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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Kai Zhang

Global Atmospheric Modeling
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Kai Zhang's research addresses the treatment and understanding of aerosol and cloud microphysics in the global aerosol-climate model system. He was involved in developing a new version of the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM during his stay at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany. His current research focuses on: a) investigating the role of dynamics and microphysics in the ice cloud formation process and improving ice cloud parameterization in the E3SM Earth system model; b) assessing the aerosol indirect effect through ice and mixed- phase clouds; c) understanding the role of aerosols and clouds on the global water and energy cycle.

Research Interests

  • Radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds
  • High-resolution global atmosphere modeling
  • Water and energy flow in the atmosphere

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Meteorology, 2008, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • M.S. in Meteorology, 2004, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • B.S. in Meteorology, 2001, Ocean University of Qingdao, China

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2014 Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL.
  • 2013 Exceptional Contribution Program Award, PNNL.
  • 2006-2007 Governmental Scholarship for Studying Abroad, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • 2006 Scholarship from the International Max Planck School on Earth System Modelling Exchange Program, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology.
  • 2002 Graduate Student Award, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

PNNL Publications

2024

  • Bian H., M. Chin, P. Colarco, E. Apel, D.R. Blake, K.D. Froyd, and R.S. Hornbrook, et al. 2024. "Observationally constrained analysis of sulfur cycle in the marine atmosphere with NASA ATom measurements and AeroCom model simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 24, no. 3:1717-1741. PNNL-SA-189719. doi:10.5194/acp-24-1717-2024
  • Li J., K. Zhang, M. Hassan Mozumder, S. Zhang, P. Ma, B. Singh, and Q. Yan, et al. 2024. "Assessing the Sensitivity of Aerosol Mass Budget and Effective Radiative Forcing to Horizontal Grid Spacing in E3SMv1 Using A Regional Refinement Approach." Geoscientific Model Development 17, no. 3:1327-1347. PNNL-SA-183690. doi:10.5194/gmd-17-1327-2024
  • Lu Z., X. Liu, Z. Ke, K. Zhang, P. Ma, and J. Fan. 2024. "Incorporating an Interactive Fire Plume-Rise Model in the DOE's Energy Exascale Earth System Model version 1 (E3SMv1) and Examining Aerosol Radiative Effect." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 16, no. 1:Art. No. e2023MS003818. PNNL-SA-185243. doi:10.1029/2023MS003818
  • Shi P., L. Leung, B. Wang, K. Zhang, S.M. Hagos, and S. Zhang. 2024. "The 4DEnVar-based weakly coupled land data assimilation system for E3SM version 2." Geoscientific Model Development 17, no. 7:3025-3040. PNNL-SA-186390. doi:10.5194/gmd-17-3025-2024
  • Wan H., K. Zhang, C.J. Vogl, C. Woodward, R.C. Easter, P.J. Rasch, and Y. Feng, et al. 2024. "Numerical coupling of aerosol emissions, dry removal, and turbulent mixing in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1), part I: dust budget analyses and the impacts of a revised coupling scheme." Geoscientific Model Development 17, no. 3:1387-1407. PNNL-SA-186099. doi:10.5194/gmd-17-1387-2024
  • Zhao X., X. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Qin, M. Zelinka, S.A. Klein, and M. Zhang, et al. 2024. "Larger cloud liquid water enhances both aerosol indirect forcing and cloud radiative feedback in two Earth System Models." Geophysical Research Letters 51, no. 2:Art. No. e2023GL105529. PNNL-SA-194372. doi:10.1029/2023GL105529

