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Staff information

Tim

Tim Johnson

Analysis
Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: P7-01
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Tim Johnson is a physical chemist specializing in spectroscopy in the THz, infrared, near-IR and UV-vis domains. Work includes transmission, reflectance and other spectroscopic methods for gases, liquids and solids. Tim was a member of a team involved in building the Northwest Infrared Database, a quantitative vapor-phase infrared spectral library used for a multitude of purposes, including environmental monitoring, hazardous material response, biomass burning and general research. He also is part of several collaborative efforts for applied and basic science involving fundamental spectroscopy, both infrared and Raman, and is working to develop sensors and methods, both Fourier transform infrared spectrometer-based and laser-based systems for atmospheric chemical sensing as well as for security purposes. He also has significant experience in UV-visible spectroscopies including absorbance, reflectance and cryogenic techniques.

Before joining Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Dr. Johnson conducted atmospheric chemistry research at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, and worked as an FTIR applications and development scientist at Bruker Optics. He also served as a senior research scientist in sensor development for atmospheric chemistry at York University in Toronto, using matrix isolation FTIR, intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy, and infrared diode laser spectroscopy.

Research Interests

  • Atmospheric Chemistry - Fate and Transport
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Spectral Signatures - Solids, liquids, pollutants, WMD etc.
  • Remote (Laser) Sensing of Toxins/Pollutants
  • Step-scan FTIR Time-Resolved Spectroscopy

Education and Credentials

  • Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany, 1988-1992
  • Ph.D., Chemical Physics Program (Spectroscopy), Washington State University, 1987
  • B.A., Chemistry (with distinction), cum laude, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, 1981

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member, Optical Society of America
  • Member, American Geophysical Union, Atmospheric Division

Awards and Recognitions

  • Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society (1987 - present)
  • National Need/Fabrication/Field Test Short Wave Infrared Spectrograph (2000)
  • Certificate of Achievement, Pre-service Teacher Program (2001)
  • Max Planck Society Honorary Fellowship (1988-1990)
  • Washington State University Graduate School Summer Fellowship (1985)
  • Distinction in Senior Integrative Exercises, Chemistry Department, Carleton College (1981)

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Beiswenger T.N., N.B. Gallagher, T.L. Myers, J.E. Szecsody, R.G. Tonkyn, Y. Su, and L.E. Sweet, et al. 2018. "Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy 72, no. 2:209-224. PNNL-SA-126896. doi:10.1177/0003702817743265
  • Blake T.A., T.J. Johnson, R.G. Tonkyn, B.M. Forland, T.L. Myers, C.S. Brauer, and Y. Su, et al. 2018. "Methods for Quantitative Infrared Directional-Hemispherical and Diffuse Reflectance Measurements Using an FTIR and a Commercial Integrating Sphere." Applied Optics 57, no. 3:432-446. PNNL-SA-128926. doi:10.1364/AO.57.000432
  • Johnson T.J., P.M. Aker, N.K. Scharko, and S.D. Williams. 2018. "Quantitative Infrared and Near-infrared Gas-Phase Spectra for Pyridine: Absolute Intensities and Vibrational Assignments." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 206. PNNL-SA-128188. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.11.023
  • Myers T.L., R.G. Tonkyn, T.O. Danby, B.M. De Vetter, B.E. Bernacki, M.S. Taubman, and T.J. Johnson. 2018. "Accurate Measurement of the Optical Constants for Organic and Organophosphorous Liquid Layers and Drops." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIX, April 15-19, Orlando, Florida, edited by JA Guicheteau, AW Fountain III, CR Howle, 10629, Paper No. 1062912. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-133895. doi:10.1117/12.2300777
  • Myers T.L., R.G. Tonkyn, T.O. Danby, M.S. Taubman, B.E. Bernacki, J.C. Birnbaum, and S.W. Sharpe, et al. 2018. "Accurate Measurement of the Optical Constants n and k for a Series of 57 Inorganic and Organic Liquids for Optical Modeling and Detection." Applied Spectroscopy 72, no. 4:535-550. PNNL-SA-127337. doi:10.1177/0003702817735817
  • Su Y., R.G. Tonkyn, L.E. Sweet, J.F. Corbey, S.A. Bryan, and T.J. Johnson. 2018. "Characterization of Uranium Ore Concentrate Chemical Composition via Raman Spectroscopy." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIX, April 15-19, 2018, Orlando, Flordia, edited by JA Guicheteau, AW Fountain III, CR Howle, 10629, Paper No. 106290G. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-133733. doi:10.1117/12.2304304

