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Staff information


James Amonette

Geochemistry Team A


James E. Amonette, Ph.D., has more than 39 years of research experience in the areas of environmental geochemistry and soil mineralogy. He has been with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since 1986 and has held a Joint Appointment with Washington State University since 2017. During the first two decades of his career, he applied spectroscopic techniques, such as laser photoacoustic, Mössbauer, electron paramagnetic, infrared, and x-ray absorption/scattering, to characterize the solid phases and to predict and monitor the reactions associated with the presence of hazardous wastes in soil environments. Dr. Amonette’s contributions also include dissertation work on the role of structural iron in mica weathering, analytical techniques for the determination of ferrous iron, and on the potential use of zerovalent and ferrous iron chemistry as an environmental remediation tool. In the past decade, he has worked on projects involving 1) aspects of terrestrial soil carbon sequestration with a focus on amendments such as biochar, 2) monitoring, measurement, and verification approaches for geologic carbon sequestration, 3) the hydrolytic and reductive degradation pathways of chlorinated hydrocarbons including the redox chemistry associated with iron-bearing clays and nanoparticles, and 4) development of a new slow-release nitrogen fertilizer based on solid-nitride compounds derived from common aluminosilicate materials. His primary scientific interest is to find ways of sustainably harnessing the large carbon flux passing through the terrestrial ecosystem to help mitigate global climate change. Dr. Amonette has authored or coauthored more than 115 peer-reviewed scientific journal publications, numerous book chapters and technical reports, 7 patents in the areas of photoacoustic spectroscopy and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer, and a book on quantitative methods in soil mineralogy.

A list of recent publications appears at the end of this page.

Research Interests

  • Environmental geochemistry
  • Soil mineralogy
  • Carbon sequestration (terrestrial and geologic)
  • Mitigation of climate change
  • Biochar
  • Slow-release solid-nitride nitrogen fertilizer

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Soil Chemistry, Iowa State University
  • M.S., Soil Chemistry, Iowa State University
  • B.S., Soil Science, New Mexico State University

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Soil Science Society of America
  • ......Chair, Soil Mineralogy Division, 1994
  • ......Associate Editor, Soil Mineralogy Division, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 1994-1996
  • ......Bouyoucos Conference Co-Organizer, 2004
  • Clay Minerals Society
  • ......Associate Editor, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1998 - 2008
  • ......Council Member, 1996-1998; 2006-2008
  • ......Meeting Co-Chair, 2004
  • American Chemical Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • International Biochar Initiative
  • ......Science Advisory Committee (2008-2010)

Awards and Recognitions

  • PNNL Laboratory Director’s Award 2008: Fitzner-Eberhardt Award for Outstanding Contributions to Science and Engineering Education
  • R&D100 Award for "In-Situ Redox Manipulation," 1998

PNNL Publications




  • Amonette J.E., H. Blanco-Canqui, C. Hassebrook, D.A. Laird, R. Lal, J.C. Lehmann, and D. Page-Dumroese. 2021. "Integrated biochar research: A roadmap." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 76, no. 1:24A-29A. PNNL-SA-158129. doi:10.2489/jswc.2021.1115A
  • Zhang J., J.E. Amonette, and M. Flury. 2021. "Effect of Biochar and Biochar Particle Size on Plant-Available Water of Sand, Silt Loam, and Clay Soil." Soil & Tillage Research 212. PNNL-SA-151789. doi:10.1016/j.still.2021.104992


  • Amonette J.E., L. Zhong, T.H. Darrah, B.S. Grove, and D.R. Cole. 2019. "Noble and Major Gases Released from Rock Core Materials as Intrinsic Tracers for Detecting Carbon Dioxide Leakage - Laboratory Evaluation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 89. PNWD-SA-10563. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.05.010
  • Liu Q., B. Liu, Y. Zhang, T. Hu, Z. Lin, G. Liu, and X. Wang, et al. 2019. "Biochar application as a tool to decrease soil nitrogen losses (NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N leaching) from croplands: Options and mitigation strength in a global perspective." Global Change Biology 25, no. 6:2077-2093. PNNL-SA-127766. doi:10.1111/gcb.14613


  • Liu Q., Y. Zhang, B. Liu, J.E. Amonette, Z. Lin, G. Liu, and P.L. Ambus, et al. 2018. "How does biochar influence soil N cycle? A meta-analysis." Plant and Soil 426, no. 1-2:211-225. PNNL-SA-138141. doi:10.1007/s11104-018-3619-4


  • Amonette J.E., and J. Matyas. 2017. "Functionalized Silica Aerogels for Gas-Phase Purification, Sensing, and Catalysis: A Review." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 250. PNNL-SA-123142. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.04.055