2023

  • Raman A., T.C. Hill, P.J. DeMott, B. Singh, K. Zhang, P. Ma, and M. Wu, et al. 2023. "Long-term Variability in immersion-mode Marine Ice Nucleating Particles from Climate Model Simulations and Observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 23, no. 10:5735-5762. PNNL-SA-171035. doi:10.5194/acp-23-5735-2023
  • Tang S., A.C. Varble, J.D. Fast, K. Zhang, P. Wu, X. Dong, and F. Mei, et al. 2023. "Earth System Model Aerosol-Cloud Diagnostics (ESMAC Diags) package, Version 2: Assessing aerosols, clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions via field campaign and long-term observations." Geoscientific Model Development 16, no. 21:6355-6376. PNNL-SA-181256. doi:10.5194/gmd-16-6355-2023
  • Zhang M., S. Xie, X. Liu, D. Zhang, W. Lin, K. Zhang, and J. Golaz, et al. 2023. "Evaluating EAMv2 Simulated High Latitude Clouds Using ARM Measurements in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 15:Art. No. e2022JD038364. PNNL-SA-180358. doi:10.1029/2022JD038364
  • Zhong Q., N.A. Schutgens, G.R. van der Werf, T. Takemura, T. Van Noije, T. Mielonen, and R. Checa-Garcia, et al. 2023. "Threefold reduction of modeled uncertainty in direct radiative effects over biomass burning regions by constraining absorbing aerosols." Science Advances 9, no. 48:Art. No. eadi3568. PNNL-SA-182577. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adi3568

2022

  • Burrows S.M., C.S. Mccluskey, G.C. Cornwell, I. Steinke, K. Zhang, B. Zhao, and M. Zawadowicz, et al. 2022. "Ice-nucleating particles that impact clouds and climate: Observational and modeling research needs." Reviews of Geophysics 60, no. 2:Art. No. e2021RG000745. PNNL-SA-165298. doi:10.1029/2021RG000745
  • Burrows S.M., R.C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Ma, H. Wang, S. Elliott, and B. Singh, et al. 2022. "OCEANFILMS (Organic Compounds from Ecosystems to Aerosols: Natural Films and Interfaces via Langmuir Molecular Surfactants) sea spray organic aerosol emissions - implementation in a global climate model and impacts on clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 8:5223-5251. PNNL-SA-131643. doi:10.5194/acp-22-5223-2022
  • Feng Y., H. Wang, P.J. Rasch, K. Zhang, W. Lin, Q. Tang, and S. Xie, et al. 2022. "Global Dust Cycle and Direct Radiative Effect in E3SM Version 1: Impact of Increasing Model Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14, no. 7:Art. No. e2021MS002909. PNNL-SA-172629. doi:10.1029/2021MS002909
  • Ma P., B.E. Harrop, V.E. Larson, R. Neale, R. Neale, A. Gettelman, and H. Morrison, et al. 2022. "Better calibration of cloud parameterizations and subgrid effects increases the fidelity of E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 7:2881-2916. PNNL-SA-166161. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2881-2022
  • Salzmann M., S. Ferrachat, C. Tully, S. Muench, D. Watson-Parris, D. Neubauer, and C. Siegenthaler-Le Drian, et al. 2022. "The global atmosphere-aerosol model ICON-A-HAM2.3 - Initial model evaluation and effects of radiation balance tuning on aerosol optical thickness." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14, no. 4:e2021MS002699. PNNL-SA-170604. doi:10.1029/2021MS002699
  • Tang S., J.D. Fast, K. Zhang, J.C. Hardin, A.C. Varble, J.E. Shilling, and F. Mei, et al. 2022. "Earth System Model Aerosol-Cloud Diagnostics (ESMAC Diags) package, Version 1: Assessing E3SM Aerosol Predictions Using Aircraft, Ship, and Surface Measurements." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 10:4055-4076. PNNL-SA-167636. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-4055-2022
  • Wan H., K. Zhang, P.J. Rasch, V.E. Larson, X. Zeng, S. Zhang, and R. Dixon. 2022. "CondiDiag 1.0: A flexible online diagnostic tool for conditional sampling and budget analysis in the E3SM atmosphere model (EAM)." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 8:3205-3231. PNNL-SA-167080. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-3205-2022
  • Zhang K., W. Zhang, H. Wan, P.J. Rasch, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, and X. Shi, et al. 2022. "Effective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivities." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 13:9129-9160. PNNL-SA-169371. doi:10.5194/acp-22-9129-2022
  • Zhang S., K. Zhang, H. Wan, and J. Sun. 2022. "Further improvement and evaluation of nudging in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1): simulations of the mean climate, weather events, and anthropogenic aerosol effects." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 17:6787-6816. PNNL-SA-169668. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-6787-2022
  • Zhong Q., N.A. Schutgens, G.R. van der Werf, T. Van Noije, K. Tsigaridis, S.E. Bauer, and T. Mielonen, et al. 2022. "Satellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 17:11009-11032. PNNL-SA-170382. doi:10.5194/acp-22-11009-2022

