Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Steven J. Smith

Human-Earth Sys Sci: Modeling
Earth Scientist


Steven Smith's research focuses on long-term socioeconomic scenarios and the interface between socioeconomic systems and the climate system. Dr. Smith's research interests include aerosols, non-CO2 greenhouse gases, the carbon cycle, biomass energy, energy technologies, and land-use changes. His recent research concerns the role of non-CO2 forcing agents in policy scenarios, including sulfate aerosols, black carbon, and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Model development efforts include implementing in the MiniCAM framework emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols (sulfur-dioxide and carbonaceous aerosols). At the Joint Global Change Research Institute, Smith is part of the team that has developed ObjECTS, a new object-oriented modeling framework.

Prior to joining PNNL in 1999, Dr. Smith worked with Dr. T.M.L. Wigley as a project scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. He also has served on the Panel on Public Affairs of the American Physical Society, as well as on the Executive Committee of the APS Forum on Physics and Society.

For further information and a full list of publications:

Research Interests

  • aerosols
  • Non-CO2 greenhouse gases
  • Carbon cycle
  • Biomass energy
  • Renewable energy; Energy efficiency
  • Land-use changes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of California, Los Angeles

PNNL Publications


  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.R. Dorheim, Y. Cui, R.L. Horowitz, A.C. Snyder, K.V. Calvin, and L. Feng, et al. 2019. "gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 6. PNNL-SA-135553. doi:10.5334/jors.232
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Cui, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2019. "GCAM v5.1: Representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 2:677-698. PNNL-SA-137098. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-677-2019
  • Gidden M., K. Riahi, S.J. Smith, S. Fujimori, G. Luderer, E. Kriegler, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2019. "Global emissions pathways under different socioeconomic scenarios for use in CMIP6: a dataset of harmonized emissions trajectories through the end of the century." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 4:1443-1475. PNNL-SA-139873. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-1443-2019
  • Lou S., Y. Yang, H. Wang, S.J. Smith, Y. Qian, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Black carbon amplifies haze over the North China Plain by weakening the East Asian winter monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 1:452-460. PNNL-SA-140350. doi:10.1029/2018GL080941
  • Yang Y., S.J. Smith, H. Wang, C.M. Mills, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Variability, Timescales, and Non-linearity in Climate Responses to Black Carbon Emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, no. 4:2405-2420. PNNL-SA-136621. doi:10.5194/acp-19-2405-2019
  • Yang Y., S.J. Smith, H. Wang, S. Lou, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Impact of anthropogenic emission injection height uncertainty on global sulfur dioxide and aerosol distribution." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 8:4812-4826. PNNL-SA-137329. doi:10.1029/2018JD030001


  • Gidden M., S. Fujimori, M.S. Van Den Berg, D. Klein, S.J. Smith, D. Van Vuuren, and K. Riahi. 2018. "A Methodology and Implementation of Automated Emissions Harmonization for Use in Integrated Assessment Models." Environmental Modelling & Software 105. PNNL-SA-129400. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.04.002
  • Hoesly R.M., and S.J. Smith. 2018. "Informing energy consumption uncertainty: an analysis of energy data revisions." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 12:124023. PNNL-SA-136517. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaebc3
  • Hoesly R.M., S.J. Smith, L. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T.T. Pitkanen, and J.J. Seibert, et al. 2018. "Historical (1750 - 2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emission Data System (CEDS)." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 1:369-408. PNNL-SA-123932. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018
  • Ou Y., W. Shi, S.J. Smith, C.M. Ledna, J.J. West, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2018. "Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution." Applied Energy 216. PNNL-SA-132500. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.122
  • Zhou Y., X. Li, G.R. Asrar, S.J. Smith, and M. Imhoff. 2018. "A global record of annual urban dynamics (1992-2013) from nighttime lights." Remote Sensing of Environment 219. PNNL-SA-129683. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2018.10.015