  • Amonette J.E., and J. Matyas. 2016. "Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels." Analytica Chimica Acta 910. PNNL-SA-113714. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2015.12.024
  • Garcia-Nunez J.A., D.T. Rodriguez, C.A. Fontanilla, N.E. Ramirez, E.E. Silva Lora, C.S. Frear, and C.O. Stockle, et al. 2016. "Evaluation of alternatives for the evolution of palm oil mills into biorefineries." Biomass & Bioenergy 95. PNNL-SA-151717. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.05.020
  • Qafoku N., and J.E. Amonette. 2016. "Iron Oxides." In Encyclopedia of Soil Science. 3rd Edition, edited by Rattan Lal. 1245-1249. Boca Raton, Florida:Taylor & Francis Group. PNNL-SA-110804.
  • Vermeul V.R., J.E. Amonette, C.E. Strickland, M.D. Williams, and A. Bonneville. 2016. "An Overview of the Monitoring Program Design for the FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 51. PNWD-SA-10503. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.05.023
  • Williams B.D., J.J. Neeway, M. Snyder, M.E. Bowden, J.E. Amonette, B.W. Arey, and E.M. Pierce, et al. 2016. "Mineral Assemblage Transformation of a Metakaolin-based Waste Form After Geopolymer Encapsulation." Journal of Nuclear Materials 473. PNNL-SA-98733. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.12.023


  • Camps-Arbestain M., J.E. Amonette, B. Singh, T. Wang, and H. Schmidt. 2015. "A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods." In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation, edited by J Lehmann and S Joseph. 165-194. New York, New York:Routledge. PNNL-SA-100341.


  • Amonette J.E., T.A. Johnson, C.F. Spencer, L. Zhong, J.E. Szecsody, and V.R. Vermeul. 2014. "Geochemical Monitoring Considerations for the FutureGen 2.0 Project." Energy Procedia 63. PNWD-SA-10397. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.441
  • Matyas J., J.E. Amonette, R.K. Kukkadapu, D.K. Schreiber, and A.A. Kruger. 2014. "THE EFFECTS OF GLASS DOPING, TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON THE MORPHOLOGY, COMPOSITION, AND IRON REDOX OF SPINEL CRYSTALS." In Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Energy Technologies III, October 27-31, 2013, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Ceramic Transactions, edited by T Ohji, et al, 250, 147-156. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-100009. doi:10.1002/9781118996652.ch14
  • McGrail B.P., F.A. Spane, J.E. Amonette, C.J. Thompson, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-107959. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.316
  • Vermeul V.R., C.E. Strickland, P.D. Thorne, B.N. Bjornstad, R.D. Mackley, M.E. Kelley, and E.C. Sullivan, et al. 2014. "FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Program: An Overview of the Monitoring Approach and Technologies Selected for Implementation." Energy Procedia 63. PNWD-SA-10395. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.438
  • Vermeul V.R., J.E. Amonette, C.E. Strickland, J.E. Szecsody, M.D. Williams, A. Bonneville, and T.A. Johnson, et al. 2014. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Systems Design Basis and Technology Selection: Geohydrologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Considerations. PNWD-4435. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Systems Design Basis and Technology Selection: Geohydrologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Considerations
  • Zhong L., J.E. Amonette, A.V. Mitroshkov, and K.B. Olsen. 2014. "Transport of Perfluorocarbon Tracers and Carbon Dioxide in Sediment Columns - Evaluating the Application of PFC Tracers for CO2 Leakage Detection." Applied Geochemistry 45. PNWD-SA-10210. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.02.016


  • Amonette J.E., J.L. Barr, R.L. Erikson, L.M. Dobeck, J.L. Barr, and J.A. Shaw. 2013. "Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments with CO2." Environmental Earth Sciences 70, no. 4:1717-1726. PNNL-SA-83870. doi:10.1007/s12665-013-2259-5
  • Harvey O.R., N. Qafoku, K.J. Cantrell, G. Lee, J.E. Amonette, and C.F. Brown. 2013. "Geochemical Implications of Gas Leakage Associated with Geologic CO2 Storage - A Qualitative Review." Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 1:23-36. PNNL-SA-83207. doi:10.1021/es3029457
  • Xie Z., Y. Xu, G. Liu, Q. Liu, J. Zhu, C. Tu, and J.E. Amonette, et al. 2013. "Impact of biochar application on nitrogen nutrition of rice, greenhouse-gas emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics in two paddy soils of China." Plant and Soil 370, no. 1-2:527-540. PNNL-SA-92744. doi:10.1007/s11104-013-1636-x