2021

  • Eyre J., X. Zeng, and K. Zhang. 2021. "Ocean surface flux algorithm effects on Earth system model energy and water cycles." Frontiers in Marine Science 8. PNNL-SA-158711. doi:10.3389/fmars.2021.642804
  • Wang J., J. Fan, R.A. Houze, S. Brodzik, K. Zhang, G.J. Zhang, and P. Ma. 2021. "Using radar observations to evaluate 3-D radar echo structure simulated by the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) version 1." Geoscientific Model Development 14, no. 2:719-734. PNNL-SA-152787. doi:10.5194/gmd-14-719-2021
  • Wang J., J. Fan, Z. Feng, K. Zhang, E.L. Roesler, B.R. Hillman, and J. Shpund, et al. 2021. "Impact of a New Cloud Microphysics Parameterization on the Simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems in E3SM." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 13, no. 11:e2021MS002628. PNNL-SA-167585. doi:10.1029/2021MS002628
  • Yan H., Z. Zhu, B. Wang, K. Zhang, J. Luo, Y. Qian, and Y. Jiang. 2021. "Tropical African wildfire aerosols Trigger Teleconnections over mid-to-high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere in January." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 3:034025. PNNL-SA-156713. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abe433
  • Zhang B., H. Liu, J. Crawford, G. Chen, D. Fairlie, S. Chambers, and C. Kang, et al. 2021. "Simulation of radon-222 with the GEOS-Chem global model: Emissions, seasonality, and convective transport." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21, no. 3:1861-1887. PNNL-SA-146982. doi:10.5194/acp-21-1861-2021

2020

  • Burgos M.A., E. Andrews, G. Titos, A. Benedetti, H. Bian, V. Buchard, and G. Curci, et al. 2020. "A global model-measurement evaluation of particle light scattering coefficients at elevated relative humidity." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 17:10231-10258. PNNL-SA-150184. doi:10.5194/acp-20-10231-2020
  • Gryspeerdt E., J. Muelmenstadt, A. Gettelman, F. Malavelle, H. Morrison, D. Neubauer, and D. Partridge, et al. 2020. "Surprising similarities in model and observational aerosol radiative forcing estimates." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 1:613-623. PNNL-SA-143590. doi:10.5194/acp-20-613-2020
  • Jiang Y., X. Yang, X. Liu, Y. Qian, K. Zhang, M. Wang, and F. Li, et al. 2020. "Impacts of wildfire aerosols on global energy budget and climate: the role of climate feedbacks." Journal of Climate 33, no. 8:3351-3366. PNNL-SA-150737. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0572.1
  • Myhre G., B.H. Samset, C. Mohr, K. Alterskjaer, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, and M. Chin, et al. 2020. "Cloudy-sky contributions to the direct aerosol effect." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 14:8855-8865. PNNL-SA-147647. doi:10.5194/acp-20-8855-2020
  • Wang H., R.C. Easter, R. Zhang, P. Ma, B. Singh, K. Zhang, and D. Ganguly, et al. 2020. "Aerosols in the E3SM Version 1: New Developments and Their Impacts on Radiative Forcing." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 1:Article No. e2019MS001851. PNNL-SA-146124. doi:10.1029/2019MS001851
  • Zhang M., S. Xie, X. Liu, W. Lin, K. Zhang, H. Ma, and X. Zheng, et al. 2020. "Toward Understanding the Simulated Phase Partitioning of Arctic Single-Layer Mixed-Phase Clouds in E3SM." Earth and Space Science 7, no. 7:e2020EA001125. PNNL-SA-146508. doi:10.1029/2020EA001125