2017

  • Blake T.A., C.S. Brauer, M.K. Kelly-Gorham, S.D. Burton, M. Bliss, T.L. Myers, and T.J. Johnson, et al. 2017. "Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods." In Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXIII, April 9, 2017, Anaheim, California. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by M Velez-Reyes and DW Messinger, 10198, Article No. 101980J. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-124897. doi:10.1117/12.2264501
  • Gordon I.E., L.S. Rothman, C. Hill, R.V. Kochanov, Y. Tan, P.F. Bernath, and M. Birk, et al. 2017. "The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 203. PNNL-SA-124224. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.038
  • Kelly-Gorham M.K., B.M. De Vetter, C.S. Brauer, B.D. Cannon, S.D. Burton, M. Bliss, and T.J. Johnson, et al. 2017. "Complex Refractive Index Measurements for BaF2 and CaF2 via Single-Angle Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy." Optical Materials 72. PNNL-SA-125226. doi:10.1016/j.optmat.2017.06.052
  • Lindenmaier R., N.K. Scharko, R.G. Tonkyn, K.T. Nguyen, S.D. Williams, and T.J. Johnson. 2017. "Improved Assignments of the Vibrational Fundamental Modes of ortho-, meta-, and para-xylene Using Gas- and Liquid-Phase Infrared and Raman Spectra Combined with ab initio Calculations: Quantitative Gas-Phase Infrared Spectra for Detection." Journal of Molecular Structure 1149. PNNL-SA-124326. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.07.053
  • Lindenmaier R., S.D. Williams, R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2017. "Quantitative Infrared Absorption Spectra and Vibrational Assignments of Crotonaldehyde and Methyl Vinyl Ketone Using Gas-Phase Mid-Infrared, Far-Infrared, and Liquid Raman Spectra: s-cis vs s-trans Composition Confirmed via Temperature Studies and ab Initio Methods." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 121, no. 6:1195-1212. PNNL-SA-121791. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.6b10872
  • Tonkyn R.G., T.O. Danby, J.C. Birnbaum, M.S. Taubman, B.E. Bernacki, T.J. Johnson, and T.L. Myers. 2017. "Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XVIII, April 9, 2017, Anaheim, California. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain and JA Guicheteau, 10183, Article No. 1018306. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-124964. doi:10.1117/12.2264384

2016

  • Beiswenger T.N., T.L. Myers, C.S. Brauer, Y. Su, T.A. Blake, A.B. Ertel, and R.G. Tonkyn, et al. 2016. "Experimental Effects on IR Reflectance Spectra: Particle Size and Morphology." In Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXII, April 17, 2016, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by M Velez-Reyes and DW Messinger, 9840, Paper No. 98400I. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-117157. doi:10.1117/12.2223909
  • Lindenmaier R., N.M. Tipton, R.L. Sams, C.S. Brauer, T.A. Blake, S.D. Williams, and T.J. Johnson. 2016. "Assignment of the Fundamental Modes of Hydroxyacetone Using Gas-Phase Infrared, Far-Infrared, Raman and ab Initio Methods: Band Strengths for Atmospheric Measurements." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 120, no. 30:5993-3003. PNNL-SA-117947. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.6b05045
  • Rettie A.J., W.D. Chemelewski, B.R. Wygant, J. Lindemuth, J. Lin, D. Eisenberg, and C.S. Brauer, et al. 2016. "Synthesis, Electronic Transport and Optical Properties of Si:a-Fe2O3 Single Crystals." Journal of Materials Chemistry C 4, no. 3:559-567. PNNL-SA-113548. doi:10.1039/C5TC03368C
  • Smith M.W., I. Dallmeyer, T.J. Johnson, C.S. Brauer, J. McEwen, J.F. Espinal, and M. Garcia-Perez. 2016. "Structural Analysis of Char by Raman Spectroscopy: Improving Band Assignments through Computational Calculations from First Principles." Carbon 100. PNNL-SA-114111. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2016.01.031
  • Su Y., T.J. Johnson, and K.B. Olsen. 2016. "Raman Spectroscopy for Analysis of Thorium Compounds." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XVII, April 17, 2016, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain, 9824, Paper No. 982415. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-117392. doi:10.1117/12.2224688

