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Staff information


Beat Schmid

Atmospher Sci & Global Chg
Research Line Manager
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Beat Schmid is Group Leader in the Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division of the Earth & Biological Sciences Directorate, at PNNL. He leads over 50 staff members in the Earth System Measurements and Data group.

Dr. Schmid is also the Manager of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility, which provides airborne measurements required to answer science questions proposed by the atmospheric research community.

Dr. Schmid is an expert in airborne atmospheric research. Since 1997 he has been involved as a participant or leader in aircraft campaigns all over the world and has served on the Science Teams for two NASA satellite instruments. He is an author of 101 peer-reviewed journal publications.

Dr. Schmid has been was awarded two DOE Appreciation Awards and five NASA Group Achievement Awards, including for the development of world's first Airborne Sun-Tracking and Scanning Spectrometer (4STAR).

Dr. Schmid has been with PNNL since 2006. Previously he was a Group Leader and Senior Scientist with the Bay Area Environmental Research Institute where he worked in conjunction with the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA.

Research Interests

  • Airborne atmospheric research
  • Solar radiation instrumentation
  • Aerosol closure studies
  • Lidar and satellite validation

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D, Physics, 1995, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • M.S., Liz. Phil. Nat., 1991, University of Bern, Switzerland

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International, member
  • American Geophysical Union, member
  • Associate Editor, Journal Geophysical Research - Clouds and Aerosols (2002- 2012)

Awards and Recognitions

  • Five NASA Group Achievement Awards: INTEX (2005), SOLVE II (2004), and ARCTAS (2009) Science Teams, 4STAR Development Team (2011), SEAC4RS (2014)
  • Two DOE Appreciation Awards for dedicated service as Chair of the ARM Aerosol Working Group and Member of the ARM Climate Research Facility Science Board

PNNL Publications


  • Glienke S., N. Allwayin, F. Mei, J.M. Comstock, R.A. Shaw, J.M. Tomlinson, and B. Schmid. 2023. "Performance of optical sensors for cloud measurements deployed by the ARM Aerial Facility during ACE-ENA." Applied Optics 62, no. 19:5282-5293. PNNL-SA-174589. doi:10.1364/AO.491401
  • Goldberger L.A., I. Gonzalez-Hirshfeld, K.D. Nelson, H.S. Mehta, F. Mei, J.M. Tomlinson, and B. Schmid, et al. 2023. "High-Resolution Image Products Acquired from Mid-sized Uncrewed Aerial Systems for Land-Atmosphere Studies." Remote Sensing 15, no. 16:Art. No. 3940. PNNL-SA-183243. doi:10.3390/rs15163940
  • Hao W., F. Mei, S.V. Hering, S. Spielman, B. Schmid, J.M. Tomlinson, and Y. Wang. 2023. "Mapping the performance of a versatile water-based condensation particle counter (vWCPC) with numerical simulation and experimental study." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16, no. 17:3973-3986. PNNL-SA-182707. doi:10.5194/amt-16-3973-2023
  • Niedek C.R., F. Mei, M. Zawadowicz, Z. Zhu, B. Schmid, and Q. Zhang. 2023. "Quantitative Chemical Assay of Nanogram-Level Particulate Matter Using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Particles Collected from Uncrewed Atmospheric Measurement Platforms." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16, no. 4:955-968. PNNL-SA-176993. doi:10.5194/amt-16-955-2023


  • Mei F., M.S. Pekour, D. Dexheimer, G. de Boer, R. Cook, J.M. Tomlinson, and B. Schmid, et al. 2022. "Observational data from uncrewed systems over Southern Great Plains." Earth System Science Data 14, no. 7:3423-3438. PNNL-SA-170566. doi:10.5194/essd-14-3423-2022


  • Mei F., S. Spielman, S.V. Hering, J. Wang, M.S. Pekour, G. Lewis, and B. Schmid, et al. 2021. "Simulation-aided characterization of a versatile water-based Condensation Particle Counter for atmospheric airborne research." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 14, no. 11:7329-7340. PNNL-SA-166205. doi:10.5194/amt-14-7329-2021
  • Varble A.C., S.W. Nesbitt, P. Salio, J.C. Hardin, N. Bharadwaj, P.C. Borque, and P.J. DeMott, et al. 2021. "Utilizing a Storm-Generating Hotspot to Study Convective Cloud Transitions: The CACTI Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 102, no. 8:E1597-E1620. PNNL-SA-157358. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0030.1
  • Yeom J., S. Yum, R.A. Shaw, I. La, J. Wang, C. Lu, and Y. Liu, et al. 2021. "Vertical variations of cloud microphysical relationships in marine stratocumulus clouds observed during the ACE-ENA campaign." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 24:Art. No. e2021JD034700. PNNL-SA-159750. doi:10.1029/2021JD034700