2019

  • Caldwell P.M., A. Mametjanov, Q. Tang, L. Van Roekel, J. Golaz, W. Lin, and D. Bader, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Description and Results at High Resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:4095- 4146. PNNL-SA-147364. doi:10.1029/2019MS001870
  • Golaz J., P.M. Caldwell, L. Van Roekel, M.R. Petersen, Q. Tang, J. Wolfe, and G.W. Abeshu, et al. 2019. "The DOE E3SM coupled model version 1: Overview and evaluation at standard resolution." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 7:2089-2129. PNNL-SA-141816. doi:10.1029/2018MS001603
  • Lin G., J. Fan, Z. Feng, W.I. Gustafson, P. Ma, and K. Zhang. 2019. "Can the Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) simulate the MCS-associated precipitation over the Central United States?." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:4669-4686. PNNL-SA-150185. doi:10.1029/2019MS001849
  • Rasch P.J., S. Xie, P. Ma, W. Lin, H. Wang, Q. Tang, and S.M. Burrows, et al. 2019. "An Overview of the Atmospheric Component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 8:2377-2411. PNNL-SA-144927. doi:10.1029/2019MS001629
  • Sun J., K. Zhang, H. Wan, P. Ma, Q. Tang, and S. Zhang. 2019. "Impact of nudging strategy on the climate representativeness and hindcast skill of constrained EAMv1 simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:3911-3933. PNNL-SA-149231. doi:10.1029/2019MS001831
  • Wu M., X. Liu, K. Yang, T. Luo, Z. Wang, C. Wu, and K. Zhang, et al. 2019. "Modeling Dust in East Asia by CESM and Sources of Biases." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 14:8043-8064. PNNL-SA-140132. doi:10.1029/2019JD030799

2018

  • Lin G., S.J. Ghan, M. Wang, P. Ma, R.C. Easter, M. Ovchinnikov, and J. Fan, et al. 2018. "Development and evaluation of an explicit treatment of aerosol processes at cloud scale within a multi-scale modeling framework (MMF)." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10, no. 7:1663-1679. PNNL-SA-136107. doi:10.1029/2018MS001287
  • Liu Y., K. Zhang, Y. Qian, Y. Wang, Y. Zou, Y. Song, and H. Wan, et al. 2018. "Investigation of short-term effective radiative forcing of fire aerosols over North America using nudged hindcast ensembles." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18, no. 1:31-47. PNNL-SA-131476. doi:10.5194/acp-18-31-2018
  • Qian Y., H. Wan, B. Yang, J. Golaz, B.E. Harrop, Z. Hou, and V.E. Larson, et al. 2018. "Parametric Sensitivity and Uncertainty Quantification in the Version 1 of E3SM Atmosphere Model Based on Short Perturbed Parameter Ensemble Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, no. 23:13046-13073. PNNL-SA-138521. doi:10.1029/2018JD028927
  • Xie S., W. Lin, P.J. Rasch, P. Ma, R. Neale, V. Larson, and Y. Qian, et al. 2018. "Understanding Cloud and Convective Characteristics in Version 1 of the E3SM Atmosphere Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10, no. 10:2618-2644. PNNL-SA-135860. doi:10.1029/2018MS001350
  • Zhang K., P.J. Rasch, M. Taylor, H. Wan, L. Leung, P. Ma, and J. Golaz, et al. 2018. "Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAM V1)." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 5:1971-1988. PNNL-SA-129738. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1971-2018

