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Staff information


Mohamad Hejazi

Human-Earth Sys Sci: Modeling
Earth Scientist


Mohamad Hejazi is a research scientist with the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He holds a Ph.D. (2009) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and a B.S. (2002) and M.S. (2004) degrees from the University of Maryland, College Park. His research interests include: global hydrologic modeling, global and regional sectoral water demand models, separating the effect of climate change, human activities, and climate policies on hydrology, and the value of information (e.g. weather and climate forecasts) to human decisions (e.g., farmers, reservoir operators). Prior to joining JGCRI-PNNL, he worked as a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and as a research assistant at the USGS and the Illinois Water Survey.

PNNL Publications


  • Arango S., S. Turner, K. Daenzer, J. Ríos-Ocampo, M.I. Hejazi, T. Kober, and A.C. Alvarez, et al. 2019. "Climate impacts on hydropower in Colombia: A multi-model assessment of power sector adaptation pathways." Energy Policy 128. PNNL-SA-130753. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.12.057
  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.R. Dorheim, Y. Cui, R.L. Horowitz, A.C. Snyder, K.V. Calvin, and L. Feng, et al. 2019. "gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 6. PNNL-SA-135553. doi:10.5334/jors.232
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Cui, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2019. "GCAM v5.1: Representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 2:677-698. PNNL-SA-137098. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-677-2019
  • Huang Z., M.I. Hejazi, Q. Tang, C.R. Vernon, Y. Liu, M. Chen, and K.V. Calvin. 2019. "Global agricultural green and blue water consumption under future climate and land use changes." Journal of Hydrology 574. PNNL-SA-137028. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.04.046
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, G.C. Iyer, and B. Forman. 2019. "Implications of water constraints on electricity capacity expansion in the United States." Nature Sustainability 2, no. 3:206–213. PNNL-SA-129550. doi:10.1038/s41893-019-0235-0
  • Santos Da Silva S., F.R. Miralles-Wilhelm, R. Muñoz Castillo, L.E. Clarke, C.J. Braun, A. Delgado, and J.A. Edmonds, et al. 2019. "The Paris pledges and the energy-water-land nexus in Latin America: Exploring implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions." PLoS One 14, no. 4:e0215013. PNNL-SA-136697. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215013
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, C. Yonkofski, S.H. Kim, and G.P. Kyle. 2019. "Influence of groundwater extraction costs and resource depletion limits on simulated global nonrenewable water withdrawals over the twenty-first century." Earth's Future 7, no. 2:123-135. PNNL-SA-129871. doi:10.1029/2018EF001105
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, G.P. Kyle, and S.H. Kim. 2019. "A pathway of global food supply adaptation in a world with increasingly constrained groundwater." Science of the Total Environment 673. PNNL-SA-141009. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.070
  • Vernon C.R., M.I. Hejazi, S. Turner, Y. Liu, C.J. Braun, X. Li, and R.P. Link. 2019. "A Global Hydrologic Framework to Accelerate Scientific Discovery." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 1. PNNL-SA-137438. doi:10.5334/jors.245