  • Mei F., J. Wang, J.M. Comstock, R. Weigel, M. Kramer, C. Mahnke, and J.E. Shilling, et al. 2020. "Comparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13, no. 2:661-684. PNNL-SA-151169. doi:10.5194/amt-13-661-2020


  • de Boer G., D.N. Dexheimer, F. Mei, J.M. Hubbe, C. Longbottom, P.J. Carroll, and M.L. Apple, et al. 2019. "Atmospheric observations made at Oliktok Point, Alaska as part of the Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments (POPEYE) campaign." Earth System Science Data 11, no. 3:1349-1362. PNNL-SA-145040. doi:10.5194/essd-11-1349-2019
  • Fast J.D., L.K. Berg, L. Alexander, D.M. Bell, E. D'Ambro, J.M. Hubbe, and C. Kuang, et al. 2019. "Overview of the HI-SCALE Field Campaign: A New Perspective on Shallow Convective Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 100, no. 5:821-840. PNNL-SA-133582. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0030.1
  • Yeom J., S. Yum, F. Mei, B. Schmid, J.M. Comstock, L.T. Machado, and M.A. Cecchini. 2019. "Impact of secondary droplet activation on the contrasting cloud microphysical relationships during the wet and dry seasons in the Amazon." Atmospheric Research 230. PNNL-SA-141857. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104648


  • de Boer G., M.D. Ivey, B. Schmid, D.A. Lawrence, D. Dexheimer, F. Mei, and J.M. Hubbe, et al. 2018. "A Bird’s Eye View: Development of an Operational ARM Unmanned Aerial Capability for Atmospheric Research in Arctic Alaska." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 99, no. 6:1197-1212. PNNL-SA-131162. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0156.1


  • Martin S.T., S.T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. Machado, A. Manzi, R. Augusto Ferreira de Souza, and C. Schumacher, et al. 2017. "The Green Ocean Amazon Experiement (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds and Rainfall over the Rain Forest." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98, no. 5:981-980. PNNL-SA-121695. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00221.1


  • Berg L.K., J.D. Fast, J.C. Barnard, S. Burton, B. Cairns, D. Chand, and J.M. Comstock, et al. 2016. "The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 1:336-361. PNNL-SA-102905. doi:10.1002/2015JD023848
  • Cecchini M.A., L.T. Machado, J.M. Comstock, F. Mei, J. Wang, J. Fan, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2016. "Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 11:7029-7041. PNNL-SA-119093. doi:10.5194/acp-16-7029-2016
  • de Boer G., M.D. Ivey, B. Schmid, S.A. McFarlane, and R.C. Petty. 2016. "Unmanned Platforms Monitor the Arctic Atmosphere." Eos 97, no. February 22, 2016. PNNL-SA-116821. doi:10.1029/2016EO046441
  • de Boer G., S. Palo, B. Agrow, G. LoDolce, J. Mack, R. Gao, and H. Telg, et al. 2016. "The Pilatus Unmanned Aircraft System for Lower Atmospheric Research." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9, no. 4:1845-1587. PNNL-SA-113315. doi:10.5194/amt-9-1845-2016
  • Lim K., L.D. Riihimaki, J.M. Comstock, B. Schmid, C. Sivaraman, Y. Shi, and G. McFarquhar. 2016. "Evalution of long-term surface-retrieved cloud-droplet number concentration with in situ aircraft observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 5:2318-2331. PNNL-SA-111765. doi:10.1002/2015JD024082
  • Sayer A.M., C. Hsu, C. Bettenhausen, J.N. Lee, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, and Y. Shinozuka. 2016. "Extending 'Deep Blue' aerosol retrieval coverage to cases of absorbing aerosols above clouds: sensitivity analysis and first case studies." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 9:4930-4854. PNNL-SA-117437. doi:10.1002/2015JD024729
  • Thompson D.R., I. McCubbin, B.C. Gao, R.O. Green, A.A. Matthews, F. Mei, and K.G. Meyer, et al. 2016. "Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 15:9174-9190. PNNL-SA-121275. doi:10.1002/2016JD024999
  • Wang J., R. Krejci, S. Giangrande, C. Kuang, H. Barbosa, J. Brito, and S. Carbone, et al. 2016. "Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall." Nature 539, no. 7629:416-419. PNNL-SA-117828. doi:10.1038/nature19819