2017

  • Das S., H. Harshvardhan, H. Bian, M. Chin, G. Curci, A.P. Protonotariou, and T. Mielonen, et al. 2017. "Biomass Burning Aerosol Transport and Vertical Distribution over the South African-Atlantic Region." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 12:6391-6415. PNNL-SA-123121. doi:10.1002/2016JD026421
  • Gryspeerdt E., J. Quaas, S. Ferrachat, A. Gettelman, A. Gettelman, S.J. Ghan, and U. Lohmann, et al. 2017. "Constraining the instantaneous aerosol influence on cloud albedo." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 114, no. 19:4899-4904. PNNL-SA-126491. doi:10.1073/pnas.1617765114
  • Lin G., Y. Qian, H. Yan, C. Zhao, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, and K. Zhang. 2017. "Quantification of marine aerosol subgrid variability and its correlation with clouds based on high-resolution regional modeling." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 12:6329-6346. PNNL-SA-126774. doi:10.1002/2017JD026567
  • Sand M., B.H. Samset, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. Berntsen, and H. Bian, et al. 2017. "Aerosols at the Poles: An AeroCom Phase II Multi-Model Evaluation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 19:12197-12218. PNNL-SA-122987. doi:10.5194/acp-17-12197-2017
  • Wan H., K. Zhang, P.J. Rasch, B. Singh, X. Chen, and J. Edwards. 2017. "A new and inexpensive non-bit-for-bit solution reproducibility test based on time step convergence (TSC1.0)." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 2:537-552. PNNL-SA-118076. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-537-2017
  • Wu C., X. Liu, M. Diao, K. Zhang, A. Gettelman, A. Gettelman, and Z. Lu, et al. 2017. "Direct comparisons of ice cloud macro- and microphysical properties simulated by the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 with HIPPO aircraft observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 7:4731-4749. PNNL-SA-122879. doi:10.5194/acp-17-4731-2017

2016

  • Fast J.D., L.K. Berg, K. Zhang, R.C. Easter, R.A. Ferrare, J. Hair, and C.A. Hostetler, et al. 2016. "Model Representations of Aerosol Layers Transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121, no. 16:9814-9848. PNNL-SA-119932. doi:10.1002/2016JD025248
  • Jiang Y., Z. Lu, X. Liu, Y. Qian, K. Zhang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang. 2016. "Impacts of Global open-fire Aerosols on Direct Radiative, Cloud and Surface-Albedo effects Simulated with CAM5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 23:14805-14824. PNNL-SA-117410. doi:10.5194/acp-16-14805-2016
  • Kipling Z., P. Stier, C.E. Johnson, G.W. Mann, N. Bellouin, S.E. Bauer, and T. Bergman, et al. 2016. "What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 4:2221-2241. PNNL-SA-109907. doi:10.5194/acp-16-2221-2016
  • Kristiansen N.I., A. Stohl, D.J. Olivie, B. Croft, O.A. Sovde, H. Klein, and T. Christoudias, et al. 2016. "Evaluation of observed and modelled aerosol lifetimes using radioactive tracers of opportunity and an ensemble of 19 global models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 5:3525-3561. PNNL-SA-112717. doi:10.5194/acp-16-3525-2016
  • Lin G., H. Wan, K. Zhang, Y. Qian, and S.J. Ghan. 2016. "Can nudging be used to quantify model sensitivities in precipitation and cloud forcing?." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 3:1073-1091. PNNL-SA-116402. doi:10.1002/2016MS000659
  • Peers F., N. Bellouin, F. Waquet, F. Ducos, P. Goloub, J. Mollard, and G. Myhre, et al. 2016. "Comparison of aerosol optical properties above clouds between POLDER and AeroCom models over the South East Atlantic Ocean during the fire season." Geophysical Research Letters 43, no. 8:3991-4000. PNNL-SA-113014. doi:10.1002/2016GL068222
  • Zhang J., K. Zhang, J. Liu, and G. Ban-Weiss. 2016. "Revisiting the climate impacts of cool roofs around the globe using an earth system model." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 8:Article No. 084014. PNNL-SA-117449. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084014
  • Zhang K., C. Zhao, H. Wan, Y. Qian, R.C. Easter, S.J. Ghan, and K. Sakaguchi, et al. 2016. "Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5." Geoscientific Model Development 9, no. 2:607-632. PNNL-SA-111502. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-607-2016
  • Zhang S., M. Wang, S.J. Ghan, A. Ding, H. Wang, K. Zhang, and D. Neubauer, et al. 2016. "On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 5:2765-2783. PNNL-SA-112720. doi:10.5194/acp-16-2765-2016

