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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


Ben Kravitz

Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352


Ben is interested in how the climate responds to radiative forcing across a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. His primary method of investigating climate forcing and feedbacks is through simulations of geoengineering, or deliberate interventions into the climate system to counteract some of the effects of human-induced climate change. He is the coordinator of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), a worldwide effort to understand common climate model responses to various geoengineering scenarios.

For more information about Ben's research interests, publications, and current projects, please visit

Research Interests

  • Climate modeling
  • Climate feedbacks
  • Geoengineering
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Aerosol radiative forcing
  • Control of dynamical systems

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., 2011, Rutgers University, Atmospheric Science
  • M.S., 2009, Rutgers University, Atmospheric Science
  • M.S., 2007, Purdue University, Mathematics
  • B.A., 2004, Northwestern University, Mathematics

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science

Awards and Recognitions

  • International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics Early Career Scientist Award
  • PNNL Outstanding Performance Award in recognition of "Significant Contributions and Exceptional Efforts to the Success of the Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division"

PNNL Publications


  • Kelly PJ, BS Kravitz, J Lu, and LY Leung. 2018. "Remote drying in the North Atlantic as a common response to precessional changes and CO2 increase over land." Geophysical Research Letters 45:1-10.  doi:10.1002/2017GL076669
  • Seneviratne SI, S Phipps, AJ Pitman, AL Hirsch, EL Davin, MG Donat, M Hirschi, A Lenton, M Wilhelm, and BS Kravitz. 2018. "Land radiative management as a contributor to regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation." Nature Geoscience 11(2):88-96.  doi:10.1038/s41561-017-0057-5
  • Stjern C, HO Muri, L Ahlm, O Boucher, JN Cole, D Ji, A Jones, J Haywood, BS Kravitz, A Lenton, J Moore, U Niemeier, SJ Phipps, H Schmidt, S Watanabe, and JE Kristjansson. 2018. "Response to Marine Cloud Brightening in a Multi-Model Ensemble." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18(2):621-634.  doi:10.5194/acp-18-621-2018


  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, and JE Kristjansson. 2017. "Understanding How Climate Engineering Can Offset Climate Change: Sixth Meeting of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, Oslo, Norway, 21-22 June 2016." Eos 98:, doi:10.1029/2016EO005279
  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, and S Tilmes. 2017. "New Paths in Geoengineering." Eos 97:, doi:10.1029/2016EO045915
  • Kravitz BS, CD Lynch, CA Hartin, and B Bond-Lamberty. 2017. "Exploring precipitation pattern scaling methodologies and robustness among CMIP5 models." Geoscientific Model Development 10(5):1889-1902.  doi:10.5194/gmd-10-1889-2017
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, M Mills, J Richter, S Tilmes, JF Lamarque, J Tribbia, and F Vitt. 2017. "First simulations of designing stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering to meet multiple simultaneous climate objectives." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(23):12616-12634.  doi:10.1002/2017JD026874
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, PJ Rasch, and H Wang. 2017. "Technical Note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input-output relationships in climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(4):2525-2541.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-2525-2017
  • Ahlm L, A Jones, C Stjern, H Muri, BS Kravitz, and JE Kristjansson. 2017. "Marine cloud brightening - as effective without clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(21):13071-13087.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-13071-2017
  • Gabriel C, A Robock, L Xia, B Zambri, and BS Kravitz. 2017. "The G4Foam Experiment: Global Climate Impacts of Regional Ocean Albedo Modification." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(1):595-613.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-595-2017
  • Irvine P, BS Kravitz, MG Lawrence, D Gerten , C Caminade, S Gosling, , E Hendy , B Kassie , DW Kissling , H Muri, A Oschlies, and SJ Smith. 2017. "Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering." Earths Future 5(1):93106.  doi:10.1002/2016EF000389
  • Kashimura H, M Abe, S Watanabe, T Sekiya, D Ji, J Moore, JN Cole, and BS Kravitz. 2017. "Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: Analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(5):3339-3356.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-3339-2017
  • Lynch CD, CA Hartin, B Bond-Lamberty, and BS Kravitz. 2017. "An open-access CMIP5 pattern library for temperature and precipitation: Description and methodology." Earth System Science Data 9(1):281-292.  doi:10.5194/essd-2016-68
  • MacMartin D, BS Kravitz, S Tilmes, J Richter, M Mills, JF Lamarque, and J Tribbia. 2017. "The climate response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering can be tailored using multiple injection locations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(23):12574-12590.  doi:10.1002/2017JD026868
  • Mills M, J Richter, S Tilmes, BS Kravitz, D MacMartin, AS Glanville, J Tribbia, JF Lamarque, F Vitt, A Schmidt, A Gettelman, C Hannay, JT Bacmeister , and DE Kinnison. 2017. "Radiative and Chemical Response to Interactive Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols in Fully Coupled CESM1(WACCM)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(23):13061-13078.  doi:10.1002/2017JD027006
  • Richter J, S Tilmes, M Mills, J Tribbia, BS Kravitz, D MacMartin, F Vitt, and JF Lamarque. 2017. "Stratospheric Dynamical Response and Ozone Feedbacks in the Presence of SO2 Injections." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(23):12,557-12,573.  doi:10.1002/2017JD026912


