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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Jian Lu

Regional and Cloud Modeling
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Jian Lu specializes in the area of climate dynamics, which is about the inner working of the atmosphere-ocean-land-cryosphere interactions in shaping the spatio-temporal structures in the climate system. The recent research of Dr. Lu has been focused on the dynamical aspects of the climate change, such as how the atmospheric circulations, sea surface temperature and ocean circulation, the major climate variability modes, and the global hydrological cycle are going to respond to the change of the atmospheric composition. His main methodology is putting the question in a hierarchy of numerical models with decreasing complexity so as to unravel the key processes that lead to and essential elements that control the phenomena observed in the real climate or the fully-blown models. At PNNL, Dr. Lu strives to understand how the large-scale circulation changes might modulate the distribution of climate and weather extremes and how to build confidence in the representation of the extremes by the not-yet-perfect climate models.

Before joining PNNL, Dr. Jian Lu was an assistant professor in climate dynamics at George Mason University and a research scientist at COLA. Prior to that, he was an ASP postdoctoral fellow at NCAR and a VSP fellow at GFDL/NOAA.

Research Interests

  • Hadley Cell Dynamics
  • Circulation and Global Warming
  • Eddy-Mean Flow Interaction
  • Air-Sea Interaction
  • Dynamics of Extremes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D, Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 2003
  • Ph.D, Physical Oceanography, Ocean University of China, 1999
  • B.Sc., Meteorology, Ocean University of China, 1992

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Meteorological Society

PNNL Publications

2021

  • Chen X., D. Luo, Y. Wu, E. Dunn-Sigouin, and J. Lu. 2021. "Nonlinear response of atmospheric blocking to early winter Barents-Kara Seas warming: An idealized model study." Journal of Climate 34, no. 6:2367–2383. PNNL-SA-150150. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0720.1
  • Dong L., L. Leung, F. Song, and J. Lu. 2021. "Uncertainty in El Niño-like warming and California precipitation changes linked by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation." Nature Communications 12. PNNL-SA-163307. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26797-5
  • Dong L., L. Leung, J. Lu, and F. Song. 2021. "Double-ITCZ as an emergent constraint for future precipitation over Mediterranean climate regions in the North Hemisphere." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 3:e2020GL091569. PNNL-SA-158966. doi:10.1029/2020GL091569
  • Hagos S.M., L. Leung, O.A. Garuba, C. Demott, B.E. Harrop, J. Lu, and M. Ahn. 2021. "The relationship between precipitation and precipitable water in CMIP6 simulations and implications for tropical climatology and change." Journal of Climate 34, no. 5:1587-1600. PNNL-SA-152254. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0211.1
  • Lin Y., Y. Hwang, J. Lu, F. Liu, and B.E. Rose. 2021. "The dominant contribution of Southern Ocean heat uptake to time - evolving radiative feedback in CESM." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 9:e2021GL093302. PNNL-SA-155748. doi:10.1029/2021GL093302
  • Lu J., D. Xue, L. Leung, F. Liu, F. Song, B.E. Harrop, and W. Zhou. 2021. "The Leading Modes of Asian Summer Monsoon Variability as Pulses of Atmospheric Energy Flow." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 5:e2020GL091629. PNNL-SA-157035. doi:10.1029/2020GL091629
  • Smith S.J., P.W. Staten, and J. Lu. 2021. "How Moist and Dry Intrusions Control the Local Hydrologic Cycle in Present and Future Climates." Journal of Climate 34, no. 11:4343-4359. PNNL-SA-152549. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0780.1
  • Song F., L. Leung, J. Lu, L. Dong, W. Zhou, B.E. Harrop, and Y. Qian. 2021. "Emergence of seasonal delay of tropical rainfall during 1979-2019." Nature Climate Change 11, no. 7:605-612. PNNL-SA-155998. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01066-x
  • Wang L., Y. Qian, L. Leung, X. Chen, C. Sarangi, J. Lu, and F. Song, et al. 2021. "Multiple metrics informed projections of future precipitation in China." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 18:e2021GL093810. PNNL-SA-163252. doi:10.1029/2021GL093810
  • Wang M., Y. Zhang, and J. Lu. 2021. "The evolution dynamical processes of Ural blocking through the lens of local finite-amplitude wave activity budget analysis." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 10:e2020GL091727. PNNL-SA-157910. doi:10.1029/2020GL091727
  • Wu Y., J. Lu, Q. Ding, and F. Liu. 2021. "Linear Response Function Reveals the Most Effective Remote Forcing in Causing September Arctic Sea Ice Melting in CESM." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 15:e2021GL094189. PNNL-SA-154552. doi:10.1029/2021GL094189
  • Xue D., J. Lu, Y. Qian, and Y. Zhang. 2021. "Evidence for coupling between the subseasonal oscillations in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude ocean and atmosphere." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 4:e2020JD033872. PNNL-SA-152548. doi:10.1029/2020JD033872
  • Zhou W., L. Leung, F. Song, and J. Lu. 2021. "Future changes in the Great Plains Low-Level Jet governed by seasonally dependent pattern changes in the North Atlantic Subtropical High." Geophysical Research Letters 48, no. 4:e2020GL090356. PNNL-SA-156288. doi:10.1029/2020GL090356