2015

  • Kulkarni G.R., K. Zhang, C. Zhao, M.I. Nandasiri, V. Shutthanandan, X. Liu, and J.D. Fast, et al. 2015. "Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, no. 15:7682-7698. PNNL-SA-105539. doi:10.1002/2014JD022637
  • Lacagnina C., O.P. Hasekamp, H. Bian, G. Curci, G. Myhre, T. van Noije, and M. Schulz, et al. 2015. "Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedo over the global ocean: comparing PARASOL Retrievals with AERONET, OMI, and AeroCom Models Estimates." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, no. 18:9814-9836. PNNL-SA-107007. doi:10.1002/2015JD023501
  • Shi X., X. Liu, and K. Zhang. 2015. "Effects of Pre-Existing Ice Crystals on Cirrus Clouds and Comparison between Different Ice Nucleation Parameterizations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, no. 3:1503-1520. PNNL-SA-103838. doi:10.5194/acp-15-1503-2015
  • Shrivastava M.B., R.C. Easter, X. Liu, A. Zelenyuk, B. Singh, K. Zhang, and P. Ma, et al. 2015. "Global transformation and fate of SOA: Implications of Low Volatility SOA and Gas-Phase Fragmentation Reactions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, no. 9:4169-4195. PNNL-SA-105095. doi:10.1002/2014JD022563
  • Sudarchikova N., U. Mikolajewicz, C. Timmreck, D. O'Donnell, G. Schurgers, D. Sein, and K. Zhang. 2015. "Modelling of mineral dust for interglacial and glacial climate conditions with a focus on Antarctica." Climate of the Past 11, no. 5:765-779. PNNL-SA-101006. doi:10.5194/cp-11-765-2015