  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Campbell J.E., J. Berry, U. Seibt, S.J. Smith, S. Montzka, T. Launois, and S. Belviso, et al. 2017. "Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production." Nature 544, no. 7648:84-87. PNNL-SA-115736. doi:10.1038/nature22030
  • Collins W., J. Lamarque, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, V. Eyring, M.I. Hegglin, and A. Maycock, et al. 2017. "AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 2:585-607. PNNL-SA-121058. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-585-2017
  • Evans M., N. Kholod, T. Kuklinski, A. Denysenko, S.J. Smith, A.J. Staniszewski, and W. Hao, et al. 2017. "Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review." Atmospheric Environment 163. PNNL-SA-120649. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.026
  • Irvine P., B.S. Kravitz, M.G. Lawrence, D. Gerten, C. Caminade, S. Gosling,, and E. Hendy, et al. 2017. "Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering." Earths Future 5, no. 1:93-106. PNNL-SA-115412. doi:10.1002/2016EF000389
  • Muratori M., S.J. Smith, G.P. Kyle, R.P. Link, B.K. Mignone, and H. Kheshgi. 2017. "Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 6:3526-3533. PNNL-ACT-SA-10153. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04515
  • Rao S., Z. Klimont, S.J. Smith, R. van Dingenen, F. Dentener, L. Bouwman, and K. Riahi, et al. 2017. "Future Air Pollution in the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-116149. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.012
  • Riahi K., D. Van Vuuren, E. Kriegler, J.A. Edmonds, B. O'Neill, S. Fujimori, and N. Bauer, et al. 2017. "The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their Energy, Land Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Implications: An Overview." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115333. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.009
  • Shi W., Y. Ou, S.J. Smith, C.M. Ledna, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2017. "Projecting state-level air pollutant emissions using an integrated assessment model: GCAM-USA." Applied Energy 208. PNNL-SA-126417. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.122
  • Stevens B., S. Fiedler, S. Kinne, K. Peters, S. Rast, J. Musse, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2017. "MACv2-SP: A parameterization of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect for use in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 1:433-452. PNNL-SA-119691. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-433-2017
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, P. Ma, and P.J. Rasch. 2017. "Source attribution of black carbon and its direct radiative forcing in China." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 6:4319-4336. PNNL-SA-122611. doi:10.5194/acp-17-4319-2017
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, R.C. Easter, P. Ma, Y. Qian, and H. Yu, et al. 2017. "Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 14:8903-8922. PNNL-SA-125012. doi:10.5194/acp-17-8903-2017
  • Zhang Y., S.J. Smith, J.H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, and J. West. 2017. "Co-benefits of global, domestic, and sectoral greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality and human health in 2050." Environmental Research Letters 12, no. 11:Article No. 114033. PNNL-SA-125810. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8f76
  • Zumkehr A., T.W. Hilton, M. Whelan, S.J. Smith, and E. Campbell. 2017. "Gridded anthropogenic emissions inventory and atmospheric transport of carbonyl sulfide in the U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 4:2169-2178. PNNL-SA-125015. doi:10.1002/2016JD025550


  • Smith S.J., S. Rao, K. Riahi, D. van Vuuren, K.V. Calvin, and G.P. Kyle. 2016. "Future Aerosol Emissions: A Multi-Model Comparison." Climatic Change 138, no. 1:13-24. PNNL-SA-97434. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1733-y
  • Wobus C., M. Flanner, M. Sarofim, M.C. Pinto de Moura, and S.J. Smith. 2016. "Future Arctic Temperature Change resulting from a Range of Aerosol Emissions Scenarios." Earths Future 4, no. 6:270-281. PNNL-SA-118327. doi:10.1002/2016EF000361
  • Zhang Y., J.H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, V. Naik, L. Horowitz, S.J. Smith, and J. West. 2016. "Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 15:9533-9548. PNNL-SA-121099. doi:10.5194/acp-16-9533-2016