  • Kravitz BS, AB Guenther, L Gu, T Karl, L Kaser, SG Pallardy, J Penuelas, M Potosnak, and R Seco. 2016. "A new paradigm of quantifying ecosystem stress through chemical signatures." Ecosphere 7(11):Article No. e01559.  doi:10.1002/ecs2.1559
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, H Wang, and PJ Rasch. 2016. "Geoengineering as a Design Problem." Earth System Dynamics 7(2):469-497.  doi:10.5194/esd-7-469-2016
  • Haywood J, A Jones, N Dunstone, S Milton, M Vellinga , A Bodas-Salcedo, M Hawcroft, BS Kravitz, JN Cole, S Watanabe, and G Stephens. 2016. "The impact of equilibrating hemispheric albedos on tropical performance in the HadGEM2-ES coupled climate model." Geophysical Research Letters 43:395-403.  doi:10.1002/2015GL066903
  • Irvine P, BS Kravitz, M Lawrence , and H Muri. 2016. "An Overview of the Earth System Science of Solar Geoengineering." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change 7(6):815-833.  doi:10.1002/wcc.423
  • MacMartin D, BS Kravitz, J Long, and PJ Rasch. 2016. "Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research?" Earths Future 4(11):543-548.  doi:10.1002/2016EF000418
  • MacMartin D, and BS Kravitz. 2016. "Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(24):15789-15799.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-15789-2016


  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, S Tilmes, O Boucher, J English, P Irvine, A Jones, MG Lawrence, MC Maccracken, HO Muri, J Moore, U Niemeier, S Phipps, J Sillmann, T Storelvmo, H Wang, and S Watanabe. 2015. "The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): Simulation Design and Preliminary Results." Geoscientific Model Development 8(10):3379-3392.  doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3379-2015
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, PJ Rasch, and A Jarvis. 2015. "A New Method of Comparing Forcing Agents in Climate Models." Journal of Climate 28(20):8203-8218.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00663.1
  • Yoon JH, SYS Wang, RR Gillies, BS Kravitz, L Hipps, and PJ Rasch. 2015. "Increasing water cycle extremes in California and relation to ENSO cycle under global warming." Nature Communications 6:Art. No. 8657.  doi:10.1038/ncomms9657
  • Yoon JH, SYS Wang, RR Gillies, L Hipps, BS Kravitz, and PJ Rasch. 2015. "Extreme Fire Season in California: A Glimpse Into the Future? ." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96(12):S5-S9.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-EEE_2014_ch2.1
  • Kleidon A, BS Kravitz, and M Renner. 2015. "The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42(1):138144.  doi:10.1002/2014GL062589
  • MacMartin D, BS Kravitz, and PJ Rasch. 2015. "On solar geoengineering and climate uncertainty." Geophysical Research Letters 42(17):71567161.  doi:10.1002/2015GL065391
  • Moore J, A Grinsted, X Guo, X Yu, S Jevrejeva, A Rinke, X Cui, BS Kravitz, A Lenton , S Watanabe, and D Ji. 2015. "Atlantic Hurricane Surge Response to Geoengineering." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112(45):13794-13799.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1510530112
  • Tilmes S, M Mills, U Niemeier, H Schmidt, A Robock, BS Kravitz, JF Lamarque, G Pitari, and JM English. 2015. "A New Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) Experiment Designed for Climate and Chemistry Models." Geoscientific Model Development 8(1):43-49.  doi:10.5194/gmd-8-43-2015
  • Yu X, J Moore, X Cui, A Rinke, D Ji, BS Kravitz, and JH Yoon. 2015. "Impacts, Effectiveness and Regional Inequalities of the GeoMIP G1 to G4 Solar Radiation Management Scenarios." Global and Planetary Change 129:10-22.  doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.02.010