2014

  • Ban-Weiss G., L. Jin, S. Bauer, R. Bennartz, X. Liu, K. Zhang, and Y. Ming, et al. 2014. "Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 18:10,876-10,901. PNNL-SA-100996. doi:10.1002/2014JD021722
  • Hiranuma N., M. Paukert, I. Steinke, K. Zhang, G.R. Kulkarni, C. Hoose, and M. Schnaiter, et al. 2014. "A Comprehensive Parameterization of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Dust Surrogate: Laboratory Study with Hematite Particles and Its Application to Atmospheric Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 23:13145-13158. PNNL-SA-102858. doi:10.5194/acp-14-13145-2014
  • Hiranuma N., N. Hoffmann, A. Kiselev, A. Dreyer, K. Zhang, G.R. Kulkarni, and T. Koop, et al. 2014. "Influence of surface morphology on the immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of hematite particles." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 5:2315-2324. PNNL-SA-97693. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2315-2014
  • Jiao C., M.G. Flanner, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. Berntsen, and H. Bian, et al. 2014. "An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14. PNNL-SA-97967. doi:10.5194/acp-14-2399-2014
  • Kulkarni G.R., C.N. Sanders, K. Zhang, X. Liu, and C. Zhao. 2014. "Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 16:9993-10011. PNNL-SA-94976. doi:10.1002/2014JD021567
  • Mann G.W., K.S. Carslaw, C.L. Reddington, K.J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, and D.V. Spracklen, et al. 2014. "Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 9:4679-4713. PNNL-SA-97293. doi:10.5194/acp-14-4679-2014
  • Samset B.H., G. Myhre, A. Herber, Y. Kondo, S. Li, N. Moteki, and M. Koike, et al. 2014. "Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 22:12465-12477. PNNL-SA-100041. doi:10.5194/acp-14-12465-2014
  • Tsigaridis K., N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P.J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, and Y. Balkanski, et al. 2014. "The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 19:10845-10895. PNNL-SA-101226. doi:10.5194/acp-14-10845-2014
  • Wan H., P.J. Rasch, K. Zhang, Y. Qian, H. Yan, and C. Zhao. 2014. "Short ensembles: An Efficient Method for Discerning Climate-relevant Sensitivities in Atmospheric General Circulation Models." Geoscientific Model Development 7, no. 5:1961-1977. PNNL-SA-101468. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1961-2014
  • Wang M., X. Liu, K. Zhang, and J.M. Comstock. 2014. "Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6, no. 3:756-776. PNNL-SA-102193. doi:10.1002/2014MS000339
  • Zhang C., M. Wang, H. Morrison, R.C. Somerville, K. Zhang, X. Liu, and J.F. Li. 2014. "Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6, no. 4:998-1015. PNNL-SA-103108. doi:10.1002/2014MS000343
  • Zhang K., H. Wan, X. Liu, S.J. Ghan, G.J. Kooperman, P. Ma, and P.J. Rasch, et al. 2014. "Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 16:8631-8645. PNNL-SA-101696. doi:10.5194/acp-14-8631-2014

2013

  • Ghan S.J., S.J. Smith, M. Wang, K. Zhang, K.J. Pringle, K.S. Carslaw, and J. Pierce, et al. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 12:6688-6707. PNNL-SA-93538. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Kinne S., D. O'Donnell, P. Stier, S. Kloster, K. Zhang, H. Schmidt, and S. Rast, et al. 2013. "MAC-v1: A New Global Aerosol Climatology for Climate Studies." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 5. PNWD-SA-9922. doi:10.1002/jame.20035
  • Ma P., P.J. Rasch, H. Wang, K. Zhang, R.C. Easter, S. Tilmes, and J.D. Fast, et al. 2013. "The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 10:4657-4669. PNNL-SA-88828. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50411
  • Myhre G., B.H. Samset, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, and H. Bian, et al. 2013. "Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 4:1853-1877. PNNL-SA-92392. doi:10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013
  • Samset B.H., G. Myhre, M. Schulz, Y. Balkanski, S.E. Bauer, T. Berntsen, and H. Bian, et al. 2013. "Black Carbon Vertical Profiles Strongly Affect its Radiative Forcing Uncertainty." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 5:2423-2434. PNNL-SA-89550. doi:10.5194/acp-13-2423-2013
  • Six K.D., S. Kloster, T. Ilyina, S.D. Archer, K. Zhang, and E. Maier-Reimer. 2013. "Global Warming Amplified by Reduced Sulfur Fluxes as a Result of Ocean Acidification." Nature Climate Change 3, no. 11:975-978. PNWD-SA-9820. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE1981
  • Zhang K., X. Liu, M. Wang, J.M. Comstock, D. Mitchell, S. Mishra, and G.G. Mace. 2013. "Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 9:4963-4982. PNNL-SA-92147. doi:10.5194/acp-13-4963-2013