  • Balko B.A., S.A. Bosse, A.E. Cade, E.F. Jones-Landry, J.E. Amonette, and J.L. Daschbach. 2012. "THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL." Clays and Clay Minerals 60, no. 2:136-152. PNNL-SA-84306.
  • Ferreira D.R., C.P. Schulthess, J.E. Amonette, and E.D. Walter. 2012. "An electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of the retention mechanisms of Mn and Cu in the nanopore channels of three zeolite minerals." Clays and Clay Minerals 60, no. 6:588-598. PNNL-SA-87491. doi:10.1346/CCMN.2012.0600604
  • Harvey O.R., L. Kuo, A.R. Zimmerman, P. Louchouarn, J.E. Amonette, and B. Herbert. 2012. "An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 3:1415-1421. PNNL-SA-85480. doi:10.1021/es2040398
  • Kuchibhatla S.N., A.S. Karakoti, D.R. Baer, S. Samudrala, M.H. Engelhard, J.E. Amonette, and S. Thevuthasan, et al. 2012. "Influence of Aging and Environment on Nanoparticle Chemistry: Implication to Confinement Effects in Nanoceria." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, no. 26:14108-14114. PNNL-SA-84192. doi:10.1021/jp300725s
  • Novak J.M., W.J. Busscher, D.W. Watts, J.E. Amonette, J.I. Ippolito, I.M. Lima, and J. Gaskin, et al. 2012. "Biochars impact on soil moisture storage in an Ultisol and two Aridisols." Soil Science 177, no. 5:310-320. PNNL-SA-85253.


  • Baer D.R., A.S. Karakoti, P. Munusamy, B.D. Thrall, J.G. Pounds, J.G. Teeguarden, and J.E. Amonette, et al. 2011. "Testing in EHS: What is the Current Status of Experimentation?." In 11th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO 2011), August 15-18, 2011, Portland, Oregon, 18-19. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-90027. doi:10.1109/NANO.2011.6144671
  • Garten, Jr C.T., D.J. Brice, H.F. Castro, R.L. Graham, M.A. Mayes, J.R. Phillips, and W.M. Post, et al. 2011. "Response of "Alamo" switchgrass tissue chemistry and biomass to nitrogen fertilization in west Tennessee, USA." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 140, no. 1-2:289-297. PNNL-SA-77080. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.12.016
  • Nurmi J., V. Sarathy, P.G. Tratnyek, D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, and A.J. Karkamkar. 2011. "Recovery of Iron/Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Solution: Comparison of Methods and their Effects." Journal of Nanoparticle Research 13, no. 5:1937-1952. PNNL-SA-69948. doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9946-x
  • Su Y., H.M. Brown, G. Li, X.D. Zhou, J.E. Amonette, J.L. Fulton, and D.M. Camaioni, et al. 2011. "Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvent." Applied Catalysis. A, General 391, no. 1-2:436-442. PNNL-SA-71427. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2010.09.021
  • Tratnyek P.G., A. Salter-Blanc, J. Nurmi, J.E. Amonette, J. Liu, C.M. Wang, and A. Dohnalkova, et al. 2011. "Reactivity of Zerovalent Metals in Aquatic Media: Effects of Organic Surface Coatings." In Aquatic Redox Chemistry. ACS Symposium Series, edited by PG Tratnyek, TJ Grundl and SB Haderlein. 381-406. Washington Dc:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-82802.


  • Amonette J.E., J.L. Barr, L.M. Dobeck, K. Gullickson, and S.J. Walsh. 2010. "Spatio-temporal changes in CO2 emissions during the second ZERT injection, August-September 2008." Environmental Earth Sciences 60, no. 2:263-272. PNNL-SA-68668. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0402-0
  • Chun C., D.R. Baer, D.W. Matson, J.E. Amonette, and R.L. Penn. 2010. "Characterization and Reactivity of Iron Nanoparticles Prepared with Added Cu, Pd, and Ni." Environmental Science & Technology 44, no. 13:5079-5085. PNNL-SA-69642.
  • Garten, Jr C.T., J.L. Smith, D.D. Tyler, J.E. Amonette, V.L. Bailey, D.J. Brice, and H.F. Castro, et al. 2010. "Intra-annual changes in biomass, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics at 4-year old switchgrass field trials in West Tennessee, USA." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 136, no. 1-2:177-184. PNNL-SA-66863.
  • Joseph S., M. Camps-Arbestain, Y. Lin, P.R. Munroe, C.H. Chia, J.M. Hook, and L. Van Zweiten, et al. 2010. "An investigation into the reactions of biochar in soil." Australian Journal of Soil Research 48, no. 7:501-515. PNNL-SA-72958. doi:10.1071/SR10009
  • Lehmann J.C., J.E. Amonette, and K.G. Roberts. 2010. "Role of Biochar in Mitigation of Climate Change." In Handbook of Climate Change and Agroecosystems: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation, edited by D Hillel and C Rosenzweig. 343-364. London:Imperial College Press. PNNL-SA-71662.
  • Li G., D.M. Camaioni, J.E. Amonette, Z.C. Zhang, T.J. Johnson, and J.L. Fulton. 2010. "[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114, no. 39:12614-12622. PNNL-SA-67408. doi:10.1021/jp106762b
  • Spangler L.H., L.M. Dobeck, K.S. Repasky, A.R. Nehrir, S.D. Humphries, J.L. Barr, and C.J. Keith, et al. 2010. "A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models." Environmental Earth Sciences 60, no. 2:227-239. PNNL-SA-72800. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0400-2
  • Woolf D., J.E. Amonette, F.A. Street-Perrott, J.C. Lehmann, and S. Joseph. 2010. "Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change." Nature Communications 1. PNNL-SA-68680. doi:10.1038/ncomms1053