  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, and O Boucher. 2014. "Future Directions in Simulating Solar Geoengineering." Eos 95(31):280.  doi:10.1002/2014EO310010
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, DT Leedal, PJ Rasch, and A Jarvis. 2014. "Explicit Feedback and the Management of Uncertainty in Meeting Climate Objectives with Solar Geoengineering." Environmental Research Letters 9(4):Article No. 044006.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/044006
  • Kravitz BS, H Wang, PJ Rasch, H Morrison, and A Solomon. 2014. "Process-model Simulations of Cloud Albedo Enhancement by Aerosols in the Arctic." Philosophical Transactions. Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences 372(2031):Article No. 20140052.  doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0052
  • Berdahl M, A Robock, D Ji, J Moore, A Jones, BS Kravitz, and S Watanabe. 2014. "Arctic Cryosphere Response in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G3 and G4 Scenarios." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(3):1308-1321.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020627
  • Curry CL, J Sillmann, D Bronaugh, K Alterskjaer, JN Cole, D Ji, BS Kravitz, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, A Robock, S Tilmes, and S Yang. 2014. "A Multimodel Examination of Climate Extremes in an Idealized Geoengineering Experiment." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(7):39003923.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020648
  • Huneeus N, O Boucher, K Alterskjaer, JN Cole, CL Curry, D Ji, A Jones, BS Kravitz, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, PJ Rasch, A Robock, B Singh, H Schmidt, M Schulz, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2014. "Forcings and Feedbacks in the GeoMIP Ensemble for a Reduction in Solar Irradiance and Increase in CO2." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(9):52265239.  doi:10.1002/2013JD021110
  • Irvine P, O Boucher, BS Kravitz, K Alterskjaer, JN Cole, D Ji, A Jones, D Lunt, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, A Robock, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, S Yang, and JH Yoon. 2014. "Key Factors Governing Uncertainty in the Response to Sunshade Geoengineering from a Comparison of the GeoMIP Ensemble and a Perturbed Parameter Ensemble." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(13):79467962.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020716
  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, A Robock, PJ Rasch, KL Ricke, JN Cole, CL Curry, P Irvine, D Ji, D Keith, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, S Yang, and JH Yoon. 2014. "A Multi-Model Assessment of Regional Climate Disparities Caused by Solar Geoengineering." Environmental Research Letters 9(7):Article No. 074013.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/074013
  • MacMartin D, BS Kravitz, and D Keith. 2014. "Geoengineering: The World's Largest Control Problem." In American Control Conference (ACC 2014 ), June 4-6, 2014, Portland, Oregon, pp. 2401-2406.  IEEE, Piscataway, NJ.  doi:10.1109/ACC.2014.6858658
  • MacMartin D, BS Kravitz, D Keith, and A Jarvis. 2014. "Dynamics of the Coupled Human-climate System Resulting from Closed-loop Control of Solar Geoengineering." Climate Dynamics 43(1-2):243-258.  doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1822-9
  • Moore J, A Rinke, X Yu, D Ji, X Cui, YH Li, K Alterskjaer, JE Kristjansson, HO Muri, O Boucher, N Huneeus, BS Kravitz, A Robock, U Niemeier, M Schulz, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and S Yang. 2014. "Arctic Sea Ice and Atmospheric Circulation under the GeoMIP G1 Scenario." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(2):567583.  doi:10.1002/2013JD021060
  • Pitari G, V Aquila, BS Kravitz, A Robock, S Watanabe, I Cionni, N De Luca, G Di Genova, E Mancini, and S Tilmes. 2014. "Stratospheric Ozone Response to Sulfate Geoengineering: Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(5):26292653.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020566
  • Xia L, A Robock, JN Cole, CL Curry, D Ji, A Jones, BS Kravitz, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2014. "Solar Radiation Management Impacts on Agriculture in China: A Case Study in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(14):86958711.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020630


