climate-driven ecosystem shifts." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 4:Article No. 041004. PNNL-SA-98932. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/041004
  • Le Page Y., G. Hurtt, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, P.L. Patel, M.A. Wise, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2013. "Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 015018. PNNL-SA-93321. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015018
  • Le Page Y., G. Hurtt, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, P.L. Patel, M.A. Wise, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2013. "Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 015018. PNWD-SA-9809. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015018
  • Wang C., Y. Han, J. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2013. "Seasonality of soil CO2 efflux in a temperate forest: Biophysical effects of snowpack and spring freeze-thaw cycles." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 177. PNNL-SA-91383. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.04.008

2012

  • Bond-Lamberty B., A.G. Bunn, and A.M. Thomson. 2012. "Multi-Year Lags between Forest Browning and Soil Respiration at High Northern Latitudes." PLoS One 7, no. 11:Article No. e50441. PNNL-SA-78393. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050441
  • Goetz S.J., B. Bond-Lamberty, B.E. Law, J. Hicke, J. Hicke, C. Huang, and R.A. Houghton, et al. 2012. "Observations and assessment of forest carbon recovery following disturbance in North America." Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 117. PNNL-SA-73964. doi:10.1029/2011JG001733
  • Kim D., R. Vargas, B. Bond-Lamberty, and M. Turetsky. 2012. "Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research." Biogeosciences 9, no. 7:2459-2483. PNNL-SA-80610. doi:10.5194/bg-9-2459-2012
  • Turetsky M., B. Bond-Lamberty, E.S. Euskirchen, J. Talbot, S. Frolking, A. McGuire, and E. Tuittila. 2012. "The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems." New Phytologist 196, no. 1:49-67. PNNL-SA-86520. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04254.x

2011

  • Bond-Lamberty B., D. Bronson, E. Bladyka, and S.T. Gower. 2011. "A comparison of trenched plot techniques for partitioning soil respiration." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, no. 10:2108-2114. PNNL-SA-76514. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.06.011
  • Bond-Lamberty B., S.T. Gower, B. Amiro, B. Amiro, and B. Ewers. 2011. "Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence." Ecohydrology 4, no. 1:26-35. PNNL-SA-65105. doi:10.1002/eco.118
  • Ewers B., B. Bond-Lamberty, and D. Mackay. 2011. "Consequences of stand age and species’ functional trait changes on ecosystem water use of forests." In Size- and Age-Related Changes in Tree Structure and Function: Tree Physiology, edited by FC Meinzer, B Lachenbruch & TE Dawson. 481-505. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-71274.
  • Harmon M., B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Tang, and R. Vargas. 2011. "Heterotrophic respiration in disturbed forests: A review with examples from North America." Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 116. PNNL-SA-74705. doi:10.1029/2010JG001495
  • Liu S., B. Bond-Lamberty, J. Hicke, J. Hicke, R. Vargas, S. Zhao, and J. Chen, et al. 2011. "Simulating the Impacts of Disturbances on Forest Carbon Cycling in North America: Processes, Data, Models, and Challenges." Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences 116. PNNL-SA-76012. doi:10.1029/2010JG001585
  • Thomson A.M., K.V. Calvin, S.J. Smith, G.P. Kyle, A.C. Volke, P.L. Patel, and S. Delgado Arias, et al. 2011. "RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:77-94. PNNL-SA-75003. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4

2010

  • Bond-Lamberty B., and A.M. Thomson. 2010. "A global database of soil respiration data." Biogeosciences 7, no. 6:1915-1926. PNNL-SA-70286.
  • Bond-Lamberty B., and A.M. Thomson. 2010. "Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record." Nature 464, no. 7288:579-582. PNNL-SA-68733. doi:10.1038/nature08930
  • Goulden M.L., A. McMillan, G. Winston, A. Rocha, K. Manies, J.W. Harden, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2010. "Patterns of NPP, GPP, Respiration and NEP During Boreal Forest Succession." Global Change Biology 17, no. 2:855-871. PNNL-SA-71684. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02274.x
  • Quan X., C. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Luo, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2010. "Dynamics of fine roots in five Chinese temperate forests." Journal of Plant Research 123, no. 4:497-507. PNNL-SA-68763.
  • Thomson A.M., K.V. Calvin, L. Chini, L. Chini, G. Hurtt, J.A. Edmonds, and B. Bond-Lamberty, et al. 2010. "Climate mitigation and the future of tropical landscapes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, no. 46:19633-19638. PNNL-SA-68407.

2009

  • Bond-Lamberty B., S.D. Peckham, S.T. Gower, and B. Ewers. 2009. "Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest." Global Change Biology 15, no. 5:1242-1254. PNNL-SA-62757.
  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.
  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, S.H. Kim, M.A. Wise, and A.M. Thomson, et al. 2009. Land-use Leakage. PNNL-18585. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Wise M.A., K.V. Calvin, A.M. Thomson, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R.D. Sands, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324, no. 5931:1183-1186. PNNL-SA-63505.

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