  • Campbell J., M. Whelan, U. Seibt, S.J. Smith, J. Berry, and T.W. Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 8:3004-3010. PNNL-SA-83003. doi:10.1002/2015GL063445
  • Liu L., T. Hwang, S. Lee, Y. Ouyang, B. Lee, S.J. Smith, and F. Yan, et al. 2015. "Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050." Environmental Science & Technology 49, no. 19:11569-11576. PNWD-SA-10447. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01187
  • Pinto de Moura M.C., S.J. Smith, and D.B. Belzer. 2015. "120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space." PLoS One 10, no. 8:Article No. e0134135. PNNL-SA-104984. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135
  • Smith S.J., J.A. Edmonds, C.A. Hartin, A. Mundra, and K.V. Calvin. 2015. "Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 4:333-336. PNNL-SA-93187. doi:10.1038/nclimate2552
  • Smith S.J., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Kejun, E. Kriegler, T. Masui, and K. Riahi, et al. 2015. "Long History of IAM Comparisons." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 5:391. PNNL-SA-108156. doi:10.1038/nclimate2576
  • Smith S.J., Y. Zhou, G.P. Kyle, H. Wang, and H. Yu. 2015. "A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions." In 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference: Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions, April 13-16, 2015, San Diego, California. Washington, District Of Columbia:US EPA. PNNL-SA-109670.
  • Zhou Y., M.I. Hejazi, S.J. Smith, J.A. Edmonds, H. Li, L.E. Clarke, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity." Energy and Environmental Science 8, no. 9:2622-2633. PNNL-SA-109269. doi:10.1039/c5ee00888c
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, K. Zhao, M.L. Imhoff, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, and G.R. Asrar, et al. 2015. "A global map of urban extent from nightlights." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 5:Article No. 054011. PNNL-SA-107842. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054011


  • Blanco A.S., R. Gerlagh, S. Suh, J.A. Barrett, H. de Coninck, C. Diaz Morejon, and R. Mathur, et al. 2014. "Drivers, Trends and Mitigation." In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O Edenhofer, et al. 351-411. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-102563.
  • Rose S.K., R.G. Richels, S.J. Smith, K. Riahi, J. Stefler, and D. Van Vuuren. 2014. "Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:511-525. PNNL-SA-93432. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0955-5
  • Smith S.J., and T.C. Bond. 2014. "Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 2:537-549. PNNL-SA-82771. doi:10.5194/acp-14-537-2014
  • Smith S.J., T.M. Wigley, M. Meinshausen, and J. Rogelj. 2014. "Questions of bias in climate models." Nature Climate Change 4. PNNL-SA-101590. doi:10.1038/nclimate2345
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, C. Elvidge, K. Zhao, A.M. Thomson, and M.L. Imhoff. 2014. "A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights." Remote Sensing of Environment 147. PNNL-SA-99060. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2014.03.004


  • Chaturvedi V., S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, Y. Zhou, G.P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel. 2013. "Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model." Energy 61. PNNL-SA-94641. doi:10.1016/
  • Ghan S.J., S.J. Smith, M. Wang, K. Zhang, K.J. Pringle, K.S. Carslaw, and J. Pierce, et al. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 12:6688-6707. PNNL-SA-93538. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Klimont Z., S.J. Smith, and J. Cofala. 2013. "The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 014003. PNNL-SA-89939. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014003
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Corrigendum to "Influence of climate change mitigation technology on global demands of water for electricity generation"." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 17. PNNL-SA-94269. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.017
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 13. PNNL-SA-90205. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.006
  • Smith S.J., and A.H. Mizrahi. 2013. "Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, no. 35:14202-14206. PNNL-SA-95938. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308470110
  • Smith S.J., and A.J. Rothwell. 2013. "Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions." BioScience 10, no. 10:6323-6337. PNNL-SA-93356. doi:10.5194/bg-10-6323-2013
  • Smith S.J., and P.J. Rasch. 2013. "The Long-Term Policy Context for Solar Radiation Management." Climatic Change 121, no. 3:487-497. PNWD-SA-9460. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0577-3
  • Smith S.J., J.F. Karas, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, and A.H. Mizrahi. 2013. "Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics." Climatic Change 117, no. 4:663-675. PNNL-SA-81588. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0565-7
  • West J., S.J. Smith, R. Silva, V. Naik, Y. Zhang, Z. Adelman, and M.M. Fry, et al. 2013. "Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health." Nature Climate Change 3, no. 10:885-889. PNNL-SA-93184. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2009
  • Zhou Y., and S.J. Smith. 2013. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 3:Article No. 034029. PNNL-SA-92908. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034029