  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, and P Irvine. 2013. "Robust Results from Climate Model Simulations of Geoengineering." Eos 94(33):292.  doi:10.1002/2013EO330005
  • Kravitz BS, A Robock, P Forster, J Haywood, MG Lawrence, and H Schmidt. 2013. "An Overview of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(23):13,10313,107.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020569
  • Kravitz BS, P Forster, A Jones, A Robock, K Alterskjaer, O Boucher, A Jenkins, H Korhonen, JE Kristjansson, HO Muri, U Niemeier, AI Partanen, PJ Rasch, H Wang, and S Watanabe. 2013. "Sea Spray Geoengineering Experiments in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP): Experimental Design and Preliminary Results." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(19):11,175-11,186.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50856
  • Kravitz BS. 2013. "Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters." In Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2012 Symposium, September 13-15, 2012, Warren, Michigan, pp. 29-35.  National Academies Press, Washington DC. 
  • Jones A, J Haywood, K Alterskjaer, O Boucher, JN Cole, CL Curry, P Irvine, D Ji, BS Kravitz, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, U Niemeier, A Robock, H Schmidt, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2013. "The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(17):97439752.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50762
  • Kravitz BS, K Caldeira, O Boucher, A Robock, PJ Rasch, K Alterskjaer, D Bou Karam, JN Cole, CL Curry, J Haywood, P Irvine, D Ji, A Jones, JE Kristjansson, D Lunt, J Moore, U Niemeier, H Schmidt, M Schulz, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, S Yang, and JH Yoon. 2013. "Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(15):8320-8332.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50646
  • Kravitz BS, PJ Rasch, P Forster, T Andrews, JN Cole, P Irvine, D Ji, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, A Robock, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2013. "An Energetic Perspective on Hydrologic Cycle Changes in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(23):13,087-13,102.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020502
  • Robock A, and BS Kravitz. 2013. "Use of models, analogs, and field-tests for geoengineering research." In Geoengineering Our Climate: Ethics, Politics and Governance. Opnion Article, Geoengineering Our Climate Working Paper and Opinion Article Series.  Earthscan from Routledge, London, United Kingdom. 
  • Schneider K, J Silverman, BS Kravitz, T Rivlin, A Schneider-Mor, S Barbosa, M Byrne, and K Caldeira. 2013. "Inorganic Carbon Turnover caused by Digestion of Carbonate Sands and Metabolic Activity of Holothurians." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 133:217-223.  doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.08.029
  • Tilmes S, J Fasullo, JF Lamarque, D Marsh, M Mills, K Alterskjaer, HO Muri, JE Kristjansson, O Boucher, M Schulz, JN Cole, CL Curry, A Jones, J Haywood, P Irvine, D Ji, J Moore, D Bou Karam, BS Kravitz, PJ Rasch, B Singh, JH Yoon, U Niemeier, H Schmidt, A Robock, S Yang, and S Watanabe. 2013. "The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(19):11,036-11,058.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50868

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