2020

  • Chen G., P. Zhang, and J. Lu. 2020. "Sensitivity of the latitude of the westerly jet stream to climate forcing." Geophysical Research Letters 47, no. 4:Article No. e2019GL086563. PNNL-SA-150063. doi:10.1029/2019GL086563
  • Liu F., J. Lu, Y. Huang, L. Leung, B.E. Harrop, and Y. Luo. 2020. "Sensitivity of surface temperature to oceanic forcing via q-Flux Green’s function experiments. Part III: asymmetric response to warming and cooling." Journal of Climate 33, no. 4:1283–1297. PNNL-SA-149208. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0131.1
  • Liu F., J. Lu, Y. Luo, Y. Huang, and F. Song. 2020. "On the oceanic origin for the enhanced seasonal cycle of SST in the midlatitudes under global warming." Journal of Climate 33, no. 19:8401-8413. PNNL-SA-151781. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0114.1
  • Lu J., F. Liu, L. Leung, and H. Lei. 2020. "Neutral modes of surface temperature and the optimal ocean thermal forcing for global cooling." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 3, no. 1:UNSP 9. PNNL-SA-144325. doi:10.1038/s41612-020-0112-6
  • Song F., J. Lu, L. Leung, and F. Liu. 2020. "Contrasting phase changes of precipitation annual cycle between land and ocean under global warming." Geophysical Research Letters 47, no. 20:e2020GL090327. PNNL-SA-142748. doi:10.1029/2020GL090327
  • Yang H., G. Lohmann, J. Lu, E. Gowan, X. Shi, J. Liu, and Q. Wang. 2020. "Tropical expansion driven by poleward advancing midlatitude Meridional temperature gradients." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125, no. 16:Article No. e2020JD033158. PNNL-SA-152257. doi:10.1029/2020JD033158
  • Zhou C., J. Lu, Y. Hu, and M. Zelinka. 2020. "Responses of the Hadley Circulation to regional sea surface temperature changes." Journal of Climate 33, no. 2:429-441. PNNL-SA-143197. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0315.1
  • Zhou W., L. Leung, J. Lu, D. Yang, and F. Song. 2020. "Contrasting Recent and Future ITCZ Changes from Distinct Tropical Warming Patterns." Geophysical Research Letters 47, no. 22:e2020GL089846. PNNL-SA-154107. doi:10.1029/2020GL089846