  • Kassianov E.I., L.K. Berg, M.S. Pekour, C.J. Flynn, J.M. Tomlinson, D. Chand, and J.E. Shilling, et al. 2015. "Airborne Aerosol In situ Measurements during TCAP: A Closure Study of Total Scattering." Atmosphere 6, no. 8:1069-1101. PNNL-SA-110601. doi:10.3390/atmos6081069


  • Muller D., C.A. Hostetler, R.A. Ferrare, S.P. Burton, E. Chemyakin, A. Kolgotin, and J. Hair, et al. 2014. "Airborne Multiwavelength High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) Observations During TCAP 2012: Vertical Proles of Optical and Microphysical Properties of a Smoke/Urban Haze Plume Over the Northeastern Coast of the US." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 7, no. 10:3487-3496. PNNL-SA-100132. doi:10.5194/amt-7-3487-2014
  • Rosenfeld D., R. Chemke, K. Prather, K. Suski, J.M. Comstock, B. Schmid, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2014. "Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies." Atmospheric Research 135-136. PNNL-SA-98027. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.09.006
  • Schmid B., J.M. Tomlinson, J.M. Hubbe, J.M. Comstock, F. Mei, D. Chand, and M.S. Pekour, et al. 2014. "The DOE ARM Aerial Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95, no. 5:723-742. PNNL-SA-94604. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00040.1
  • Segal Rozenhaimer M., P.B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, J.M. Livingston, C.J. Flynn, and R.R. Johnson, et al. 2014. "Tracking Elevated Pollution Layers with a Newly Developed Hyperspectral Sun/Sky Spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 and 2013 Campaigns." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 5:2611-2628. PNNL-SA-97430. doi:10.1002/2013JD020884
  • Shinozuka Y., R.R. Johnson, C.J. Flynn, P.B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, and S. Dunagan, et al. 2014. "Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 3:1692-1693. PNNL-SA-102146. doi:10.1002/jgrd.51089


  • Cazorla A., R. Bahadur, K. Suski, J.F. Cahill, D. Chand, B. Schmid, and V. Ramanathan, et al. 2013. "Relating Aerosol Absorption due to Soot, Organic Carbon, and Dust to Emission Sources Determined from In-situ Chemical Measurements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 18:9337-9350. PNNL-SA-89877. doi:10.5194/acp-13-9337-2013
  • Dunagan S., R. Johnson, J. Zavaleta, P.B. Russell, B. Schmid, C.J. Flynn, and J. Redemann, et al. 2013. "Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Instrument Technology." Remote Sensing of Environment 5, no. 8:3872-3895. PNNL-SA-96618. doi:10.3390/rs5083872
  • Rosenfeld D., R. Chemke, P.J. DeMott, R.C. Sullivan, R.M. Rasmussen, F. McDonough, and J.M. Comstock, et al. 2013. "The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 17:9819-9833. PNNL-SA-89667. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50529
  • Shinozuka Y., R.R. Johnson, C.J. Flynn, P.B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, and S. Dunagan, et al. 2013. "Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 21:12180-12194. PNNL-SA-97236. doi:10.1002/2013JD020596


  • Kassianov E.I., C.J. Flynn, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, P.B. Russell, and A. Sinyuk. 2012. "Aerosol Properties from Multi-spectral and Multi-angular Aircraft 4STAR Observations: Expected Advantages and Challenges." In Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XVII; and Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing VIII, September 24-27, 2012, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by EI Kassianov, et al, 8534, Paper No. 85340J. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE Publishing. PNNL-SA-90262. doi:10.1117/12.974744
  • Kassianov E.I., C.J. Flynn, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, P.B. Russell, and A. Sinyuk. 2012. "Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR)-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study." Atmosphere 3, no. 4:495-521. PNNL-SA-89271. doi:10.3390/atmos3040495
  • Pekour M.S., B. Schmid, D. Chand, J.M. Hubbe, C.D. Kluzek, D.A. Nelson, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2012. "Development of a new airborne humidigraph system." Aerosol Science and Technology 47, no. 2:201-207. PNNL-SA-89309. doi:10.1080/02786826.2012.741274
  • Zaveri R.A., W.J. Shaw, D.J. Cziczo, B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, M.L. Alexander, and M. Alexandrov, et al. 2012. "Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 16:7647-7687. PNNL-SA-84648. doi:10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012