  • Amonette J.E., and S. Joseph. 2009. "Characteristics of biochar: Microchemical properties." In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, edited by J Lehmann & S Joseph. 33-52. London:Earthscan. PNNL-SA-61922.
  • Baer D.R., P.G. Tratnyek, J.E. Amonette, C. Chun, P. Nachimuthu, J. Nurmi, and R.L. Penn, et al. 2009. "Tuning the Properties of Iron Nanoparticles: Doping Effects on Reactivity and Aging." In International Perspectives on Environmental Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications, 1, 73-78. Washington Dc:Environmental Protection Agency. PNNL-SA-61979.
  • Fang Y., S.B. Yabusaki, S.J. Morrison, J.E. Amonette, and P.E. Long. 2009. "Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, no. 20:6029-6051. PNNL-SA-62890.
  • Kips R., M.J. Kristo, I. Hutcheon, J.E. Amonette, Z. Wang, T.J. Johnson, and D.C. Gerlach, et al. 2009. "Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy." In Proceeding of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Deerfield, Illinois:Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. PNNL-SA-67346.
  • Laird D.A., R.C. Brown, J.E. Amonette, and J.C. Lehmann. 2009. "Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar." Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining 3, no. 5:547-562. PNNL-SA-68799.
  • Palumbo A.V., I. Porat, J.R. Phillips, J.E. Amonette, M.M. Drake, S.D. Brown, and C.W. Schadt. 2009. "Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash." In World of Coal Ash - Science, Applications and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 3rd World of Coal Ash Conference (WOCA 2009), May 4-7, 2009, Lexington, Kentucky, 128-134. Lexington, Kentucky:American Coal Ash Association. PNNL-SA-65644.
  • Post W.M., J.E. Amonette, R.A. Birdsey, C.T. Garten, Jr, R.C. Izaurralde, P.M. Jardine, and J.D. Jastrow, et al. 2009. "Terrestrial Biological Carbon Sequestration: Science for Enhancement and Implementation." In Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle, edited by Brian J. McPherson and Eric T. Sundquist. 73-88. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-68053.
  • Schwantes J.M., S.D. Miller, R.K. Piper, M.K. Murphy, J.E. Amonette, S.E. Bonde, and D.C. Duckworth. 2009. "Intrinsic dosimetry of glass containers used to transport nuclear materials: Potential implications to the fields of waste management and nuclear forensics." Radiation Measurements 44, no. 4:405-408. PNNL-SA-68792. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.04.012
  • Su Y., H.M. Brown, X. Huang, X.D. Zhou, J.E. Amonette, and Z.C. Zhang. 2009. "Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a versatile platform chemical." Applied Catalysis. A, General 361, no. 1-2:117-122. PNNL-SA-59545. doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2009.04.002
  • Tratnyek P.G., V. Sarathy, J. Nurmi, D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, C. Chun, and R.L. Penn, et al. 2009. "Aging of Iron Nanoparticles in Water: Effects on Structure and Reactivity." In International Perspectives on Environmental Nanotechnology: Applications and Implications; EPA 905/R-09/032, 2, 193-196. Washington, District Of Columbia:Environmental Protection Agency. PNNL-SA-61980.
  • Wang C.M., D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, M.H. Engelhard, J. Antony, and Y. Qiang. 2009. "Morphology and Electronic Structure of the Oxide Shell on the Surface of Iron Nanoparticles." Journal of the American Chemical Society 131, no. 25:8824-8832. PNNL-SA-63967. doi:10.1021/ja900353f


  • Bachelor P.P., J.I. McIntyre, J.E. Amonette, J.C. Hayes, B.D. Milbrath, and P. Saripalli. 2008. "Potential method for measurement of CO2 leakage from underground sequestration fields using radioactive tracers." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 277, no. 1:85-89. PNNL-SA-49316. doi:10.1007/s10967-008-0713-8
  • Baer D.R., J.E. Amonette, M.H. Engelhard, D.J. Gaspar, A.S. Karakoti, S.N. Kuchibhatla, and P. Nachimuthu, et al. 2008. "Characterization Challenges for Nanomaterials." Surface and Interface Analysis 40, no. 3-4:529-537. PNNL-SA-56706. doi:10.1002/sia.2726
  • Borch T., A.K. Camper, J.A. Biederman, P. Butterfield, R. Gerlach, and J.E. Amonette. 2008. "Evaluation of Characterization Techniques for Iron Pipe Corrosion Products and Iron Oxide Thin Films." Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE) 134, no. 10:835-844. PNNL-SA-64143.
  • Hayes J.A., D.M. Schubert, J.E. Amonette, P. Nachimuthu, and R.S. Disselkamp. 2008. "Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using aminoindazole, diaminopyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer complexes of Zn(II)." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. A, Chemistry 197, no. 2-3:245-252. PNNL-SA-56908. doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2007.12.031
  • Sarathy V., P.G. Tratnyek, J. Nurmi, D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, C. Chun, and R.L. Penn, et al. 2008. "Aging of Iron Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution: Effects on Structure and Reactivity." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112, no. 7:2286-2293. PNNL-SA-57321. doi:10.1021/jp0777418
  • Schwantes J.M., S.D. Miller, R.K. Piper, M.K. Murphy, J.E. Amonette, S.E. Bonde, and D.C. Duckworth. 2008. "INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY OF GLASS CONTAINERS USED TO TRANSPORT NUCLEAR MATERIALS: Potential Implications to the Field of Nuclear Forensics." In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Facility Operations - Safeguards Interface, March 30 - April 4, 2008, Portland, Oregon, Paper No. 78. La Grange, Illinois:American Nuclear Society. PNNL-SA-61726.


