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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Jennifer Comstock

Atmospheric Measurement & Data Sciences
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Jennifer Comstock's scientific research focuses on understanding physical processes that influence cloud lifecycle using remote sensing and computational modeling techniques. She currently serves as the Engineering and Process Manager for the DOE ARM Program.

Research Interests

  • Cloud Physics
  • Ice and mixed phase cloud processes
  • Cloud radiative forcing

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. Meteorology, University of Utah
  • B.A. Physics, University of Colorado

Affiliations and Professional Service

Awards and Recognitions

  • Recipient of the Peter B. Wagner Memorial Award for Women in Atmospheric Sciences, 1998
  • AMS Committee for Laser Atmospheric Studies
  • Steering Committee for the Cloud Lifecycle Working Group (DOE ASR Program)
  • Co-chair Vertical Velocity Focus Group (DOE ASR Program)

PNNL Publications


  • Fan J, D Rosenfeld, Y Zhang, S Giangrande, Z Li, L Machado, ST Martin, Y Yang, J Wang, P Artaxo, H Barbosa, RC Braga, JM Comstock, Z Feng, W Gao, H Gomes, F Mei, C Pohlker, ML Pohlker, U Poschl, and RA de Souza. 2018. "Substantial Convection and Precipitation Enhancements by Ultrafine Aerosol Particles." Science 359(6374):411-418.  doi:10.1126/science.aan8461


  • Riihimaki LD, JM Comstock, E Luke, TJ Thorsen, and Q Fu. 2017. "A case study of microphysical structures and hydrometeor phase in convection using radar Doppler spectra at Darwin, Australia." Geophysical Research Letters 44(14):7519-7527.  doi:10.1002/2017GL074187
  • Giangrande S, Z Feng, M Jensen, JM Comstock, K Johnson, T Toto, M Wang, CD Burleyson, N Bharadwaj, F Mei, L Machado, A Manzi, S Xie, S Tang, MAF Silva Dias, RA de Souza, C Schumacher, and ST Martin. 2017. "Cloud Characteristics, Thermodynamic Controls and Radiative Impacts During the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(23):14519-14541.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-14519-2017
  • Martin ST, P Artaxo, L Machado, A Manzi, R Augusto Ferreira de Souza, C Schumacher, J Wang, T Biscaro, J Brito, A Calheiros, K Jardine, A Medeiros, B Portela, SS de Sa, K Adachi, AC Aiken, R Albrecht, ML Alexander, MO Andreae, H Barbosa, PR Buseck, D Chand, JM Comstock, DA Day, MK Dubey, J Fan, JD Fast, G Fisch , E Fortner, S Giangrande, MK Gilles, AH Goldstein, AB Guenther, JM Hubbe, MP Jensen, JL Jimenez, FN Keutsch, SW Kim, C Kuang, A Laskin, K McKinney, F Mei, M Miller, R Nascimento, T Pauliquevis, MS Pekour, J Peres, T Petaja, C Pohlker, U Poschl, LV Rizzo, B Schmid, JE Shilling, MAF Silva Dias, JN Smith, JM Tomlinson, J Tota, and M Wendisch. 2017. "The Green Ocean Amazon Experiement (GoAmazon2014/5) Observes Pollution Affecting Gases, Aerosols, Clouds and Rainfall over the Rain Forest." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98(5):981-980.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00221.1


  • Riihimaki LD, JM Comstock, KK Anderson, AE Holmes, and E Luke. 2016. "A Path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors." Advances in Statistical Climatology Meteorology and Oceanography 2(1):49-62.  doi:10.5194/ascmo-2-49-2016
  • Berg LK, JD Fast, JC Barnard, S Burton, B Cairns, D Chand, JM Comstock, S Dunagan, RA Ferrare, CJ Flynn, J Hair, CA Hostetler, JM Hubbe, A Jefferson, R Johnson, EI Kassianov, CD Kluzek, P Kollias, K Lamer, K Lantz, F Mei, MA Miller, J Michalsky, I Ortega, MS Pekour, R Rogers, P Russell, J Redemann, A Sedlacek, M Segal Rozenhaimer, B Schmid, JE Shilling, Y Shinozuka, SR Springston, JM Tomlinson, M Tyrrell, J Wilson, RM Volkamer, A Zelenyuk, and CM Berkowitz. 2016. "The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 121(1):336-361.  doi:10.1002/2015JD023848
  • Cecchini MA, LAT Machado, JM Comstock, F Mei, J Wang, J Fan, JM Tomlinson, B Schmid, R Albrecht, ST Martin, and P Artaxo. 2016. "Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(11):7029-7041.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-7029-2016
  • Lim KS, LD Riihimaki, JM Comstock, B Schmid, C Sivaraman, Y Shi, and G McFarquhar. 2016. "Evalution of long-term surface-retrieved cloud-droplet number concentration with in situ aircraft observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 121(5):2318-2331.  doi:10.1002/2015JD024082
  • Wang J, R Krejci, S Giangrande, C Kuang, H Barbosa, J Brito, S Carbone, X Chi, JM Comstock, F Ditas, J Lavric, HE Manninen, F Mei, D Moran-Zuloaga, C Pohlker, ML Pohlker, J Saturno, B Schmid, RA Souza, SR Springston, JM Tomlinson, T Toto, D Walter, D Wimmer, JN Smith, M Kulmala, L Machado, P Artaxo, MO Andreae, T Petaja, and ST Martin. 2016. "Amazon boundary layer aerosol concentration sustained by vertical transport during rainfall." Nature 539(7629):416-419.  doi:10.1038/nature19819