2012

  • Kazil J., K. Zhang, P. Stier, J. Feichter, U. Lohmann, and K. O'Brien. 2012. "The present-day decadal solar cycle modulation of Earth's radiative forcing via charged H2SO4/H2O aerosol nucleation." Geophysical Research Letters 39. PNWD-SA-9634. doi:10.1029/2011GL050058
  • Liu X., X. Shi, K. Zhang, E. Jensen, A. Gettelman, A. Gettelman, and D. Barahona, et al. 2012. "Sensitivity Studies of Dust Ice Nuclei Effect on Cirrus Clouds with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 24:12061-12079. PNNL-SA-86722. doi:10.5194/acp-12-12061-2012
  • Ma P., K. Zhang, J. Shi, T. Matsui, and A. Arking. 2012. "Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51, no. 12:2090-2104. PNNL-SA-82966. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0215.1
  • Pringle K.J., K.S. Carslaw, T. Fan, G.W. Mann, A. Hill, P. Stier, and K. Zhang, et al. 2012. "A Multi-model Assessment of the Impact of Sea Spray Geoengineering on Cloud Droplet Number." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 23:11647-11663. PNWD-SA-9770. doi:10.5194/acp-12-11647-2012
  • Wang M., S.J. Ghan, X. Liu, T.L. Ecuyer, K. Zhang, H. Morrison, and M. Ovchinnikov, et al. 2012. "Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations." Geophysical Research Letters 39. PNNL-SA-87618. doi:10.1029/2012GL052204
  • Zhang K., D. O'Donnell, J. Kazil, P. Stier, S. Kinne, U. Lohmann, and S. Ferrachat, et al. 2012. "The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 19:8911-8949. PNWD-SA-9732. doi:10.5194/acp-12-8911-2012

Selected Publications

2012

  • Kazil J, K Zhang, P Stier, J Feichter, U Lohmann, and K O'Brien. 2012. "The Present-Day Decadal Solar Cycle Modulation of Earth's Radiative Forcing via Charged H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Nucleation." Geophysical Research Letters 39: Art. No. L02805. doi:10.1029/2011GL050058.

2011

  • Feng, W., Chipperfield, M. P., Dhomse, S., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Yang, X., Zhang, K., and Ramonet, M. 2011. "Evaluation of Cloud Convection and Tracer Transport in a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(10):5783-5803. doi:10.5194/acpd-10-22953-2010.

  • Kulmala M, A Asmi, HK Lappalainen, et al., with J Feichter, D O'Donnell, and K Zhang, Editors. 2011. "General Overview: European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) - Integrating Aerosol Research from Nano to Global Scales." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11:13,061-13,143. doi:10.5194/acp-11-13061-2011.

  • Zhang K, J Feichter, J Kazil, H Wan, W Zhuo, AD Griffiths, H Sartorius, W Zahoroski, M Ramonet, M Schmidt, C Yver, REM Neubert, and E-G Brunke. 2011. "Radon Activity in the Lower Troposphere and its Impact on Ionization Rate: A Global Estimate using Different Radon Emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11:7817-7838. doi:10.5194/acp-11-7817-2011.

2010

  • Kazil J, P Stier, K Zhang, J Quaas, S Kinne, D O'Donnell, S Rast, M Esch, S Ferrachat, U Lohmann, and J Feichter. 2010. "Aerosol Nucleation and its Role for Clouds and Earth's Radiative Forcing in the Aerosol-Climate Model ECHAM5-HAM." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(5):10,733-10,752. doi:10.5194/acp-10-107 33-2010.

  • Zhang K, H Wan, B Wang, M Zhang, J Feichter, and X Liu. 2010. "Tropospheric Aerosol Size Distributions Simulated by Three Online Global Aerosol Models using the M7 Microphysics Module." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(13):6409-6434. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6409-2010.

2008

  • Zhang K, H Wan, B Wang, and M Zhang. 2008. "Consistency Problem with Tracer Advection in the Atmospheric Model GAMIL." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 25(2):306-318. doi:10.1007/s00376-008-0306-z.

  • Zhang K, H Wan, M Zhang, and B Wang 2008. "Evaluation of the Atmospheric Transport in a GCM using Radon Measurements: Sensitivity to Cumulus Convection Parameterization." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8(10):2811-2832. doi:10.5194/acp-8-2811-2008.

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