2019

  • Baxter I., Q. Ding, A. Schweiger, M. L'Heureux, S.H. Baxter, T. Wang, and Q. Zhang, et al. 2019. "How Tropical Pacific Surface Cooling Contributed to Accelerated Sea Ice Melt from 2007 to 2012 as Ice is Thinned by Anthropogenic Forcing." Journal of Climate 32, no. 24:8583–8602. PNNL-SA-142510. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0783.1
  • Chen G., J. Norris, D. Neelin, J. Lu, L. Leung, and K. Sakaguchi. 2019. "Thermodynamic and Dynamic Mechanisms for Hydrological Cycle Intensification over the Full Probability Distribution of Precipitation Events." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 76, no. 2:497-516. PNNL-SA-132710. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-18-0067.1
  • Dong L., L. Leung, J. Lu, and F. Song. 2019. "Mechanisms for an amplified precipitation seasonal cycle in the U.S. West Coast under global warming." Journal of Climate 32, no. 15:4681-4698. PNNL-SA-140936. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0093.1
  • Dong L., L. Leung, J. Lu, and Y. Gao. 2019. "Contributions of extreme and non-extreme precipitation to California precipitation seasonality changes under warming." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 22:13470-13478. PNNL-SA-149215. doi:10.1029/2019GL084225
  • Feng X., C. Liu, F. Xie, J. Lu, L.S. Chiu, G. Tintera, and B. Chen. 2019. "Precipitation Characteristic Changes due to Global Warming in a High Resolution (16-km) ECMWF Simulation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 145, no. 718:303-317. PNNL-SA-140378. doi:10.1002/qj.3432
  • Harrop B.E., J. Lu, and L. Leung. 2019. "Correction to: Sub-cloud moist entropy curvature as a predictor for changes in the seasonal cycle of tropical precipitation." Climate Dynamics 53, no. 9-10:6521-6521. PNNL-SA-147399. doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04995-8
  • Harrop B.E., J. Lu, and L. Leung. 2019. "Sub-cloud moist entropy curvature as a predictor for changes in the seasonal cycle of tropical precipitation." Climate Dynamics 53, no. 5-6:3463-3479. PNNL-SA-132417. doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04715-2
  • Li C., F. Zwiers, X. Zhang, G. Chen, J. Lu, G. Li, and J. Norris, et al. 2019. "Larger increases in more extreme local precipitation events in as climate warms." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 12:6885-6891. PNNL-SA-141875. doi:10.1029/2019GL082908
  • Lou S., Y. Yang, H. Wang, J. Lu, S.J. Smith, F. Liu, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Black carbon increases frequency of extreme ENSO events." Journal of Climate 32, no. 23:8323-8333. PNNL-SA-141442. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0549.1
  • Wang P., L. Leung, J. Lu, F. Song, and J. Tang. 2019. "Extreme Wet-Bulb Temperatures in China: The Significant Role of Moisture." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 22:11,944-11,960. PNNL-SA-148736. doi:10.1029/2019JD031477
  • Wang Y., Y. Luo, J. Lu, and F. Liu. 2019. "Changes in ENSO amplitude under climate warming and cooling." Climate Dynamics 52, no. 3-4:1871-1882. PNNL-SA-130743. doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4224-1
  • Wu Y., J. Lu, and O. Pauluis. 2019. "Weakening of Upward Mass but Intensification of Upward Energy Transport in a Warming Climate." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 3:1672-1680. PNNL-SA-140383. doi:10.1029/2018GL081399

2018

  • Garuba O.A., J. Lu, F. Liu, and H. Singh. 2018. "The active role of the ocean in the temporal evolution of climate sensitivity." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 1:306–315. PNNL-SA-129309. doi:10.1002/2017GL075633
  • Garuba O.A., J. Lu, H. Singh, F. Liu, and P.J. Rasch. 2018. "On the relative roles of the atmosphere and ocean in the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 17:9186-9196. PNNL-SA-131430. doi:10.1029/2018GL078882
  • Harrop B.E., J. Lu, F. Liu, O.A. Garuba, and L. Leung. 2018. "Sensitivity of the ITCZ Location to Ocean Forcing via q-flux Green’s Function Experiments." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 23:13116-13123. PNNL-SA-134658. doi:10.1029/2018GL080772
  • Kelly P.J., B.S. Kravitz, J. Lu, and L. Leung. 2018. "Remote drying in the North Atlantic as a common response to precessional changes and CO2 increase over land." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 8:3615-3624. PNNL-SA-131183. doi:10.1002/2017GL076669
  • Lu J., D. Xue, Y. Gao, G. Chen, L. Leung, and P.W. Staten. 2018. "Enhanced hydrological extremes in the western United States under global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 1. PNNL-SA-126188. doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0017-9
  • Song F., L. Leung, J. Lu, and L. Dong. 2018. "Future Changes in Seasonality of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Subtropical Highs." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 21:11959-11968. PNNL-SA-136261. doi:10.1029/2018GL079940
  • Staten P.W., J. Lu, K.M. Grise, S.M. Davis, and T. Birner. 2018. "Re-examining Tropical Expansion." Nature Climate Change 8, no. 9:768-775. PNNL-SA-132727. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0246-2
  • Wang L., J. Lu, and Z. Kuang. 2018. "A Robust Increase of the Intraseasonal Periodic Behavior of the Precipitation and Eddy Kinetic Energy in a Warming Climate." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 15:7790-7799. PNNL-SA-131409. doi:10.1029/2018GL078495
  • Xue D., J. Lu, and L. Leung. 2018. "Response of the hydrological cycle in Asian monsoon systems to global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity analysis." Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 21:11904-11912. PNNL-SA-135250. doi:10.1029/2018GL078998