  • Baer D.R., P.G. Tratnyek, Y. Qiang, J.E. Amonette, J.C. Linehan, V. Sarathy, and J.T. Nurmi, et al. 2007. "Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles." In Environmental Applications of Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Sorbents and Sensors, edited by GE Fryxell and G Cao. 49-86. London:Imperial College Press. PNNL-SA-48350.
  • Jastrow J.D., J.E. Amonette, and V.L. Bailey. 2007. "Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration." Climatic Change 80, no. 1-2:5-23. PNNL-SA-47084.
  • Marsili E., H. Beyenal, L. Di Palma, C. Merli, A. Dohnalkova, J.E. Amonette, and Z. Lewandowski. 2007. "Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite." Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 24:8349-8354. PNNL-SA-57705. doi:10.1021/es071335k
  • Palumbo A.V., J.E. Amonette, J.R. Tarver, L.A. Fagan, M.S. McNeilly, and W.L. Daniels. 2007. "Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential." In World of Coal Ash - Science, Applications and Sustainability: World of Coal Ash Conference Proceedings, 115-183. Aurora, Colorado:American Coal Ash Association. PNNL-SA-54741.
  • Palumbo A.V., J.R. Tarver, L.A. Fagan, M.S. McNeilly, R. Ruther, L.S. Fisher, and J.E. Amonette. 2007. "Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash." Fuel 86, no. 10-11:1623-1630. PNNL-SA-55295. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2006.11.018
  • Thompson K.M., S.W. Petersen, J.S. Fruchter, C.C. Ainsworth, V.R. Vermeul, D.M. Wellman, and J.E. Szecsody, et al. 2007. "Supplemental Groundwater Remediation Technologies to Protect the Columbia River at Hanford, WA." In Waste management symposium 2007 : Global Accomplishments in Environmental and Radioactive Waste Management - Education and Opportunity for the Next Generation of Waste Management Professionals : February 25 March 1, 2007, Tucson, Arizona. Tucson, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia. PNNL-SA-53193.
  • Wang C.M., D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, M.H. Engelhard, J.S. Anthony, and Y. Qiang. 2007. "Electron Beam Induced Thickening of the Protective Oxide Layer around Fe Nanoparticles." Ultramicroscopy 108, no. 1:43-51. PNNL-SA-51434. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2007.03.002
  • Wang C.M., D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, M.H. Engelhard, Y. Qiang, and J. Antony. 2007. "Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation." Nanotechnology 18, no. 25:Art. No. 255603. PNNL-SA-53940. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/18/25/255603


  • Arvidson R.S., M. Collier, K.J. Davis, M.D. Vinson, J.E. Amonette, and A. Luttge. 2006. "Magnesium inhibition of calcite dissolution kinetics." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, no. 3:583-594. PNNL-SA-49046.
  • Fulton J.L., D.W. Matson, K.H. Pecher, J.E. Amonette, and J.C. Linehan. 2006. "Metal-based Nanoparticle Synthesis from the Rapid Expansion of Carbon Dioxide Solutions." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 6, no. 2:562-567. PNNL-SA-41170.
  • Hua B., B. Deng, E.C. Thornton, J. Yang, and J.E. Amonette. 2006. "Incorporation of Chromate into Calcium Carbonate Structure during Coprecipitation." Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. PNNL-SA-51208.
  • Saripalli P., J.E. Amonette, F.C. Rutz, N. Gupta, and N. Gupta. 2006. "Design of Sensor Networks for the Long term Monitoring of Geological Sequestration." Energy Conversion and Management 47, no. 13-14:1968-1974. PNNL-SA-46991. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2005.09.010
  • Thompson C.J., R.G. Riley, J.E. Amonette, and P.L. Gassman. 2006. "Quantification of Volatile Organics in Soil Aging Experiments Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy 60, no. 8:914-919. PNNL-SA-48221. doi:10.1366/000370206778062156


