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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


Tian Zhou

Earth System Modeling
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Zhou received his Ph.D. degree from the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) Water Resources Engineering program in 2012. After spending three years as a postdoc in Land Surface Hydrology Group in University of Washington, Dr. Zhou joined the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 studying multi-scale hydrologic processes through numerical modeling and field/lab approaches.

For more information about Dr. Zhou's research, please visit

Research Interests

  • Large scale hydrological modeling
  • Human impacts on water resources
  • Surface water - groundwater interactions

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Water Resources Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Association with Syracuse University
  • M.S., Quaternary Geology, Lanzhou University
  • B.S., Geological Science, Lanzhou University

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union

Awards and Recognitions

  • PNNL Exceptional Contribution Program (ECP) Award (2018)
  • EBSD Best Award, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (2017)
  • AEES Conference Travel Grant (2011)
  • Tuition Scholarship Award, SUNY ESF, NY (2007-2010)

PNNL Publications


  • Cooper M.G., and T. Zhou. 2023. "baseflow: a MATLAB and GNU Octave package for baseflow recession analysis." Journal of Open Source Software 8, no. 90:Art. No. 5492. PNNL-SA-184143. doi:10.21105/joss.05492
  • Harrop B.E., K. Balaguru, J. Golaz, L. Leung, S. Mahajan, A. Rhoades, and P. Ullrich, et al. 2023. "Evaluating the water cycle over CONUS at the watershed scale for the Energy Exascale Earth System Model version 1 (E3SMv1) across resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 15, no. 11:Art. No. e2022MS003490. PNNL-SA-178462. doi:10.1029/2022MS003490
  • Liao C., T. Zhou, D. Xu, M.G. Cooper, D. Engwirda, H. Li, and L. Leung. 2023. "Topological Relationship-Based Flow Direction Modeling: Mesh-Independent River Networks Representation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 15, no. 2:Art. No. e2022MS003089. PNNL-SA-171377. doi:10.1029/2022MS003089
  • Liao C., T. Zhou, D. Xu, Z. Tan, G. Bisht, M.G. Cooper, and D. Engwirda, et al. 2023. "Topological relationship-based flow direction modeling: stream burning and depression filling." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 15, no. 11:Art. No. e2022MS003487. PNNL-SA-183275. doi:10.1029/2022MS003487
  • Silva S.J., S.M. Burrows, K.V. Calvin, P.J. Cameron-Smith, X. Shi, and T. Zhou. 2023. "Contrasting the biophysical and radiative effects of rising CO2 concentrations on ozone dry deposition fluxes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 6:Art. No. e2022JD037668. PNNL-SA-176677. doi:10.1029/2022JD037668
  • Zhou T., S. Kao, W. Xu, S. Gangrade, and N. Voisin. 2023. "Impacts of climate change on subannual hydropower generation: a multi-model assessment of the United States federal hydropower plant." Environmental Research Letters 18, no. 3:Art. No. 034009. PNNL-SA-177814. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/acb58d