2017

  • Liu F., Y. Luo, J. Lu, and X. Wan. 2017. "Response of the Tropical Pacific Ocean to El Nino Versus Global Warming." Climate Dynamics 48, no. 3:935-956. PNNL-SA-112184. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3119-2
  • Liu F., Y. Luo, J. Lu, O.A. Garuba, and X. Wan. 2017. "Asymmetric response of the equatorial Pacific SST to climate warming and cooling." Journal of Climate 30, no. 18:7255-7270. PNNL-SA-126797. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0011.1
  • Luo Y., J. Lu, F. Liu, and O.A. Garuba. 2017. "The role of ocean dynamical thermostat in delaying the El Nino-like response over the equatorial Pacific to climate warming." Journal of Climate 30, no. 8:2811-2827. PNNL-SA-121871. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0454.1
  • Palipane E., J. Lu, P. Staten, G. Chen, and E.K. Schneider. 2017. "Investigating the zonal wind response to SST warming using transient ensemble AGCM experiments." Climate Dynamics 48, no. 1:523-540. PNNL-SA-109246. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3092-9
  • Xue D., J. Lu, L. Sun, G. Chen, and Y. Zhang. 2017. "Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over Northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming." Geophysical Research Letters 44, no. 7:3299-3308. PNNL-SA-125601. doi:10.1002/2017GL072649
  • Yang Q., L. Leung, J. Lu, Y. Lin, S.M. Hagos, K. Sakaguchi, and Y. Gao. 2017. "Exploring the effects of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core in high-resolution aquaplanet simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 6:3245-3265. PNNL-SA-124394. doi:10.1002/2016JD025287

2016

  • Balaguru K., L. Leung, J. Lu, and G.R. Foltz. 2016. "A meridional dipole in pre-monsoon Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone activity induced by ENSO." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 12:6954-6968. PNNL-SA-113075. doi:10.1002/2016JD024936
  • Choi J., J. Lu, S. Son, D.M. Frierson, and J. Yoon. 2016. "Uncertainty in future projections of the North Pacific subtropical high and its implication for California winter precipitation change." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 2:795-806. PNNL-SA-115560. doi:10.1002/2015JD023858
  • Liu W., S. Xie, and J. Lu. 2016. "Tracking ocean heat uptake during the surface warming hiatus." Nature Communications 7. PNNL-SA-111949. doi:10.1038/ncomms10926
  • Luo Y., J. Lu, F. Liu, and X. Wan. 2016. "The Positive Indian Ocean Dipole–like Response in the Tropical Indian Ocean to Global Warming." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 33, no. 4:476-488. PNNL-SA-108666. doi:10.1007/s00376-015-5027-5

2015

  • Chen G., J. Lu, A.D. Burrows, and L. Leung. 2015. "Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 24:10,952-10,960. PNNL-SA-116218. doi:10.1002/2015GL066959
  • Lu J., and G.A. Vecchi. 2015. "TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation." In Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences. 2nd ed., edited by J Pyle and F Zhang. 113-120. Waltham, Massachusetts:Elsevier Ltd. PNNL-SA-106795.
  • Lu J., G. Chen, L. Leung, D.A. Burrows, Q. Yang, K. Sakaguchi, and S.M. Hagos. 2015. "Toward the Dynamical Convergence on the Jet Stream in Aquaplanet AGCMs." Journal of Climate 28, no. 17:6763–6782. PNNL-SA-111542. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00761.1
  • Luo Y., J. Lu, F. Liu, and W. Liu. 2015. "Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming." Climate Dynamics 45, no. 7:1945-1964. PNNL-SA-104684. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2448-2

2014

  • Choi J., S. Son, J. Lu, and S. Min. 2014. "Further Observational Evidence of Hadley Cell Widening in the Southern Hemisphere." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 7:2590–2597. PNNL-SA-100967. doi:10.1002/2014GL059426
  • Lu J. 2014. "Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing." Nature Geoscience 7, no. 4:250-251. PNNL-SA-101316. doi:10.1038/ngeo2124
  • Lu J., L. Sun, Y. Wu, and G. Chen. 2014. "The Role of Subtropical Irreversible PV Mixing in the Zonal Mean Circulation Response to Global Warming-like Thermal Forcing." Journal of Climate 27, no. 6:2297–2316. PNNL-SA-99712. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00372.1
  • Staten P., T. Reichler, and J. Lu. 2014. "The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming." Journal of Climate 27, no. 24:9323–9336. PNNL-SA-100042. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00035.1

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