  • Gonzalez-Gil G., J.E. Amonette, M.F. Romine, Y.A. Gorby, and G.G. Geesey. 2005. "Bioreduction of Natural Specular Hematite under Flow Conditions." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, no. 5:1145-1155. PNNL-SA-43240.
  • Kim J., J.E. Amonette, and C.K. Russell. 2005. "Nanobiotechnology for enzymatic remediation and soil carbon sequestration." In Abstracts of Papers of the 229th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, 229, U921. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-43410.
  • Marsili E., H. Beyenal, L. Di Palma, C. Merli, A. Dohnalkova, J.E. Amonette, and Z. Lewandowski. 2005. "Uranium removal by sulfate reducing biofilms in the presence of carbonates." Water Science and Technology 52, no. 7:49-55. PNNL-SA-48030.
  • Nurmi J.T., P.G. Tratnyek, V. Sarathy, D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, K.H. Pecher, and C.M. Wang, et al. 2005. "Characterization and Properties of Metallic Iron Nanoparticles: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Kinetics." Environmental Science & Technology 39, no. 5:1221-1230. PNNL-SA-41863.
  • Sani R.K., B.M. Peyton, A. Dohnalkova, and J.E. Amonette. 2005. "Reoxidation of Reduced Uranium with Iron(III) (Hydr)Oxides under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions." Environmental Science & Technology 39, no. 7:2059-2066. PNNL-SA-45281.
  • Thompson S.E., A. Heredia-Langner, T.J. Johnson, N.S. Foster, N.B. Valentine, and J.E. Amonette. 2005. "Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools." In ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement Proceedings, 59, 333-334. Milwaukee, Wisconsin:American Society for Quality. PNNL-SA-44674.
  • Wang C.M., D.R. Baer, L.E. Thomas, J.E. Amonette, J. Anthony, Y. Qiang, and G. Duscher. 2005. "Void Formation during Early Stages of Passivation: Initial Oxidation of Iron Nanoparticles at Room Temperature." Journal of Applied Physics 98, no. 9:094308(7). PNNL-SA-45057. doi:10.1063/1.2130890


  • Beyenal H., R.K. Sani, B.M. Peyton, A. Dohnalkova, J.E. Amonette, and Z. Lewandowski. 2004. "Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms." Environmental Science & Technology 38, no. 7:2067-2074. PNNL-SA-42569.
  • Foster N.S., N.B. Valentine, S.E. Thompson, T.J. Johnson, and J.E. Amonette. 2004. "FTIR Transmission and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Statistical Identification of Bacteria." In Proceedings of SPIE - Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense, edited by Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Richard Colton, Tuan Vo-Dinh, 5269, 172-182. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering). PNNL-SA-39817.
  • Foster N.S., S.E. Thompson, N.B. Valentine, J.E. Amonette, and T.J. Johnson. 2004. "Identification of Sporulated and Vegetative Bacteria using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Transmission Data." Applied Spectroscopy 58, no. 2:203-211. PNNL-SA-38461.
  • Norberg N.S., K.R. Kittilstved, J.E. Amonette, R.K. Kukkadapu, D.A. Schwartz, and D.R. Gamelin. 2004. "Synthesis of Colloidal Mn2+:ZnO Quantum Dots and High-TC Ferromagnetic Nanocrystalline Thin Films." Journal of the American Chemical Society 126, no. 30:9387-9398. PNNL-SA-42140.
  • Palumbo A.V., J.F. Mccarthy, J.E. Amonette, L.S. Fisher, S.D. Wullschleger, and W.L. Daniels. 2004. "Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products." Advances in Environmental Research 8, no. 3-4:425-438. PNNL-SA-41423.
  • Post W.M., R.C. Izaurralde, J.D. Jastrow, B.A. McCarl, J.E. Amonette, V.L. Bailey, and P.M. Jardine, et al. 2004. "Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in US Soils." BioScience 54, no. 10:895-908. PNNL-SA-39235.
  • Sani R.K., B.M. Peyton, J.E. Amonette, and G.G. Geesey. 2004. "Reduction of Uranium(VI) under Sulfate-reducing Conditions in the Presence of Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68, no. 12:2639-2648. PNNL-SA-37209.
  • Strawn D.G., N.E. Palmer, L.J. Furnare, C. Goodell, J.E. Amonette, and R.K. Kukkadapu. 2004. "Copper Sorption Mechanisms on Smectites." Clays and Clay Minerals 52, no. 3:321-333. PNNL-SA-39924.
  • Williford R.E., D.R. Baer, J.E. Amonette, and A.S. Lea. 2004. "Dissolution and Growth of (10(1) over-bar4) Calcite in Flowing Water: Estimation of Back Reaction Rates via Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations." Journal of Crystal Growth 262, no. 1-4:503-518. PNNL-SA-39589.


