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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Raj Rai

Planetry Boundry Lyr Meas Mod
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

PNNL Publications


  • Pichugina Y., R.M. Banta, E. Strobach, B.J. Carroll, W.A. Brewer, D. Turner, and V. Wulfmeyer, et al. 2024. "Case study of a bore wind-ramp event from lidar measurements and HRRR simulations over ARM Southern Great Plains." Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 16, no. 1:Art. No. 013303. PNNL-SA-194392. doi:10.1063/5.0161905


  • Cheung L.C., A.S. Hsieh, M.L. Blaylock, T. Herges, N. Develder, K. Brown, and P. Sakievich, et al. 2023. "Investigation of Farm-to-Farm Interactions and Blockage Effects from AWAKEN using Large-Scale Numerical Simulations." In Wakes Conference 2023, June 20-22, 2023, Visby, Sweden. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2505, Paper No. 012023. PNNL-SA-181864. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/2505/1/012023
  • Haupt S., B. Kosovic, L.K. Berg, C.M. Kaul, M. Churchfield, J.D. Mirocha, and D. Allaerts, et al. 2023. "Lessons learned in coupling atmospheric models across scales for onshore and offshore wind energy." Wind Energy Science 8, no. 8:1251-1275. PNNL-SA-179186. doi:10.5194/wes-8-1251-2023


  • Kaul C.M., Z. Hou, H. Zhou, R.K. Rai, and L.K. Berg. 2022. "Sensitivity Analysis of Wind and Turbulence Predictions with Mesoscale-Coupled Large Eddy Simulations Using Ensemble Machine Learning." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 127, no. 16:Art. No. e2022JD037150. PNNL-SA-160740. doi:10.1029/2022JD037150
  • Sheridan L.M., C. Phillips, A.C. Orrell, L.K. Berg, H. Tinnesand, R.K. Rai, and S. Zisman, et al. 2022. "Validation of Wind Resource and Energy Production Simulations for Small Wind Turbines in the United States." Wind Energy Science 7, no. 2:659-676. PNNL-SA-166869. doi:10.5194/wes-7-659-2022


  • Kaul C.M., S. Ananthan, M.J. Churchfield, J.D. Mirocha, L.K. Berg, and R.K. Rai. 2020. "Large eddy simulations of idealized atmospheric boundary layers using Nalu-Wind." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1452. PNNL-SA-145775. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1452/1/012078
  • Pichugina Y.L., R.M. Banta, A. Brewer, L. Bianco, C. Draxl, J. Kenyon, and J.K. Lundquist, et al. 2020. "Evaluating the WFIP2 updates to the HRRR model using scanning Doppler lidar measurements in the complex terrain of the Columbia River Basin." Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 12, no. 4:043301. PNNL-SA-154501. doi:10.1063/5.0009138


  • Haupt S.E., B. Kosovic, W.J. Shaw, L.K. Berg, M.J. Churchfield, J. Cline, and C. Draxl, et al. 2019. "On Bridging a Modeling Scale Gap: Mesoscale to Microscale Coupling for Wind Energy." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 100, no. 12:2533-2550. PNNL-SA-139881. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0033.1
  • Haupt S.E., L.K. Berg, A. DeCastro, E. Koo, V.R. Kotamarthi, L.J. Mazzaro, and E. Quon, et al. 2019. FY 2018 Report of the Atmosphere to Electrons Mesoscale-to-Microscale Coupling Project. PNNL-28980. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. FY 2018 Report of the Atmosphere to Electrons Mesoscale-to-Microscale Coupling Project
  • Rai R.K., L.K. Berg, B. Kosovic, S.E. Haupt, J.D. Mirocha, B.L. Ennis, and C. Draxl. 2019. "Evaluation of the Impact of Horizontal Grid Spacing in Terra Incognita on Coupled Mesoscale-microscale Simulations using the WRF Framework." Monthly Weather Review 147, no. 3:1007-1027. PNNL-SA-140704. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0282.1


  • Mirocha J.D., M.J. Churchfield, D. Munoz-Esparza, R.K. Rai, Y. Feng, B. Kosovic, and S.E. Haupt, et al. 2018. "Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications." Wind Energy Science 3, no. 2:589-613. PNNL-SA-132498. doi:10.5194/wes-3-589-2018


  • Rai R.K., L.K. Berg, B. Kosovic, J.D. Mirocha, M.S. Pekour, and W.J. Shaw. 2017. "Comparison of Measured and Numerically Simulated Turbulence Statistics in a Convective Boundary Layer over Complex Terrain." Boundary-Layer Meteorology 163, no. 1:69-89. PNNL-SA-115845. doi:10.1007/s10546-016-0217-y
  • Rai R.K., L.K. Berg, M.S. Pekour, W.J. Shaw, B. Kosovic, J.D. Mirocha, and B.L. Ennis. 2017. "Spatiotemporal variability of turbulence kinetic energy budgets in the convective boundary layer over both simple and complex terrain." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 56, no. 12:3285-3302. PNNL-SA-125867. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0124.1

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