  • McFarquhar G., B. Schmid, A. Korolev, J.A. Ogren, P.B. Russell, J.M. Tomlinson, and D.D. Turner, et al. 2011. "Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92, no. 9:1193-1196. PNNL-SA-74724. doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3180.1
  • McFarquhar G., S.J. Ghan, J. Verlinde, A. Korolev, J.W. Strapp, B. Schmid, and J.M. Tomlinson, et al. 2011. "Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92, no. 2:183 - 201. PNNL-SA-70645. doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1


  • Guan H., H. Guan, B. Schmid, A. Bucholtz, and R. Bergstrom. 2010. "Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115. PNNL-SA-67886. doi:10.1029/2009JD012907
  • Long C.N., A. Bucholtz, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, A.M. Vogelmann, and J. Wood. 2010. "A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms." Open Atmospheric Science Journal 4. PNNL-SA-69691. doi:10.2174/1874282301004010078


  • Alexandrov M., B. Schmid, D.D. Turner, B. Cairns, V. Oinas, A.A. Lacis, and S. Gutman, et al. 2009. "Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D02306. PNNL-SA-60769. doi:10.1029/2008JD010543
  • Schmid B., C.J. Flynn, R.K. Newsom, D.D. Turner, R. Ferrare, M.F. Clayton, and E. Andrews, et al. 2009. "Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D22207. PNNL-SA-67186. doi:10.1029/2009JD012682
  • Waquet F., B. Cairns, K.D. Knobelspiesse, K.D. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L.D. Travis, and B. Schmid, et al. 2009. "Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Aerosols over Land." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114, no. D01206. PNNL-SA-61581. doi:10.1029/2008JD010619


  • Glantz C.S., K.W. Burk, C.M. Berkowitz, S.J. Ghan, B. Schmid, A.C. Janetos, and W.J. Shaw, et al. 2008. "Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/Hanford Site." In The Federal Plan for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research Fiscal Year 2008, edited by F Estis and K Barnett. 198-199. Silver Spring, Maryland:Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, US Department of Commerce. PNNL-SA-59532.
  • Knobelspiesse K.D., K.D. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, B. Schmid, M.O. Roman, C.B. Schaaf, and C.B. Schaaf. 2008. "Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113, no. D20105. PNNL-SA-59406. doi:10.1029/2008JD010062
  • Livingston J.M., B. Schmid, P.B. Russell, J.R. Podolske, J. Redemann, and G.S. Diskin. 2008. "Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer and Diode Laser Hygrometer on the NASA DC-8." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 25, no. 10:1733-1743. PNNL-SA-56148. doi:10.1175/2008JTECHA1047.1
  • Magi B., Q. Fu, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid. 2008. "Using aircraft measurements to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of the shortwave direct radiative forcing of southern African biomass burning aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113, no. D5:Art. No. D05213. PNNL-SA-56518. doi:10.1029/2007JD009258
  • McComiskey A., S.E. Schwartz, B. Schmid, H. Guan, H. Guan, E.R. Lewis, and P. Ricchiazzi, et al. 2008. "Direct Aerosol Forcing: Calculation from Observables and Sensitivities to Inputs." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113, no. D9:Art. No. D09202. PNNL-SA-56873. doi:10.1029/2007JD009170


  • Kuzmanoski M., M.A. Box, B. Schmid, G.P. Box, J. Wang, P.R. Russel, and D. Bates, et al. 2007. "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 2. A case study of lidar ratio closure." Aerosol Science and Technology 41, no. 3:231-243. PNNL-SA-54428. doi:10.1080/02786820601146977
  • Kuzmanoski M., M.A. Box, B. Schmid, P.B. Russell, and J. Redemann. 2007. "A case study of modeled aerosol optical properties during the SAFARI 2000 campaign." Applied Optics 46, no. 22:5263-5275. PNNL-SA-53560.
  • Kuzmanoski M., M.A. Box, G.P. Box, B. Schmid, J. Wang, P.B. Russell, and H. Jonsson, et al. 2007. "Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 1. Aerosol size distributions retrieved from optical thickness measurements." Aerosol Science and Technology 41, no. 2:202-216. PNNL-SA-54427. doi:10.1080/02786820601126789
  • Livingston J., B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P.B. Russell, S. Ramirez, J. Eilers, and W. Gore, et al. 2007. "Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun photometer and Near-Coincident In Situ and Satellite Sensors during INTEX-ITCT 2004." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112, no. D12S16. PNNL-SA-53544. doi:10.1029/2006JD007733
  • Russell P.B., J.M. Livingston, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, S. Ramirez, J. Eilers, and R.A. Kahn, et al. 2007. "Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112. PNNL-SA-53543.

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