  • Eldardiry H.A., T. Zhou, M. Huang, and O. Chegwidden. 2022. "The Role of Groundwater Withdrawals on River Regulation: Example from the Columbia River Basin." Water Resources Research 58, no. 6:Art. No. e2020WR028955. PNNL-SA-156712. doi:10.1029/2020WR028955
  • Li H., Z. Tan, H. Ma, Z. Zhu, G.W. Abeshu, S. Zhu, and S. Cohen, et al. 2022. "A new large-scale suspended sediment model and its application over the United States." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 26, no. 3:665-688. PNNL-SA-147911. doi:10.5194/hess-26-665-2022
  • Liao C., T. Zhou, D. Xu, R. Barnes, G. Bisht, H. Li, and Z. Tan, et al. 2022. "Advances in hexagon mesh-based flow direction modeling." Advances in Water Resources 160. PNNL-SA-160344. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2021.104099
  • Sun N., H. Yan, M.S. Wigmosta, J. Lundquist, S.E. Dickerson-Lange, and T. Zhou. 2022. "Forest Canopy Density Effects on Snowpack across the Climate Gradients of the Western United States Mountain Ranges." Water Resources Research 58, no. 1:Art. No. e2020WR029194. PNNL-SA-158006. doi:10.1029/2020WR029194
  • Xu D., G. Bisht, T. Zhou, L. Leung, and M. Pan. 2022. "Development of Land-River Two-Way Hydrologic Coupling for Floodplain Inundation in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14, no. 8:Art. No. e2021MS002772. PNNL-SA-165762. doi:10.1029/2021MS002772
  • Zheng X., Q. Li, T. Zhou, Q. Tang, L. Van Roekel, J. Golaz, and H. Wang, et al. 2022. "Description of historical and future projection simulations by the global coupled E3SMv1.0 model as used in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 9:3941 - 3967. PNNL-SA-166656. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-3941-2022


  • Cheng Y., M. Huang, B. Zhu, G. Bisht, T. Zhou, Y. Liu, and F. Song, et al. 2021. "Validation of the Community Land Model Version 5 over the Contiguous United States (CONUS) using in situ and remote sensing data sets." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 5:e2020JD033539. PNNL-SA-148629. doi:10.1029/2020JD033539
  • Xie H., Z. Wang, T. Zhou, K. Yang, X. Liu, Q. Fu, and D. Zhang, et al. 2021. "Afterpulse correction for micro-pulse lidar to improve middle and upper tropospheric aerosol measurements." Optics Express 29, no. 26:43502-43515. PNNL-SA-168545. doi:10.1364/oe.443191


  • Burrows S.M., M.E. Maltrud, X. Yang, Q. Zhu, N. Jeffery, X. Shi, and D.M. Ricciuto, et al. 2020. "The DOE E3SM v1.1 biogeochemistry configuration: Description and Simulated Ecosystem-Climate Responses to Historical Changes in Forcing." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 9:e2019MS001766. PNNL-SA-144279. doi:10.1029/2019MS001766
  • Voisin N., A. Dyreson, T. Fu, M. O'Connell, S. Turner, T. Zhou, and J. Macknick. 2020. "Impact of climate change on water availability and its propagation through the Western U.S. power grid." Applied Energy 276. PNNL-SA-150871. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115467
  • Zhou T., and T. Endreny. 2020. "The Straightening of a River Meander Leads to Extensive Losses in Flow Complexity and Ecosystem Services." Water 12, no. 6:Article No.1680. PNNL-SA-153606. doi:10.3390/w12061680
  • Zhou T., L. Leung, G. Leng, N. Voisin, H. Li, A. Craig, and T.K. Tesfa, et al. 2020. "Global irrigation characteristics and effects simulated by fully coupled land surface, river, and water management models in E3SM." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 10:Article No. e2020MS002069. PNNL-SA-147925. doi:10.1029/2020MS002069


  • Caldwell P.M., A. Mametjanov, Q. Tang, L. Van Roekel, J. Golaz, W. Lin, and D. Bader, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:4095- 4146. PNNL-SA-147364. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870
  • Golaz J., P.M. Caldwell, L. Van Roekel, M.R. Petersen, Q. Tang, J. Wolfe, and G.W. Abeshu, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM coupled model version 1: Overview and evaluation at standard resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 7:2089-2129. PNNL-SA-141816. doi:10.1029/2018MS001603
  • Mao Y., T. Zhou, L. Leung, T.K. Tesfa, H. Li, K. Wang, and Z. Tan, et al. 2019. "Flood Inundation Generation Mechanisms and Their Changes in 1953-2004 in Global Major River Basins." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 22:11672-11692. PNNL-SA-147906. doi:10.1029/2019JD031381
  • Shah H.L., T. Zhou, M. Huang, and V. Mishra. 2019. "Strong Influence of Irrigation on Water Budget and Land Surface Temperature in Indian Subcontinental River Basins." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 3:1449-1462. PNNL-SA-133951. doi:10.1029/2018JD029132
  • Shah H.L., T. Zhou, N. Sun, M. Huang, and V. Mishra. 2019. "Roles of irrigation and reservoir operations in modulating terrestrial water and energy budgets in the Indian subcontinental river basins." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 23:12915-12936. PNNL-SA-140765. doi:10.1029/2019JD031059