2015

  • Brauer C.S., T.J. Johnson, T.L. Myers, Y. Su, T.A. Blake, and B.M. Forland. 2015. "Effects of Sample Preparation on the Infrared Reflectance Spectra of Powders." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XVI, April 20, 2015, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, 9455, Article No. 945505. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-109821. doi:10.1117/12.2179736
  • Bryan S.A., T.J. Johnson, and C.R. Orton. 2015. Enhanced Uranium Ore Concentrate Analysis by Handheld Raman Sensor: FY15 Status Report. PNNL-24903. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson T.J., L.E. Sweet, D.E. Meier, E.J. Mausolf, E. Kim, P.F. Weck, and E.C. Buck, et al. 2015. "Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XVI, April 20, 2015, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain, 9455, Article No.945504. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-109717. doi:10.1117/12.2179704
  • Johnson T.J., L.E. Sweet, D.E. Meier, E.J. Mausolf, E. Kim, P.F. Weck, and E.C. Buck, et al. 2015. "Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 119, no. 39:9996-10006. PNNL-SA-111133. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.5b06365
  • Johnson T.J., T.A. Blake, C.S. Brauer, Y. Su, B.E. Bernacki, T.L. Myers, and R.G. Tonkyn, et al. 2015. "Reflectance Spectroscopy for Sample Identification: Considerations for Quantitative Library Results at Infrared Wavelengths." In International Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy (ICAVS 8), July 12-17, 2015, Vienna, Austria, 454-455. Vienna:ICAVS. PNNL-SA-113555.
  • Kochanov R.V., I.E. Gordon, L.S. Rothman, S.W. Sharpe, T.J. Johnson, and R.L. Sams. 2015. "Comment on “Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)." Climate of the Past 11, no. 8:1097-1105. PNNL-SA-110091. doi:10.5194/cp-11-1097-2015
  • Myers T.L., C.S. Brauer, Y. Su, T.A. Blake, R.G. Tonkyn, A.B. Ertel, and T.J. Johnson, et al. 2015. "Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size." Applied Optics 54, no. 15:4863-4875. PNNL-SA-108358. doi:10.1364/AO.54.004863
  • Weise D., T.J. Johnson, and J. Reardon. 2015. "Particulate and Trace Gas Emissions from Prescribed Burns in Southeastern U.S. fuel types: Summary of a 5-year Project." Fire Safety Journal 74. PNNL-SA-102995. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.02.016
  • Weise D., T.J. Johnson, and J. Reardon. 2015. "Particulate and trace gas emissions from prescribed burns in southeastern U.S. fuel types: Summary of a 5-year project." Fire Safety Journal 74. PNNL-SA-109744. doi:10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.02.016

2014

  • Akagi S., I.R. Burling, A. Mendoza, T.J. Johnson, M. Cameron, D. Griffith, and D. Griffith, et al. 2014. "Field measurements of trace gases emitted by prescribed fires in southeastern U.S. pine forests using an open-path FTIR system." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 1:199-215. PNNL-SA-94286. doi:10.5194/acp-14-199-2014
  • Akagi S., R.J. Yokelson, I.R. Burling, D. Weise, J. Reardon, S. Urbanski, and T.J. Johnson. 2014. "First Look at Smoke Emissions from Prescribed Burns in Long-unburned Longleaf Pine Forests." In Proceedings of 4th Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, February 18-22, 2013, Raleigh, North Carolina and July 1-4, 2013, St. Petersburg, Russia, edited by DD Wade and RL Fox, 23-25. Missoula, Montana:International Association of Wildland Fire. PNNL-SA-98297.
  • Blake T.A., T.J. Johnson, R.G. Tonkyn, B.M. Forland, T.L. Myers, C.S. Brauer, and Y. Su. 2014. "Quantitative Total and Diffuse Reflectance Laboratory Measurements for Remote, Standoff, and Point Sensing." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XV, May 5, 2014, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain, 9073, Paper No. 907303. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-103272. doi:10.1117/12.2054116
  • Brauer C.S., T.A. Blake, A.B. Guenther, S.W. Sharpe, R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2014. "Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 7, no. 11:3839-3847. PNNL-SA-101735. doi:10.5194/amt-7-3839-2014
  • Brauer C.S., T.J. Johnson, T.A. Blake, S.W. Sharpe, R.L. Sams, and R.G. Tonkyn. 2014. "The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates." In Advanced Environmental, Chemical, and Biological Sensing Technologies XI, May 5, 2014, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by T Vo-Dinh, RA Lieberman and GG Gauglitz, 9106, Paper No. 910604. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-102648. doi:10.1117/12.2053591
  • Johnson T.J., B.E. Bernacki, R.L. Redding, Y. Su, C.S. Brauer, T.L. Myers, and E.G. Stephan. 2014. "Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured behind Glass." Applied Spectroscopy 68, no. 11:1224-1234. PNNL-SA-98862. doi:10.1366/13-07322
  • Myers T.L., C.S. Brauer, Y. Su, T.A. Blake, T.J. Johnson, and R.L. Richardson. 2014. "The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra." In Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XX, May 5, 2014, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by M Velez-Reyes and FA Kruse, 9088, Paper No. 908809. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-102635. doi:10.1117/12.2053350
  • Su Y., T.L. Myers, C.S. Brauer, T.A. Blake, B.M. Forland, J.E. Szecsody, and T.J. Johnson. 2014. "Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting, and Defence X; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology XI, 9253, Art. No. 925304. Amsterdam:Douglas Burgess, Roberto Zamboni, et al. PNNL-SA-106258. doi:10.1117/12.2069954

