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Important Notices

General Disclaimer

This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or Battelle Memorial Institute. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Copyright Status

Documents provided from this web server are sponsored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce these documents, or to allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. These documents may be freely distributed and used for non-commercial, scientific and educational purposes.

Website Accessibility (Section 508) Disclaimer

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is committed to creating high-quality Internet publications that are easily accessible to all users. To meet this commitment, this site is built to comply with the requirements of Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. Section 508 requires that individuals with disabilities, who are members of the public seeking information or services from us, have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to that provided to the public who are not individuals with disabilities, unless an undue burden would be imposed on us.

If you use assistive technology (such as a Braille reader, a screen reader, TTY, etc.) and the format of any material on our websites interferes with your ability to access the information, please let us know at Please indicate the nature of your accessibility problem, the preferred format in which to receive the material, the web address of the requested material, and your contact information.

No accessibility warranty or guarantee is made for sites outside the PNNL Network to which our websites link, as such is beyond our scope or control.

Note: Although PNNL is committed to meeting the needs of all website users, in some cases, the huge amount of data being sorted requires dynamically generated websites that depict data graphically. PNNL strives to limit these sites to instances where the graphical interface is the only way to represent the data clearly and understandably.

Accessibility Aids: Plug-ins and File Viewers

All applets, plug-ins, or other applications required by sites in the domain that are not included on the specific page are found as links from this page.

The following are links are to non-PNNL sources. PNNL does not endorse any of these products; they are listed below for the convenience of our users. Please address questions about the particular plug-in or file viewer to the respective vendor.

Adobe® Reader®

Adobe offers the Adobe Reader for users to download and read Adobe® portable document format (PDF) files.

Microsoft Office Word ® , Excel ® , PowerPoint ®

Microsoft ® offers file viewer and converter programs to enable those who do not have or are using a different version of Microsoft Office to view files.  Microsoft ® also offers a PowerPoint 2003 viewer for viewing PowerPoint files.

Un-zip Utility

Some large documents on this site may be compressed. These files may be uncompressed using a number of utilities. A list of possible viewers at is available at

Linking Policy

Sites in the domain link to many websites created and maintained by other public and/or private organizations. PNNL provides these links as a service to our users. When users visit an outside website, they are leaving the domain and are subject to the privacy and security policies of the owners/sponsors of the outside website(s).


PNNL will not link to any website that exhibits hate, bias, or discrimination. Furthermore, PNNL reserves the right to deny or remove any link that contains misleading information or unsubstantiated claims, or is determined to be in conflict with PNNL's mission or policies.

No Endorsements

Any hyperlink to any website or any reference to any third party website, entity, product, or service is provided only as a convenience and does not imply an endorsement or verification by PNNL of such website, entity, product, or service. Any access, use or engagement of, or other dealings with such website, entity, product, or service shall be solely at the user's own risk.

Linking to sites in the domain

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory welcomes links to our website. We prefer that you link to our main home page using the text and/or graphics provided below; however, you may create links to specific pages within our website, or to sub-sites within the domain. Links to sites in the domain should not frame, alter, or add to the content our site in any way. Our home page address is

Text to describe Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Short version: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science research facility that delivers breakthroughs in the areas of environment, energy, health, fundamental science, and national security.

Long version: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science research facility that deliver solutions to America's most intractable problems in energy, national security and the environment. PNNL is located in Richland, Washington, and has been operated continuously by Battelle, based in Columbus, Ohio, since 1965. Additional information about PNNL may be found on its website at

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Logo

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

You may use the image shown here on your website for linking to PNNL; however, the logo may not be altered in any way, and the surrounding whitespace must be maintained. To save the logo to your images directory, right-click on the image and select your browser's 'Save Image as' or 'Save Picture as' command.

If you have any questions about linking to PNNL, the use of the PNNL logo, or desire more information about us, please contact the PNNL webmaster.

Security and Privacy policies

For information about PNNL's security and privacy policies, please see our Security and Privacy notice.

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