  • Frost G.J., S. Falke, C. Granier, T. Keating, J. Lamarque, M. Melamed, and P. Middleton, et al. 2012. "New Directions: Toward a community emissions approach." Atmospheric Environment 51. PNNL-SA-84747. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.055
  • Smith S.J. 2012. "The Long-Term Market Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems." In Concentrating Solar Power Technology: Principles, Developments and Applications. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy, edited by K Lovegrove and W Stein. 437-465. Cambridge:Woodhead Publishing Limited. PNNL-SA-71229.
  • Zhou Y., P. Luckow, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 14:7857-7864. PNNL-SA-84749. doi:10.1021/es204706m


  • Granier C., B. Bessagnet, T.C. Bond, A. D'Angiola, H. Denier van der Gon, G.J. Frost, and A. Heil, et al. 2011. "Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:163-190. PNNL-SA-76975. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0154-1
  • Hurtt G., L. Chini, L. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feddema, and G.M. Fischer, et al. 2011. "Harmonization of Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100: 600 Years of Global Gridded Annual Land-Use Transitions, Wood Harvest, and Resulting Secondary Lands." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:117-161. PNNL-SA-75360. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2
  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, S.J. Smith, S.H. Kim, M. Nathan, and M.A. Wise. 2011. "The Value of Advanced End-Use Energy Technologies in Meeting U.S. Climate Policy Goals." The Energy Journal 32, no. Special Issue:Article No. 5. PNWD-SA-9019.
  • Lamarque J., G.P. Kyle, M. Meinshausen, K. Riahi, S.J. Smith, D. Van Vuuren, and A. Conley, et al. 2011. "Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:191-212. PNNL-SA-75023. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0155-0
  • Meinshausen M., S.J. Smith, K.V. Calvin, J.S. Daniel, M. Kainuma, J. Lamarque, and K. Matsumoto, et al. 2011. "The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:213-241. PNNL-SA-74869. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z
  • Smith S.J., A.H. Mizrahi, J.F. Karas, and M. Nathan. 2011. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM. PNNL-20823. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM
  • Smith S.J., J. van Aardenne, Z. Klimont, R. Andres, A.C. Volke, and S. Delgado Arias. 2011. "Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 3:1101-1116. PNNL-SA-72901. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1101-2011
  • Smith S.J., J. West, and G.P. Kyle. 2011. "Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions." Climatic Change 108, no. 3:619-627. PNNL-SA-76569. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0219-1
  • Streets D.G., J. van Aardenne, B. Battye, S. Garivait, D. Grano, A. Guenther, and Z. Klimont, et al. 2011. "Emission Inventories and Projections." In Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010 Part A: Ozone and Particulate Matter. Air Pollution Studies No. 17, edited by F Dentener, T Keating and H Akimoto. 77-133. Geneva:UNECE Information Service. PNNL-SA-79659.
  • Thomson A.M., K.V. Calvin, S.J. Smith, G.P. Kyle, A.C. Volke, P.L. Patel, and S. Delgado Arias, et al. 2011. "RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:77-94. PNNL-SA-75003. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4
  • Van Vuuren D., J.A. Edmonds, M. Kainuma, K. Riahi, A.M. Thomson, K.A. Hibbard, and G. Hurtt, et al. 2011. "The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:5-31. PNNL-SA-79134. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z
  • Van Vuuren D., L. Bouwman, S.J. Smith, and F. Dentener. 2011. "Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3, no. 5:359-369. PNNL-SA-79731. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.08.014