2013

  • Akagi S., R.J. Yokelson, I.R. Burling, S. Meinardi, I. Simpson, D.R. Blake, and G. McMeeking, et al. 2013. "Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 3:1141-1165. PNNL-SA-89204. doi:10.5194/acp-13-1141-2013
  • Bernacki B.E., R.L. Redding, Y. Su, C.S. Brauer, and T.J. Johnson. 2013. "Intensity offset and correction of solid spectral library samples measured behind glass." In Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XIX,m April 29, 2013, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by SS Shen and PE Lewis, 87431, Article No. 87431L. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-95036. doi:10.1117/12.2014523
  • Hosseini S., S. Urbanski, P. Dixit, L. Qi, I.R. Burling, R. Yokelson, and T.J. Johnson, et al. 2013. "Laboratory characterization of PM emissions from combustion of wildland biomass fuels." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118, no. 17:9914-9929. PNNL-SA-92505. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50481
  • Johnson T.J., D. Weise, E.N. Lincoln, R.L. Sams, M. Cameron, P. Veres, and R.J. Yokelson, et al. 2013. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns. PNNL-23025. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson T.J., R.L. Sams, L.T. Profeta, S. Akagi, I.R. Burling, R.J. Yokelson, and S.D. Williams. 2013. "Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117, no. 20:4096-4107. PNNL-SA-92441. doi:/10.1021/jp311945p
  • Sweet L.E., D.D. Reilly, D.G. Abrecht, E.C. Buck, D.E. Meier, Y. Su, and C.S. Brauer, et al. 2013. "Spectroscopic Studies of the Several Isomers of UO3." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism, Crime Fighting and Defence IX; and Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology X, September 23, 2013, Dresden, Germany. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by R Zamboni, et al, 8901, Paper No. 890107. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-98300. doi:10.1117/12.2029408
  • Sweet L.E., T.A. Blake, C.H. Henager, S.Y. Hu, T.J. Johnson, D.E. Meier, and S.M. Peper, et al. 2013. "Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 296, no. 1:105-110. PNNL-SA-86645. doi:10.1007/s10967-012-2063-9
  • Weatherall J., J.B. Barber, C.S. Brauer, T.J. Johnson, Y. Su, C.D. Ball, and B. Smith, et al. 2013. "Adapting Raman Spectra from Laboratory Spectrometers to Portable Detection Libraries." Applied Spectroscopy 67, no. 2:149-157. PNNL-SA-85809.
  • Williams S.D., T.J. Johnson, S.W. Sharpe, V. Yavelak, R.P. Oats, and C.S. Brauer. 2013. "Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 129. PNNL-SA-93165. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.005
  • Yokelson R.J., I.R. Burling, J. Gilman, C. Warneke, C.E. Stockwell, J.A. de Gouw, and S. Akagi, et al. 2013. "Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 1:89-116. PNNL-SA-89044. doi:10.5194/acp-13-89-2013

2012

  • Johnson T.J., Y. Su, K.H. Jarman, B.M. Kunkel, J.C. Birnbaum, A.G. Joly, and E.G. Stephan, et al. 2012. "Demonstrated Wavelength Portability of Raman Reference Data for Explosives and Chemical Detection." International Journal of Spectroscopy 2012. PNNL-SA-85885. doi:10.1155/2012/297056
  • Kelly J.F., T.A. Blake, B.E. Bernacki, and T.J. Johnson. 2012. "Design Considerations for a Portable Raman Probe Spectrometer for Field Forensics." International Journal of Spectroscopy 2012. PNNL-SA-86322. doi:10.1155/2012/938407
  • Phillips M.C., J.D. Suter, B.E. Bernacki, and T.J. Johnson. 2012. "Challenges of infrared reflective spectroscopy of solid-phase explosives and chemicals on surfaces." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIII, April 23, 2012, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain III, 8358, Paper No. 83580T. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-87890. doi:10.1117/12.919477
  • Sweet L.E., E.C. Buck, C.H. Henager, S.Y. Hu, D.E. Meier, S.M. Peper, and J.M. Schwantes, et al. 2012. "Investigations into the Polymorphs and Hydration Products of UO3." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XIII, April 24, 2012, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain III, 8358, Article No. 83581R. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-87572. doi:10.1117/12.919706