  • Amonette J.E., C.K. Russell, K.A. Carosino, N.L. Robinson, and J.T. Ho. 2003. "Toxicity of Al to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, no. 7:4057-4066. PNNL-SA-36770.
  • Amonette J.E., J. Kim, C.K. Russell, A.V. Palumbo, and W.L. Daniels. 2003. "Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration." In Second Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration. Alexandria, Virginia:U.S.Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. PNNL-SA-38910.
  • Amonette J.E., R.K. Kukkadapu, E.E. Alp, W. Sturhahn, and T.S. Toellner. 2003. "Heterogeneous Electron-Transfer Kinetics with Synchrotron 57Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, no. 12:2109-2116. PNNL-SA-36179.
  • Amonette J.E., S.M. Heald, and C.K. Russell. 2003. "Imaging the heterogeneity of mineral surface reactivity using Ag(I) and synchrotron X-ray microscopy." Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 30, no. 9:559-569. PNNL-SA-37646.
  • Arvidson R.S., R.S. Arvidson, I.E. Ertan, J.E. Amonette, and A. Luttge. 2003. "Variation in Calcite Dissolution Rates: A Fundamental Problem?." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, no. 9:1623-1634. PNNL-SA-36779.
  • Lea A.S., T.T. Hurt, A. El-Azab, J.E. Amonette, and D.R. Baer. 2003. "Heteroepitaxial Growth of a Manganese Carbonate secondary Nano-Phase on the (101_4) Surface of Calcite in Solution." Surface Science 524, no. 1-3:63-77. PNNL-SA-36252.
  • Miao J., J.E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K.O. Hodgson. 2003. "Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10 nm resolution." Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 68, no. 012201:1-3. PNNL-SA-38492.
  • Thompson S.E., N.S. Foster, T.J. Johnson, N.B. Valentine, and J.E. Amonette. 2003. "Identification of Bacterial Spores using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Data." Applied Spectroscopy 57, no. 8:893-899. PNNL-SA-38571.
  • Wang J., A.G. Kalinichev, J.E. Amonette, and R.J. Kirkpatrick. 2003. "Interlayer Structure and Dynamics of Cl-Bearing Hydrotalcite: Far Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Modeling." The American Mineralogist 88, no. Feb-Mar 2003:398-409. PNNL-SA-37208.


  • Amonette J.E. 2002. "Methods for Determination of Mineralogy and Environmental Availability." In Soil Mineralogy with Environmental Applications, SSSA Book Series, edited by J.B. Dixon and D.G. Schulze. 153-197. Madison, Wisconsin:Soil Science Society of America. PNWD-SA-4536.
  • Baer D.R., Y. Liang, A.S. Lea, J.E. Amonette, and N.G. Colton. 2002. "Scanning Force Microscopy Measurements of Dissolution and Growth Processes: CaCO3 Examples." In State-of-the-Art Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis Methods to Environmental Material Interactions: In Honor of James E. Castle's 65th Year, edited by D.R. Baer, C.R. Clayton, G.D. Davis, et. al., 2001-5, 139-148. Pennington, New Jersey:The Electrochemical Society, Inc. PNNL-SA-33715(a).
  • Lea A.S., J.E. Amonette, A. El-Azab, D.R. Baer, S.M. Heald, and N.G. Colton. 2002. "Manganese at Calcite Surfaces: Molecular-Scale Studies of Dissolution and Heteroepitaxy." In Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, April 7-11, 2002, Orlando, FL, 223, U605. Washington Dc:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-35650.
  • Vermeul V.R., M.D. Williams, J.E. Szecsody, J.S. Fruchter, C.R. Cole, and J.E. Amonette. 2002. "Creation of a Subsurface Permeable Reactive Barrier Using In Situ Redox Manipulation." In Handbook of Groundwater Remediation using Permeable Reactive Barriers: Applications to Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Nutrients, edited by David L. Naftz, et al. 163-192. San Diego, California:Academic Press. PNNL-SA-35122.
  • Yoon S., P.A. Helmke, J.E. Amonette, and W.F. Bleam. 2002. "X-ray absorption and magnetic studies of trivalent lanthanide ions sorbed on pristine and phosphate-modified boehmite surfaces." Langmuir 18 (26), no. Dec 24, 2002:10128-10136. PNNL-SA-37890.


  • Foster N.S., J.E. Amonette, T. Autrey, and J.T. Ho. 2001. "Detection of Trace Levels of Water in Oil by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy." Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical 77, no. 3:620-624. PNNL-SA-33720.
  • Lea A.S., J.E. Amonette, D.R. Baer, Y. Liang, and N.G. Colton. 2001. "Microscopic Effects of Carbonate, Manganese, and Strontium ions on Calcite Dissolution." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, no. 3:369-379. PNNL-SA-32129.
  • Matocha C.J., D.L. Sparks, J.E. Amonette, and R.K. Kukkadapu. 2001. "Kinetics and Mechanism of Birnessite Reduction by Catechol." Soil Science Society of America Journal 65. PNNL-SA-32700.