  • Burleyson CD, CN Long, and JM Comstock. 2015. "Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 54(6):1297-1312.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0288.1
  • Thorsen TJ, Q Fu, RK Newsom, DD Turner, and JM Comstock. 2015. "Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 32(11):1977-1998.  doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00150.1
  • Wang S, AH Sobel, AM Fridlind, Z Feng, JM Comstock, P Minnis, and ML Nordeen. 2015. "Simulations of cloud-radiation interaction using large-scale forcing derived from the CINDY/DYNAMO northern sounding array." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7(3):1472-1498.  doi:10.1002/2015MS000461


  • Feng Z, SA McFarlane, C Schumacher, S Ellis, JM Comstock, and N Bharadwaj. 2014. "Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 31(5):1021-1042.  doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00132.1
  • Fan J, LYR Leung, PJ DeMott, JM Comstock, B Singh, D Rosenfeld, JM Tomlinson, A White, K Prather, P Minnis, JK Ayers, and Q Min. 2014. "Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81-101, 2014." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14:3063-3064.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-3063-2014
  • Fan J, LYR Leung, PJ DeMott, JM Comstock, B Singh, D Rosenfeld, JM Tomlinson, AB White, K Prather, P Minnis, JK Ayers, and Q Min. 2014. "Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(1):81-101.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-81-2014
  • Muhlbauer A, E Berry, JM Comstock, and GG Mace. 2014. "Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(8):4709-4735.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020709
  • Muhlbauer A, TP Ackerman, JM Comstock, GS Diskin, S Evans, P Lawson, and R Marchand. 2014. "Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(7):3976-3996.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020035
  • Protat A, S Young, SA McFarlane, T L'Ecuyer, GG Mace, JM Comstock, CN Long, E Berry, and J Delanoe. 2014. "Reconciling Ground-Based and Space-Based Estimates of the Frequency of Occurrence and Radiative Effect of Clouds around Darwin, Australia." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53(2):456-478.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-072.1
  • Rosenfeld D, R Chemke, K Prather, K Suski, JM Comstock, B Schmid, JM Tomlinson, and H Jonsson. 2014. "Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies." Atmospheric Research 135-136:112-127.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.09.006
  • Schmid B, JM Tomlinson, JM Hubbe, JM Comstock, F Mei, D Chand, MS Pekour, CD Kluzek, E Andrews, S Biraud, and G McFarquhar. 2014. "The DOE ARM Aerial Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95(5):723-742.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00040.1
  • Segal Rozenhaimer M, PB Russell, B Schmid, J Redemann, JM Livingston, CJ Flynn, RR Johnson, S Dunagan, Y Shinozuka, JR Herman, A Cede, N Abuhassan, JM Comstock, JM Hubbe, A Zelenyuk, and JM Wilson. 2014. "Tracking Elevated Pollution Layers with a Newly Developed Hyperspectral Sun/Sky Spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 and 2013 Campaigns." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(5):2611-2628.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020884
  • Wang M, X Liu, K Zhang, and JM Comstock. 2014. "Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(3):756-776.  doi:10.1002/2014MS000339


  • Comstock JM, A Protat, SA McFarlane, J Delanoe, and M Deng. 2013. "Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(10):4549-4571.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50404
  • Creamean J, K Suski, D Rosenfeld, A Cazorla, PJ DeMott, RC Sullivan, AB White, FM Ralph, P Minnis, JM Comstock, JM Tomlinson, and K Prather. 2013. "Dust and Biological Aerosols from the Sahara and Asia Influence Precipitation in the Western US." Science 339(6127):1572-1578.  doi:10.1126/science.1227279
  • Long CN, SA McFarlane, AD Del Genio, P Minnis, TP Ackerman, JH Mather, JM Comstock, GG Mace, M Jensen, and C Jakob. 2013. "ARM Research in the Equatorial Western Pacific: A Decade and Counting." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(5):695-708.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00137.1
  • Rosenfeld D, R Chemke, PJ DeMott, RC Sullivan, RM Rasmussen, F McDonough, JM Comstock, B Schmid, JM Tomlinson, H Jonsson, K Suski, A Cazorla, and K Prather. 2013. "The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(17):9819-9833.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50529
  • Thorsen TJ, Q Fu, JM Comstock, C Sivaraman, MA Vaughan, D Winker, and DD Turner. 2013. "Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(16):9209-9220.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50691
  • Thorsen TJ, Q Fu, and JM Comstock. 2013. "Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(11):5637-5654.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50476
  • Zhang K, X Liu, M Wang, JM Comstock, D Mitchell, S Mishra, and GG Mace. 2013. "Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(9):4963-4982.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-4963-2013