  • Cui Y., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel, et al. 2018. "Regional responses to future, demand-driven water scarcity." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 9:Article No. 094006. PNNL-SA-132928. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad8f7
  • Graham N.T., E. Davies, M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, S.H. Kim, L. Helinski, and F. Miralles-Wilhelm, et al. 2018. "Water Sector Assumptions for the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways in an Integrated Modeling framework." Water Resources Research 54, no. 9:6423-6440. PNNL-SA-126476. doi:10.1029/2018WR023452
  • Huang Z., M.I. Hejazi, X. Li, Q. Tang, C.R. Vernon, G. Leng, and Y. Liu, et al. 2018. "Reconstruction of global gridded monthly sectoral water withdrawals for 1971-2010 and analysis of their spatiotemporal patterns." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22, no. 4:2117-2133. PNNL-SA-129126. doi:10.5194/hess-22-2117-2018
  • Liu Y., M.I. Hejazi, H. Li, X. Zhang, and G. Leng. 2018. "A Hydrological Emulator for Global Applications - HE v1.0.0." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 3:1077-1092. PNNL-SA-125122. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1077-2018
  • Lucena A., M.I. Hejazi, E. Vasquez-Arroyo, S. Turner, A. Köberle, K. Daenzer, and P. Rochedo, et al. 2018. "Interactions between climate change mitigation and adaptation: The case of hydropower in Brazil." Global Environmental Change 164. PNNL-SA-130754. doi:10.1016/
  • Mouratiadou I., M. Bevione, D.L. Bijl, L. Drouet, M.I. Hejazi, S. Mima, and M. Pehl, et al. 2018. "Water demand for electricity in deep decarbonisation scenarios: a multi-model assessment." Climatic Change 147, no. 1-2:91-106. PNNL-SA-135282. doi:10.1007/s10584-017-2117-7
  • Srinivasan S., N. Kholod, V. Chaturvedi, P. Ghosh, R. Mathur, L.E. Clarke, and M. Evans, et al. 2018. "Water for Electricity in India: A Multi-Model Study of Future Challenges and Linkages to Climate Change Mitigation." Applied Energy 210. PNNL-SA-122615. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.04.079
  • Wan W., J. Zhao, H. Li, A.K. Mishra, M.I. Hejazi, H. Lu, and Y. Demissie, et al. 2018. "A Holistic View of Water Management Impacts on Future Droughts: A Global Multimodel Analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, no. 11:5947-5972. PNNL-SA-129690. doi:10.1029/2017JD027825
  • Yigzaw W.Y., H. Li, Y. Demissie, M.I. Hejazi, L. Leung, N. Voisin, and R. Payn. 2018. "A New Global Storage-Area-Depth Data Set for Modeling Reservoirs in Land Surface and Earth System Models." Water Resources Research 54, no. 12:10372-10386. PNNL-SA-140190. doi:10.1029/2017WR022040
  • Zhang X., H. Li, Z. Deng, C. Ringler, Y. Gao, M.I. Hejazi, and L.R. Leung. 2018. "Impacts of Climate Change, Policy and Water-Energy-Food Nexus on Hydropower Development." Renewable Energy 116, no. Part A:827-834. PNNL-SA-114680. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2017.10.030


  • Li X., C.R. Vernon, M.I. Hejazi, R.P. Link, L. Feng, Y. Liu, and L.T. Rauchenstein. 2017. "Xanthos - A Global Hydrologic Model." Journal of Open Research Software 5, no. 1:21. PNNL-SA-126584. doi:10.5334/jors.181
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, H. Li, B. Forman, and X. Zhang. 2017. "Vulnerability of US thermoelectric power generation to climate change when incorporating state-level environmental regulations." Nature Energy 2. PNNL-SA-121326. doi:10.1038/nenergy.2017.109
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "Climate impacts on hydropower and consequences for global electricity supply investment needs." Energy 141. PNNL-SA-125443. doi:10.1016/
  • Voisin N., M.I. Hejazi, L.R. Leung, L. Liu, M. Huang, H. Li, and T.K. Tesfa. 2017. "Effects of spatially distributed sectoral water management on the redistribution of water resources in an integrated water model." Water Resources Research 53, no. 5:4253-4270. PNNL-SA-109215. doi:10.1002/2016WR019767
  • Wan W., J. Zhao, H. Li, A.K. Mishra, L. Leung, M.I. Hejazi, and W. Wang, et al. 2017. "Hydrological Drought in the Anthropocene: Impacts of Local Water Extraction and Reservoir Regulation in the U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122, no. 21:11,313–11,328. PNNL-SA-121352. doi:10.1002/2017JD026899


  • Kim S.H., M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and G.P. Kyle, et al. 2016. "Balancing Global Water Availability and Use at Basin Scale in an Integrated Assessment Model." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:217-231. PNNL-SA-112666. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1604-6
  • Liu Y., M.I. Hejazi, G.P. Kyle, S.H. Kim, E. Davies, D. Miralles, and A. Teuling, et al. 2016. "Global and regional evaluation of energy for water." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 17:9736-9745. PNNL-SA-116425. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01065
  • Scott M.J., D.S. Daly, M.I. Hejazi, G.P. Kyle, L. Liu, H.C. McJeon, and A. Mundra, et al. 2016. "Sensitivity of Future U.S. Water Shortages to Socioeconomic and Climate Drivers: A Case Study in Georgia Using an Integrated Human-Earth System Modeling Framework." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:233-246. PNNL-SA-105762. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1602-8
  • Voisin N., L.R. Leung, and M.I. Hejazi. 2016. "Drivers of Change in Managed Water Resources: Modeling the Impacts of Climate and Socioeconomic Changes Using the US Midwest as a Case Study." In Terrestrial Water Cycle and Climate Change: Natural and Human-Induced Impacts, edited by Q Tang and T Oki. 169-192. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PNNL-SA-118569.
  • Voisin N., M.C. Kintner-Meyer, R. Skaggs, T.B. Nguyen, D. Wu, J.A. Dirks, and Y. Xie, et al. 2016. "Vulnerability of the US Western Electric Grid to Hydro-Climatological Conditions: How bad can it get?." Energy 115, no. Part 1:1-12. PNNL-SA-112684. doi:10.1016/