  • Gregg J.S., J.S. Gregg, and S.J. Smith. 2010. "Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15, no. 3:241-262. PNNL-SA-67426. doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9215-4
  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, F. Rong, and S.J. Smith. 2010. "Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector." The Energy Journal Vol. 31, no. 2:145-172. PNNL-SA-68696.
  • Lamarque J.F., T.C. Bond, V. Eyring, C. Granier, A. Heil, Z. Klimont, and D.S. Lee, et al. 2010. "Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, no. 15:7017-7039. PNNL-SA-70483. doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010
  • Manning M., J.A. Edmonds, S. Emori, A. Grubler, K.A. Hibbard, F. Joos, and M. Kainuma, et al. 2010. "Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios." Nature Geoscience 3, no. 6:376-377. PNNL-SA-70040.
  • Moss R.H., J.A. Edmonds, K. Hibbard, K. Hibbard, M. Manning, S.K. Rose, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2010. "The Next Generation of Scenarios for Climate Change Research and Assessment." Nature 463, no. 7282:747-756. PNNL-SA-70018. doi:10.1038/nature08823
  • Smith S.J., A.C. Volke, and S. Delgado Arias. 2010. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model. PNNL-18829. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model
  • Van Vuuren D., J.A. Edmonds, S.J. Smith, K.V. Calvin, J.F. Karas, M. Kainuma, and N. Nakicenovic, et al. 2010. "What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?." Climatic Change 103, no. 3-4:635-642. PNNL-SA-74743. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9940-4
  • Van Vuuren D., S.J. Smith, and K. Riahi. 2010. "Downscaling socioeconomic and emissions scenarios for global environmental change research:a review." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change 1. PNNL-SA-67511. doi:10.1002/wcc.50
  • Zhang Y., S.J. Smith, G.P. Kyle, and P.W. Stackhouse, Jr. 2010. "Modeling The Potential For Thermal Concentrating Solar Power Technologies." Energy Policy 38, no. 12:7884-7897. PNNL-SA-69443. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.008


  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.
  • Hannam P., G.P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith. 2009. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0. PNNL-19231. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0
  • Hurtt G., L. Chini, L. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feddema, and G. Fischer, et al. 2009. "Harmonisation of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5." iLEAPS Newsletter 7. PNNL-SA-65162.
  • Rosenberg N.J., and S.J. Smith. 2009. "A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1, no. 2:121-132. PNNL-SA-68167.
  • Wigley T.M., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.D. Jacoby, H.D. Jacoby, S. Paltsev, and H.M. Pitcher, et al. 2009. "Uncertainties in climate stabilization." Journal of Climate 97, no. 1-2:85-121. PNNL-SA-55498.
  • Wise M.A., K.V. Calvin, A.M. Thomson, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R.D. Sands, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324, no. 5931:1183-1186. PNNL-SA-63505.


  • Edmonds J.A., L.E. Clarke, M.A. Wise, H.M. Pitcher, and S.J. Smith. 2008. "Implications for the USA of stabilization of radiative forcing at 3.4 W/m2." Climate Policy 8. PNNL-SA-57662.
  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, and S.J. Smith. 2008. "The Value of Advanced Technologies in the U.S. Buildings Sector in Climate Change Mitigation." In Scaling Up: Building Tomorrow's Solutions : Proceedings from the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 267. Washington Dc:ACEEE. PNNL-SA-59585.
  • Thomson A.M., R. Izaurralde, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2008. "Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration." Global Environmental Change. Part A, Human and Policy Dimensions 18, no. 1:192-203. PNNL-SA-53033.
  • Van Vuuren D., M. Meinshausen, G. Plattner, F. Joos, K.M. Strassmann, S.J. Smith, and T.M. Wigley, et al. 2008. "Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 40:15258-15262. PNNL-SA-54204. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711129105
  • Zhang Y., and S.J. Smith. 2008. "An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential." In Proceedings of the Solar Conference: Solar 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, edited by R Campbell-Howe, 714-740. Boulder, Colorado:American Solar Energy Society. PNNL-SA-57474.



  • Clarke L.E., M.A. Wise, M. Placet, R. Izaurralde, J.P. Lurz, S.H. Kim, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2006. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology Scenarios. PNNL-16078. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology Scenarios
  • Edmonds J.A., and S.J. Smith. 2006. "The Technology of Two Degrees." In Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change. 385-392. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-45609.
  • Kim S.H., J.A. Edmonds, J. Lurz, S.J. Smith, and M.A. Wise. 2006. "The ObjECTS: Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation." The Energy Journal. PNWD-SA-7256.
  • Smith S.J., and J.A. Edmonds. 2006. "The Economic Implications of Carbon Cycle Uncertainty." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 58, no. 5:586-590. PNWD-SA-7242. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00217.x
  • Smith S.J., and T.M. Wigley. 2006. "Multi-Gas Forcing Stabilization with the MiniCAM." The Energy Journal. PNNL-SA-42552.