  • Bao J., T. Zhou, M. Huang, Z. Hou, W.A. Perkins, S.F. Harding, and P. Titzler, et al. 2018. "Modulating factors of hydrologic exchanges in a large-scale river reach: Insights from three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations." Hydrological Processes 32, no. 23:3446-3463. PNNL-SA-123673. doi:10.1002/hyp.13266
  • Sun N., M.S. Wigmosta, T. Zhou, J. Lundquist, S.E. Dickerson-Lange, and N. Cristea. 2018. "Evaluating the Functionality and Streamflow Impacts of Explicitly Modelling Forest-Snow Interactions and Canopy Gaps in a Distributed Hydrologic Model." Hydrological Processes 32, no. 13:2128-2140. PNNL-SA-131081. doi:10.1002/hyp.13150
  • Voisin N., M. Kintner-Meyer, D. Wu, R. Skaggs, T. Fu, T. Zhou, and T.B. Nguyen, et al. 2018. "Opportunities for joint water-energy management: sensitivity of the 2010 Western U.S. electricity grid operations to climate oscillations." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 99, no. 2:299-312. PNNL-SA-121241. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0253.1
  • Wartenburger R., S.I. Seneviratne, M. Hirschi, J. Chang, P. Ciais, D. Deryng, and J. Elliott, et al. 2018. "Evapotranspiration simulations in ISIMIP2a - Evaluation of spatio-temporal characteristics with a comprehensive ensemble of independent datasets." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 7:075001. PNNL-SA-135063. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aac4bb
  • Zhang Y., M. Pan, J. Sheffield, A. Siemann, C. Fisher, M. Liang, and H. Beck, et al. 2018. "A Climate Data Record (CDR) for the global terrestrial water budget: 1984-2010." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22, no. 1:241-263. PNNL-SA-129750. doi:10.5194/hess-22-241-2018
  • Zhou T., J. Bao, M. Huang, Z. Hou, E.V. Arntzen, X. Song, and S.F. Harding, et al. 2018. "Riverbed Hydrologic Exchange Dynamics in a Large Regulated River Reach." Water Resources Research 54, no. 4:2715-2730. PNNL-SA-123666. doi:10.1002/2017WR020508
  • Zhou T., N. Voisin, G. Leng, M. Huang, and I.P. Kraucunas. 2018. "Sensitivity of regulated flow regime to climate change in the Western United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 19, no. 3:499-515. PNNL-SA-126508. doi:10.1175/JHM-D-17-0095.1


  • Bisht G., M. Huang, T. Zhou, X. Chen, H. Dai, G. Hammond, and W. Riley, et al. 2017. "Coupling a Three-Dimensional Subsurface Flow and Transport Model with a Land Surface Model to Simulate Stream-Aquifer-Land Interactions (CP v1.0)." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 12:4539-4562. PNNL-SA-123895. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-4539-2017
  • Yuan X., M. Zhang, L. Wang, and T. Zhou. 2017. "Understanding and Seasonal Forecasting of Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21, no. 11:5477-5492. PNNL-SA-129868. doi:10.5194/hess-21-5477-2017
  • Zhou T., M. Huang, J. Bao, Z. Hou, E.V. Arntzen, R.D. Mackley, and A.R. Crump, et al. 2017. "A New Approach to Quantify Shallow Water Hydrologic Exchanges in a Large Regulated River Reach." Water 9, no. 9:703. PNNL-SA-123562. doi:10.3390/w9090703

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