2011

  • Bernacki B.E., N.C. Anheier, A. Mendoza, B.G. Fritz, and T.J. Johnson. 2011. "Visible/Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Sensing of Solids under Controlled Environmental Conditions." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing XII, April 26, 2011, Orlando, Florida. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by AW Fountain III and PJ Garnder, 8018, Article No. 80180K. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-79500. doi:10.1117/12.884031
  • Burling I., R.J. Yokelson, S. Akagi, S. Urbanski, C.E. Wold, D. Griffith, and D. Griffith, et al. 2011. "Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 23:12197-12216. PNNL-SA-80379. doi:10.5194/acp-11-12197-2011
  • Chang-Graham A.L., L. Profeta, T.J. Johnson, R.J. Yokelson, A. Laskin, and J. Laskin. 2011. "Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol." Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 4:1257-1263. PNNL-SA-74989. doi:10.1021/es103010j
  • Kunkel B.M., Y. Su, R.G. Tonkyn, E.G. Stephan, A.G. Joly, J.C. Birnbaum, and K.H. Jarman, et al. 2011. "Raman Database Considerations for Near-Infrared Systems." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VIII, September 19, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by R Zamboni, et al, 8189, Article No. 818905. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-82532. doi:10.1117/12.898368
  • Profeta L.T., R.L. Sams, T.J. Johnson, and S.D. Williams. 2011. "Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Vibrational Assignments." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 115, no. 35:9886-9900. PNNL-SA-78185. doi:10.1021/jp204532x
  • Schneider M.D., N.B. Valentine, and T.J. Johnson. 2011. "Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VII; Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology VIII; and Quantum-Physics-based Information Security, September 19, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by R Zamboni, et al, 8189, Article No. 818908. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-82779. doi:10.1117/12.897944
  • Sweet L.E., C.H. Henager, S.Y. Hu, T.J. Johnson, D.E. Meier, S.M. Peper, and J.M. Schwantes. 2011. Investigation of Uranium Polymorphs. PNNL-20951. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2010

  • Bernacki B.E., T.A. Blake, A. Mendoza, and T.J. Johnson. 2010. "Visible Hyperspectral Imaging for Standoff Detection of Explosives on Surfaces." In Optics and Photonics for Counterterrorism and Crime Fighting VI and Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology VII: Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by C Lewis, D Burgess, R Zamboni, F Kajzar and EM Heckman, 7838, Paper No. 78380C. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-75496. doi:10.1117/12.870739
  • Burling I., R.J. Yokelson, D. Griffith, D. Griffith, T.J. Johnson, P. Veres, and J. Roberts, et al. 2010. "Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, no. 22:11115-11130. PNNL-SA-71185. doi:10.5194/acp-10-11115-2010
  • Johnson T.J., L. Profeta, R.L. Sams, D. Griffith, D. Griffith, and R.L. Yokelson. 2010. "An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning." Vibrational Spectroscopy 53, no. 1:97-102. PNNL-SA-68134. doi:10.1016/j.vibspec.2010.02.010
  • Johnson T.J., S.D. Williams, N.B. Valentine, and Y. Su. 2010. "The hydration number n of calcium dipicolinate trihydrate, CaDP center dot nH(2)O, and its effect on the IR spectra of sporulated Bacillus bacteria." Vibrational Spectroscopy 53, no. 1,Sp.Iss.SI:28-33. PNNL-SA-68142.
  • Johnson T.J., T.A. Blake, R.L. Sams, and S.D. Burton. 2010. "Absolute Infrared Cross Sections of Gas-Phase H2O2 Using Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy." In Fourier Transform Spectrometry, OSA Technical Digest, April 26-30, 2009, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Paper No. FWA6. Washington Dc:Optical Society of America. PNNL-SA-64316.
  • Li G., D.M. Camaioni, J.E. Amonette, Z.C. Zhang, T.J. Johnson, and J.L. Fulton. 2010. "[CuCln](2-n) Ion-Pair Species in 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Water Mixtures: Ultraviolet-Visible, X-ray Absorbtion Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Characterization." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114, no. 39:12614-12622. PNNL-SA-67408. doi:10.1021/jp106762b
  • Lincoln E., W. Hao, S. Baker, R.J. Yokelson, I.R. Burling, S. Urbanski, and J. Miller, et al. 2010. "A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications." In American Geophysical Union. Fall Meeting, December 13-17, 2010, San Francisco, California, Paper No. A21B-0037. Washington Dc:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-77481.
  • Roberts J.M., P. Veres, C. Warneke, A. Neuman, R. Washenfelder, S. Brown, and M. Baasandroj, et al. 2010. "Measurement of HONO, HNCO, and Other Inorganic Acids by Negative-ion Proton-Transfer Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS):Application to Biomass Burning Emissions." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 3, no. 4:981-990. PNNL-SA-69845. doi:10.5194/amt-3-981-2010