  • Amonette J.E., D.J. Workman, D.W. Kennedy, J.S. Fruchter, and Y.A. Gorby. 2000. "Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Fe(II) Associated with Goethite." Environmental Science & Technology 34. PNNL-SA-32646.
  • Brown G.E., S.A. Chambers, J.E. Amonette, J.R. Rustad, T. Kendelewicz, P. Liu, and C.S. Doyle, et al. 2000. "Interaction of Aqueous Chromium Ions with Iron Oxide Surfaces." In Nuclear Site Remediation: First Accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program. ACS Symposium Series, edited by Eller, P. Gary; Heineman, William R. 212-246. Washington Dc:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-43343.
  • Fruchter J.S., C.R. Cole, M.D. Williams, V.R. Vermeul, J.E. Amonette, J.E. Szecsody, and J.D. Istok, et al. 2000. "Creation of a Subsurface Permeable Treatment Zone for Aqueous Chromate Contaminatioin Using In Situ Redox Manipulation." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 20, no. 2:66-77. PNNL-SA-32701.
  • Small J.R., N.S. Foster, J.E. Amonette, and T. Autrey. 2000. "Listening to Colloidal Silica Samples: Simultaneous Measurement of Absorbed and Scattered Light Using Pulsed-Laser Photoacoustics." Applied Spectroscopy 54, no. 8:1142-1150. PNNL--SA-31375.
  • Zachara J.M., N.S. Foster, J.E. Amonette, E.J. Bylaska, A.R. Felmy, P.L. Gassman, and S.M. Heald, et al. 2000. Annual Report 1999 Environmental Dynamics & Simulation. PNNL-13206. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Annual Report 1999 Environmental Dynamics & Simulation


  • Amonette J.E., F.A. Khan, H. Gan, J.W. Stucki, and A.D. Scott. 1999. "Comparison of Oxidimetric, Spectrophotometric, and Mossbauer-Spectroscopic Methods for Determination of Fe(II) in Nonrefractory Minerals." In Clays for our Future: Proceeding 11th International Clay Conference 1997, edited by H. Kodama, A.R. Mermut, and J.K. Torrance, 277-286. Ottawa, :ICC97 Organizing Committee. PNNL-SA-33711.
  • Foster N.S., J.E. Amonette, and T. Autrey. 1999. "In-situ Detection of Chromate Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy 53, no. 6:735-740. PNNL-SA-30236.
  • Foster N.S., T. Autrey, J.E. Amonette, J.R. Small, and E.W. Small. 1999. "Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Versatile Absorption-Spectroscopic Technique." American Laboratory 31, no. 4:96S-108S. PNNL-SA-30001.
  • Istok J.D., J.E. Amonette, C.R. Cole, J.S. Fruchter, M.D. Humphrey, J.E. Szecsody, and S.S. Teel, et al. 1999. "In Situ Redox Manipulation by Dithionite Injection: Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments." Ground Water 37, no. 6:884-889. PNNL-SA-32702.
  • Kloprogge J.T., S. Komarneni, and J.E. Amonette. 1999. "Synthesis of Smectite Clay Minerals: A Critical Review." Clays and Clay Minerals 47, no. 5:529-554. PNNL-SA-29878.
  • Mattigod S.V., D. Rai, and J.E. Amonette. 1999. "Concentrations and Distribution of Major and Selected Trace Elements in Size-Density Fractionated Fly Ashes." In Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Combustion Byproducts, edited by K.S. Sajwan, A.K. Alva and R.F. Keefer, 115-131. New York, New York:Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. PNWD-SA-5104.
  • Maxwell R.S., R.K. Kukkadapu, J.E. Amonette, and H.M. Cho. 1999. "2H Solid-State NMR Investigation of Terephthalate Dynamics and Orientation in Mixed-Anion Hydrotalcite-like Compounds." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 103. PNNL-SA-30257.
  • Thornton E.C., and J.E. Amonette. 1999. "Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Treatment of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Sediment Samples from a Plating-Waste Disposal Site-Implications for In-Situ Remediation." Environmental Science & Technology 33. PNWD-SA-5074.


  • Autrey T., N.S. Foster, K. Klepzig, J.E. Amonette, and J.L. Daschbach. 1998. "A New Angle into Time-Resolved Photoacoustic Spectroscopy: A Layered Prism Cell Increases Experimental Flexibility." Review of Scientific Instruments 69, no. 6:2246-2258. PNNL-SA-32703. doi:10.1063/1.1148928
  • Komarneni S., R. Pidugu, and J.E. Amonette. 1998. "Synthesis of Na-4-mica from Metakaolinite and MgO: Characterization and Sr2+ uptake Kinetics." Journal of Materials Chemistry 8, no. 1:205-208. PNNL-SA-32704. doi:10.1039/A706050E


  • Heald S.M., J.E. Amonette, G.D. Turner, and A.D. Scott. 1995. "An XAFS Study of the Oxidation of Structural Iron in Biotite Mica by Solutions Containing Br-2 or H2O2." Physica B Condensed Matter 209, no. 1-4:604-606. PNNL-SA-34110. doi:10.1016/0921-4526(94)00878-Y


  • Amonette J.E., and A.D. Scott. 1991. "Determination of Ferrous Iron in Nonrefractory Silicate Minerals:1. An improved semi-micro oxidimetric method." Chemical Geology 92, no. 4:329-338. BN-SA-3154. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(91)90077-5


  • Amonette J.E., and D. Rai. 1990. "Identification of Noncrystalline (Fe,Cr)(OH)3 by Infrared-Spectroscopy." Clays and Clay Minerals 38, no. 2:129-136. BN-SA-2843. doi:10.1346/CCMN.1990.0380203

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