  • Kheshgi H., S.J. Smith, and J.A. Edmonds. 2005. "Emissions and Atmospheric CO2 Stabilization: Long-Term Limits and Paths." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10, no. 2:213-220. PNNL-SA-38439.
  • Smith S.J. 2005. "Income and Pollutant Emissions in the ObjECTS MiniCAM Model." Journal of Environment and Development 14, no. 1:175-196. PNNL-SA-42829.
  • Smith S.J., A.M. Thomson, N.J. Rosenberg, R.C. Izaurralde, R.A. Brown, and T.M. Wigley. 2005. "Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 1. Scenarios and Context." Climatic Change 69, no. 1:7-25. PNNL-SA-36360. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-3614-7
  • Smith S.J., H.M. Pitcher, and T.M. Wigley. 2005. "Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions." Climatic Change 73, no. 3:267-318. PNNL-SA-37915.


  • Edmonds J.A., J.F. Clarke, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, and S.J. Smith. 2004. "Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change." Energy 29, no. 9-10 (Special Issue):1529-1536. PNNL-SA-37602.
  • Edmonds J.A., J.F. Clarke, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, and S.J. Smith. 2004. "Stabilization of CO2 in a B2 World: Insights on The Roles of Carbon Capture and Disposal, Hydrogen, and Transportation Technologies." Energy Economics 26, no. 4:517-537. PNNL-SA-37043.
  • Massie S.T., O. Torres, and S.J. Smith. 2004. "Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109, no. D18211:1 of 14. PNNL-SA-41776. doi:10.1029/2004JD004620
  • Smith S.J., R. Andres, E. Conception, and J. Lurz. 2004. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results. PNNL-14537. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results


  • Brenkert A.L., S.J. Smith, S.H. Kim, and H.M. Pitcher. 2003. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM. PNNL-14337. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM
  • Smith S.J. 2003. "The Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Indices--an Editorial Comment." Climatic Change 58, no. 3:261-265. PNNL-SA-37663.
  • Smith S.J., T.C. Bond, T.M. Wigley, F. de la Chesnaye, and H.M. Pitcher. 2003. "The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols in Climate Mitigation." In Proceedings of the 3d International Methane & Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Conference, 17-21 November 2003. Beijing:publisher unknown. PNNL-SA-39641.


  • Mahasenan N., M.J. Scott, and S.J. Smith. 2002. "The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation." In International conference on greenhouse gas technologies, edited by J Gale and Y Kaya, 2, 1177-1182. Oxford:Pergamon. PNNL-SA-36903.
  • Wigley T.M., S.J. Smith, and M. Prather. 2002. "Radiative Forcing due to Reactive Gas Emissions." Journal of Climate 15, no. 18:2690-2696. PNNL-SA-36106.


  • Cubasch U., G. Meehl, G.J. Boer, R. Stouffer, M. Dix, M. Dix, and A. Noda, et al. 2001. "Projections of Future Climate Change." In Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, edited by J.T. Houghton, et al. 525-582. New York, New York:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39649. Projections of Future Climate Change
  • Ehhalt D., M. Prather, F. Dentener, R. Derwent, E.J. Dlugokencky, E. Holland, and I. Isaksen, et al. 2001. "Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases." In Climate Change 2001:Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, edited by Houghton, J. T. et al. 239-288. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39647. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases
  • Ramaswamy V., O. Boucher, J. Haigh, D. Hauglustaine, J. Haywood, G. Myhre, and T. Nakajima, et al. 2001. "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change." In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by Houghton, J. T. et al. New York, New York:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39648. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change
  • Smith S.J. 2001. "Past and Future Climate Forcing." Physics and Society 30, no. 4:none. PNNL-SA-34724.


Science at PNNL

Core Research Areas

User Facilities

Centers & Institutes

Research Highlights

View All Research Highlights & Staff Accomplishments

RSS Feed