2009

  • Blake T.A., J.F. Kelly, N.B. Gallagher, P.L. Gassman, and T.J. Johnson. 2009. "Passive Standoff Detection of RDX Residues on Metal Surfaces via Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395, no. 2:337-348. PNNL-SA-64981.
  • Forrester J.B., N.B. Valentine, Y. Su, and T.J. Johnson. 2009. "Chemometric Analysis of Multiple Species of Bacillus Bacterial Endospores Using Infrared Spectroscopy: Discrimination to the Strain Level." Analytica Chimica Acta 651, no. 1:24-30. PNNL-SA-66451.
  • Johnson T.J., R.L. Sams, S.D. Burton, and T.A. Blake. 2009. "Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395, no. 2:377-386. PNNL-SA-65048. doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2805-x
  • Johnson T.J., S.D. Williams, N.B. Valentine, and Y. Su. 2009. "The Infrared Spectra of Bacillus Bacteria Part II: Sporulated Bacillus-the Effect of Vegetative Cells and Contributions of Calcium Dipicolinate Trihydrate, CaDP·3H2O." Applied Spectroscopy 63, no. 8:908-915. PNNL-SA-64041.
  • Johnson T.J., S.D. Williams, N.B. Valentine, Y. Su, H.W. Kreuzer-Martin, K.L. Wahl, and J.B. Forrester. 2009. "Infrared Signatures of Bacillus Bacteria: Clear IR Distinctions Between Sporulated and Vegetative Cells with Chemical Assighments." In Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing X, edited by AW Fountain III and PJ Gardner, 7304, Article No.: 730407. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-66018. doi:10.1117/12.823178
  • Johnson T.J., S.D. Williams, N.B. Valentine, Y. Su, H.W. Kreuzer-Martin, K.L. Wahl, and J.B. Forrester. 2009. "Infrared signatures of Bacillus bacteria: Clear IR distinctions between sporulated and vegetative cells with chemical assignments." In Proceedings of SPIE: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE) Sensing X, edited by AW Fountain, III and PJ Gardner, 7304, Paper No. 730407. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-67542. doi:10.1117/12.823178
  • Johnson T.J., Y. Su, N.B. Valentine, H.W. Kreuzer-Martin, K.L. Wahl, S.D. Williams, and B.H. Clowers, et al. 2009. "The Infrared Spectra of Bacillus Bacteria Part I: Vegetative Bacillus versus Sporulated Cells and the Contributions of Phospholipids to Vegetative Infrared Spectra." Applied Spectroscopy 63, no. 8:899-907. PNNL-SA-64040.
  • Kips R., M.J. Kristo, I. Hutcheon, J.E. Amonette, Z. Wang, T.J. Johnson, and D.C. Gerlach, et al. 2009. "Determination of the Relative Amount of Fluorine in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Optical Spectroscopy." In Proceeding of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Deerfield, Illinois:Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. PNNL-SA-67346.

2008

  • Sharpe S.W., T.J. Johnson, R.L. Sams, J.L. Hylden, J. Kleimeyer, and B. Rowland. 2008. "INFRARED SPECTRAL SIGNATURES: CREATION OF REFERENCE DATA FOR VAPORS AND LIQUIDS." International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems 18, no. 2:231-250. PNNL-SA-52363. doi:10.1142/S012915640800531X

2007

  • Aker P.M., T.J. Johnson, R.M. Williams, and N.B. Valentine. 2007. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent Detection. PNNL-16595. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson T.J., N.B. Valentine, P.L. Gassman, D.A. Atkinson, S.W. Sharpe, and S.D. Williams. 2007. "On the Relative Utility of Infrared (IR) versus Terahertz (THz) for Optical Sensors." In Chemical and Biological Sensors for Industrial and Environmental Monitoring III, Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by KJ Ewing, et al., 6756, 1-7. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-57352. doi:10.1117/12.754009
  • Valentine N.B., T.J. Johnson, Y. Su, and J.B. Forrester. 2007. "Rapid Bacterial Identification Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy." SPIE Newsroom. PNNL-SA-53047. doi:10.1117/2.1200701.0559
  • Williams S.D., T.J. Johnson, T. Gibbons, and C.L. Kitchens. 2007. "Relative Raman Intensities in C6H6, C6D6, and C6F6: A Comparison of Different Computational Methods." Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 117, no. 2:283-290. PNNL-SA-46036.