  • Kulkarni GR, J Fan, JM Comstock, X Liu, and M Ovchinnikov. 2012. "Laboratory Measurements and Model Sensitivity Studies of Dust Deposition Ice Nucleation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(16):7295-7308.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-7295-2012
  • Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012. "Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(4):1785-1810.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012
  • Riihimaki LD, SA McFarlane, and JM Comstock. 2012. "Climatology and Formation of Tropical Midlevel Clouds at the Darwin ARM Site." Journal of Climate 25(19):6835-6850.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00599.1
  • Vogelmann AM, G McFarquhar, JA Ogren, DD Turner, JM Comstock, G Feingold, CN Long, H Jonsson, A Bucholtz, DR Collins, GS Diskin, H Gerber, P Lawson, R Woods, E Andrews, HJ Yang, CJ Chiu, D Hartsock, JM Hubbe, C Lo, A Marshak, J Monroe, SA McFarlane, B Schmid, JM Tomlinson, and T Toto. 2012. "RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(6):861-878. 
  • Zaveri RA, WJ Shaw, DJ Cziczo, B Schmid, R Ferrare, ML Alexander, M Alexandrov, RJ Alvarez, WP Arnott, D Atkinson, S Baidar, RM Banta, JC Barnard, J Beranek, LK Berg, FJ Brechtel, WA Brewer, JF Cahill, B Cairns, CD Cappa, D Chand, S China, JM Comstock, MK Dubey, RC Easter, Jr, MH Erickson, JD Fast, C Floerchinger, BA Flowers, E Fortner, JS Gaffney, MK Gilles, K Gorkowski, WI Gustafson, Jr, MS Gyawali, J Hair, M Hardesty, JW Harworth, SC Herndon, N Hiranuma, CA Hostetler, JM Hubbe, JT Jayne, H Jeong, BT Jobson, EI Kassianov, LI Kleinman, CD Kluzek, B Knighton, KR Kolesar, C Kuang, A Kubatova, AO Langford, A Laskin, NS Laulainen, RD Marchbanks, C Mazzoleni, F Mei, RC Moffet, DA Nelson, M Obland, H Oetjen, TB Onasch, I Ortega, M Ottaviani, MS Pekour, KA Prather, JG Radney, R Rogers, SP Sandberg, A Sedlacek, C Senff, G Senum, A Setyan, JE Shilling, MKB Shrivastava, C Song, SR Springston, R Subramanian, K Suski, JM Tomlinson, RM Volkamer, HA Wallace, J Wang, AM Weickmann, DR Worsnop, XY Yu, A Zelenyuk, and Q Zhang. 2012. "Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(16):7647-7687.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012
  • Zhao C, S Xie, SA Klein, A Protat, MD Shupe, SA McFarlane, JM Comstock, J Delanoe, M Deng, M Dunn, R Hogan, D Huang, M Jensen, GG Mace, R McCoy, EJ O'Conner, D Turner, and Z Wang. 2012. "Toward Understanding of Differences in Current Cloud Retrievals of ARM Ground-based Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D10206.  doi:10.1029/2011JD016792


  • Dupont JC, M Haeffelin, Y Morille, JM Comstock, CJ Flynn, CN Long, C Sivaraman, and RK Newsom. 2011. "Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site." Geophysical Research Letters 38:Article No. L08814.  doi:10.1029/2010GL046274
  • Thorsen TJ, Q Fu, and JM Comstock. 2011. "Comparison of the CALIPSO satellite and ground-based observations of cirrus clouds at the ARM TWP sites." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D21203.  doi:10.1029/2011JD015970
  • Zhao Y, GG Mace, and JM Comstock. 2011. "The Occurrence of Particle Size Distribution Bimodality in Midlatitude Cirrus as Inferred from Ground-Based Remote Sensing Data." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 68(6):1162-1177.  doi:10.1175/2010JAS3354.1