  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, J.A. Edmonds, M.I. Hejazi, S.T. Waldhoff, M.A. Wise, and Y. Zhou. 2015. "The Effects of Climate Sensitivity and Carbon Cycle Interactions on Mitigation Policy Stringency." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:35-50. PNNL-SA-94788. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-1026-7
  • Chaturvedi V., M.I. Hejazi, J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, and M.A. Wise. 2015. "Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20, no. 3:389-407. PNNL-SA-91741. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9497-4
  • Hejazi M.I., N. Voisin, L. Liu, L.M. Bramer, D.C. Fortin, J.E. Hathaway, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "21st Century United States Emissions Mitigation Could Increase Water Stress more than the Climate Change it is Mitigating." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, no. 34:10635-10640. PNNL-SA-105956. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421675112
  • Kraucunas I.P., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Dirks, J.E. Hathaway, M.I. Hejazi, K.A. Hibbard, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)." Climatic Change 129, no. 3-4:573-588. PNNL-SA-93553. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1064-9
  • Li H., L.R. Leung, T.K. Tesfa, N. Voisin, M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, and Y. Liu, et al. 2015. "Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 4:1661-1679. PNNL-SA-109347. doi:10.1002/2015MS000471
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, P.L. Patel, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, Y. Zhou, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2015. "Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 94. PNNL-SA-100516. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2014.11.004
  • Strzepek K., J. Neumann, J. Smith, J. Martinich, B. Boehlert, M.I. Hejazi, and J. Henderson, et al. 2015. "Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:127-141. PNNL-SA-93379. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1279-9
  • Zhou Y., M.I. Hejazi, S.J. Smith, J.A. Edmonds, H. Li, L.E. Clarke, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity." Energy and Environmental Science 8, no. 9:2622-2633. PNNL-SA-109269. doi:10.1039/c5ee00888c


  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90338. doi:10.5194/hessd-10-3383-2013
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90339. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859–2883. PNNL-SA-103668. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 81. PNNL-SA-89288. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.05.006
  • Hejazi M.I., X. Cai, X. Yuan, X.Z. Liang, and P. Kumar. 2014. "Incorporating reanalysis-based short-term forecasts from a regional climate model in an irrigation scheduling optimization problem." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 140, no. 5:699-713. PNWD-SA-10020. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000365


  • Chaturvedi V., M.I. Hejazi, J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2013. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand. PNNL-22356. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, V. Chaturvedi, E. Davies, and J. Eom. 2013. "Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century." Hydrological Sciences Journal 58, no. 3:1-20. PNNL-SA-85862. doi:10.1080/02626667.2013.772301
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Corrigendum to "Influence of climate change mitigation technology on global demands of water for electricity generation"." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 17. PNNL-SA-94269. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.017
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 13. PNNL-SA-90205. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.006
  • Voisin N., L. Liu, M.I. Hejazi, T.K. Tesfa, H. Li, M. Huang, and Y. Liu, et al. 2013. "One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17, no. No. 11:4555-4575. PNNL-SA-94642. doi:10.5194/hess-17-4555-2013


  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, and V. Chaturvedi. 2012. "Global irrigation demand - A holistic approach." Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering 1, no. 2:Article No. e106. PNNL-SA-89360.


  • Cai X., M.I. Hejazi, and D. Wang. 2011. "Value of Probabilistic Weather Forecasts: Assessment by Real-Time Optimization of Irrigation Scheduling." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 137, no. 5:391-403. PNNL-SA-83186. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000126
  • Wang D., and M.I. Hejazi. 2011. "Quantifying the relative contribution of the climate and direct human impacts on mean annual streamflow in the contiguous United States." Water Resources Research 47. PNNL-SA-78801. doi:10.1029/2010WR010283

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