2006

  • Johnson T.J., S.W. Sharpe, and M.A. Covert. 2006. "A Disseminator for Rapid, Selectable and Quantitative Delivery of Low-and Semi-Volatile Liquid Species to the Vapor Phase." Review of Scientific Instruments 77, no. 09:094103. PNNL-SA-50331. doi:10.1063/1.2349298
  • Johnson T.J., T. Masiello, and S.W. Sharpe. 2006. "The Quantitative Infrared and NIR Spectrum of CH2I2 Vapor: Vibrational Assignments and Potential for Atmospheric Monitoring." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6, no. 9:2581-2591. PNNL-SA-47406.
  • Sharpe S.W., R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2006. "An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring." SPIE Newsroom 12 April 2006. PNNL-SA-48534. doi:10.1117/2.1200603.0152
  • Sharpe S.W., T.J. Johnson, D.M. Sheen, and D.A. Atkinson. 2006. "Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives." In SPIE Proceedings, 6378, 63780A. Bellingham:SPIE Publishing. PNNL-SA-52110.
  • Valentine N.B., T.J. Johnson, Y. Su, and J.B. Forrester. 2006. "FTIR Spectroscopy for Bacterial Spore Identification and Classification." In Chemical and Biological Sensors for Industrial and Environmental Monitoring II. Proceedings- SPIE the International Society for Optical Engineering, edited by S.D. Christesen, A.J. Sedlacek, J.B. Gillespie, K.J. Ewing, 6378, 63780P, (10 pages). Bellingham, Washington:SPIE Int. PNNL-SA-51859. doi:10.1117/12.686232

2005

  • Johnson T.J., N.B. Valentine, and S.W. Sharpe. 2005. "Mid-Infrared Versus Far-Infrared (THz) Relative Intensities of Room-temperature Bacillus Spores." Chemical Physics Letters 403, no. 1-3:152-157. PNNL-SA-43394.
  • Redington R.L., T.E. Redington, T.A. Blake, R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2005. "18O Effects on the Infrared Spectrum and Skeletal Tunneling of Tropolone." Journal of Chemical Physics 122. PNNL-SA-41670.
  • Thompson S.E., A. Heredia-Langner, T.J. Johnson, N.S. Foster, N.B. Valentine, and J.E. Amonette. 2005. "Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools." In ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement Proceedings, 59, 333-334. Milwaukee, Wisconsin:American Society for Quality. PNNL-SA-44674.

2004

  • Foster N.S., N.B. Valentine, S.E. Thompson, T.J. Johnson, and J.E. Amonette. 2004. "FTIR Transmission and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Statistical Identification of Bacteria." In Proceedings of SPIE - Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense, edited by Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Richard Colton, Tuan Vo-Dinh, 5269, 172-182. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering). PNNL-SA-39817.
  • Foster N.S., S.E. Thompson, N.B. Valentine, J.E. Amonette, and T.J. Johnson. 2004. "Identification of Sporulated and Vegetative Bacteria using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Transmission Data." Applied Spectroscopy 58, no. 2:203-211. PNNL-SA-38461.
  • Johnson T.J., B.A. Roberts, and J.F. Kelly. 2004. "Semiactive Infrared Remote Sensing: A Practical Prototype and Field Comparison." Applied Optics 43, no. 3:638-650. PNNL-SA-38399.
  • Johnson T.J., R.L. Sams, and S.W. Sharpe. 2004. "The PNNL Quantitative Infrared Database for Gas-Phase Sensing: A Spectral Library for Environmental, Hazmat and Public Safety Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense, edited by AJ Sedlacek III, R Colton and T Vo-Dinh, 5269, 159-167. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-39521. doi:10.1117/12.515604
  • Johnson T.J., R.L. Sams, and S.W. Sharpe. 2004. "The PNNL Quantitative Infrared Database for Gas-Phase Sensing: A spectral Library for Environmental, Hazmat, and Public Safety Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Point Sensors for Homeland Defense. Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Richard Colton, Tuan Vo-Dinh, 5269, 159-167. Bellingham, Washington:International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-41172.
  • Sharpe S.W., T.J. Johnson, R.L. Sams, P.M. Chu, G.C. Rhoderick, and P.A. Johnson. 2004. "Gas-Phase Database for Quantitative Infrared Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy 58, no. 12:1452-1461. PNNL-SA-43641.
  • Valentine N.B., T.J. Johnson, and S.W. Sharpe. 2004. "On the Relative Strengths of Bacillus Spore Signatures in the Terahertz (THz)Versus the Mid-Infrared." In Proceedings of the SPIE, 5585, 122-127. Bellingham, Washington:International Society for Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-42979.