  • Dupont JC, M Haeffelin, Y Morille, V Noel, P Keckhut, D Winker, JM Comstock, P Chervet, and A Roblin. 2010. "Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:D00H24.  doi:10.1029/2009JD011943
  • Fan J, JM Comstock, and M Ovchinnikov. 2010. "The cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei effects on tropical anvil characteristics and water vapor of the tropical tropopause layer." Environmental Research Letters 5(4):Article No. 044005.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/4/044005
  • Fan J, JM Comstock, M Ovchinnikov, SA McFarlane, G McFarquhar, and G Allen. 2010. "Tropical anvil characteristics and water vapor of the tropical tropopause layer: Impact of heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:D12201.  doi:10.1029/2009JD012696
  • Naud CM, AD Del Genio, M Haeffelin, Y Morille, V Noel, JC Dupont, DD Turner, C Lo, and JM Comstock. 2010. "Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115(D11202):,
  • Pierce JR, R Kahn, MR Davis, and JM Comstock. 2010. "Detecting thin cirrus in Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrievals." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115(D08201):, doi:10.1029/2009JD013019
  • Zhang Z, S Platnick, P Yang, AK Heidinger, and JM Comstock. 2010. "Effects of ice particle size vertical inhomogeneity on the passive remote sensing of ice clouds ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:Article No. D17203.  doi:10.1029/2010JD013835


  • Fan J, M Ovtchinnikov, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and A Khain. 2009. "Ice Formation in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Insights from a 3-D Cloud-Resolving Model with Size-Resolved Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D04205):, doi:10.1029/2008JD010782
  • Fan J, T Yuan, JM Comstock, SJ Ghan, A Khain, LYR Leung, Z Li, VJ Martins, and M Ovchinnikov. 2009. "Dominant Role by Vertical Wind Shear in Regulating Aerosol Effects on Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D22206):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012352


  • Comstock JM, RF Lin, DO Starr, and P Yang. 2008. "Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113:D23211.  doi:10.1029/2008JD010332
  • Barnard JC, CN Long, EI Kassianov, SA McFarlane, JM Comstock, M Freer, and G McFarquhar. 2008. "Development and Evaluation of a Simple Algorithm to Find Cloud Optical Depth with Emphasis on Thin Ice Clouds." Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2:46-55.  doi:10.2174/1874282300802010046


  • Comstock JM, R d'Entremont, D DeSlover, GG Mace, SY Matrosov, SA McFarlane, P Minnis, D Mitchell, K Sassen, MD Shupe, DD Turner, and Z Wang. 2007. "An Intercomparison of Microphysical Retrieval Algorithms for Upper-Tropospheric Ice Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(2):191-204. 
  • Sassen K, L Wang, DO Starr, JM Comstock, and M Quante. 2007. "A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Part V. Cloud Structural Properties." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 64(7):2483-2501. 


  • Comstock JM, and C Jakob. 2004. "Evaluation of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground Based Measurements over Nauru Island." Geophysical Research Letters 31(10):L10106. 
  • Comstock JM, TP Ackerman, and DD Turner. 2004. "ARM Raman Lidar Measurements of High Ice Supersaturation in Cirrus Clouds." In 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC 2004): Matera, Italy 12-16 July 2004. European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, vol. 1, no. 561, pp. 301-303.  European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherlands. 
  • Comstock JM, TP Ackerman, and DD Turner. 2004. "Evidence of High Ice Supersaturation in Cirrus Clouds Using ARM Raman Lidar Measurements." Geophysical Research Letters 31(11):L11106. 
  • Hollars S, Q Fu, JM Comstock, and TP Ackerman. 2004. "Comparisons of Cloud-Top Height Retrievals from Ground-Based 35 GHz MMCR and GMS-5 Satellite Observations at ARM TWP Manus Site." Atmospheric Research 72(1-4):169-186. 


  • Sassen K, Z Wang, CMR Platt, and JM Comstock. 2003. "Parameterization of Infrared Absorption in Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 60(2):428-433. 


  • Carlin B, Q Fu, U Lohmann, GG Mace, K Sassen, and JM Comstock. 2002. "High-Cloud Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Solar Albedo Bias." Journal of Climate 15(17):2321-2339. 
  • Comstock JM, TP Ackerman, and GG Mace. 2002. "Ground-Based Lidar and Radar Remote Sensing of Tropical Cirrus Clouds at Nauru Island: Cloud Statistics and Radiative Impacts." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 107(D23):4714.  doi:10.1029/2002JD002203


  • Comstock JM, and K Sassen. 2001. "Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Backscattering Properties Using Combined Lidar and Infrared Radiometer (LIRAD) Measurements." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 18(10):1658-1673. 
  • Sassen K, JM Comstock, and Z Wang. 2001. "Parameterization of the Radiative Properties of Midlatitude High and Middle Level Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters 28(4):729-732. 
  • Sassen K, and JM Comstock. 2001. "A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part III: Radiative Properties." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 58(15):2113-2127. 

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