2003

  • Driver C.J., T.J. Johnson, Y. Su, M.L. Alexander, R.J. Fellows, J.K. Magnuson, and R.S. Disselkamp, et al. 2003. The Impact of Humidity, Temperature and Ultraviolet Light on the Near-Field Environmental Fate of Pinacolyl Alcohol, Methyl Iodide, Methylphosphonic Dichloride (DCMP) and Thionyl Chloride Using an Environmental Wind Tunnel. PNNL-14172. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson T.J., B.A. Roberts, G.P. Morgen, M.A. Hughes, C.D. Heitschmidt, and J.F. Kelly. 2003. "A New 'Semi-Active' Method for Chemical Standoff Detection." In Chemical and Biological Standoff Detection, Proceedings of the SPIE, edited by James O. Jensen, Jean-Marc Theriault, 5268, 113-124. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE Int Society Optical Engineering. PNNL-SA-41763.
  • Johnson T.J., R.S. Disselkamp, Y. Su, R.J. Fellows, M.L. Alexander, and C.J. Driver. 2003. "Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of SOCL2 at 297 and 309 K: Implications for Its Atmospheric Fate." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 107, no. 32:6183-6190. PNNL-SA-35606.
  • Sharpe S.W., T.J. Johnson, P.M. Chu, J. Kleimeyer, and B. Rowland. 2003. "Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents." In Chemical and Biological Sensing IV, edited by PJ Gardner, 5085, 19-27. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-38355.
  • Sharpe S.W., T.J. Johnson, P.M. Chu, J. Kleimeyer, and B. Rowland. 2003. "Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents." In Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering: Chemical and Biological Sensing IV, 21-22 April, 2003, Orlando, Florida, USA, edited by Gardner, Patrick J., 5085, 19-27. Bellingham, Washington:SPIE. PNNL-SA-40930.
  • Thompson S.E., N.S. Foster, T.J. Johnson, N.B. Valentine, and J.E. Amonette. 2003. "Identification of Bacterial Spores using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Data." Applied Spectroscopy 57, no. 8:893-899. PNNL-SA-38571.

2002

  • Hatchell B.K., W.W. Harper, C.R. Batishko, T.J. Johnson, D.M. Sheen, T.L. Stewart, and J.F. Schultz. 2002. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning Experiments. PNNL-14054. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Johnson T.J., R.L. Sams, T.A. Blake, S.W. Sharpe, and P.M. Chu. 2002. "Removing Aperture-Induced Artifacts from Fourier Transform Infrared Intensity Values." Applied Optics 41, no. 15:2831-2839. PNNL-SA-35176.
  • Sharpe S.W., R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2002. "The PNNL Quantitative IR Database for Infrared Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral Imaging." In Proceedings : 31st Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop : 16-18 October 2002, Washington, D.C., 45-48. Los Alamitos, California:IEEE Computer Soc. PNNL-SA-38622.
  • Sharpe S.W., R.L. Sams, and T.J. Johnson. 2002. "The PNNL Quantitative IR Database for Infrared Remote Sensing and Hyperspectral Imaging." In Proceedings. 31st Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop, 45-48. Los Alamitos, California:IEEE Computer Society. PNNL-SA-38755.
  • Sharpe S.W., R.L. Sams, T.J. Johnson, P.M. Chu, G.C. Rhoderick, and F.R. Guenther. 2002. "Creation of 0.10 cm-1 Resolution, Quantitative, Infrared Spectral Libraries for Gas Samples." In Vibrational spectroscopy-based sensor systems, 1-2 November 2001, Newton, [Mass.], PROCEEDINGS- SPIE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING, edited by Steven D. Christensen; Arthur J. Sedlacek, 4577, 12-24. Bellingham, Washington:Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). PNNL-SA-35216.

2001

  • Schiller C.L., S. Locquiao, T.J. Johnson, and G.W. Harris. 2001. "Atmospheric Measurements of HONO by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 40, no. 3:275-293. PNWD-SA-5243.
  • Sharpe S.W., R.L. Sams, T.J. Johnson, and P.M. Chu. 2001. "Intensity Artifacts in Gas Phase FTIR Spectroscopy: Focus on the Aperture." In Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, 2001. Trends in Optics and Photonics, 51, 123-127. Washington, District Of Columbia:Optical Society of America. PNNL-SA-33754.

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