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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Page Kyle

Human-Earth Sys Sci: Analysis
Earth Scientist


Page Kyle is a Research Scientist at the Joint Global Change Research Institute, where he has been employed since September 2006. His research generally addresses technology and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, from an integrated assessment framework. Specific areas of research have included development of representations of renewable energy resources, secondary energy production, final energy demand, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture and land use, and water demand. He received a B.A. from Dartmouth College in Earth Sciences and Economics, and a M.S. in ecology from Utah State University.

Education and Credentials

  • Dartmouth College, B.A.
  • Utah State University, M.S.

PNNL Publications


  • Plevin R.J., J. Jones, P. Kyle, A. Levy, M. Shell, and D. Tanner. 2022. "Choices in land representation materially affect modeled biofuel carbon intensity estimates." Journal of Cleaner Production 349, no. 2022:Art. No. 131477. PNNL-SA-163646. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131477
  • Zhao X., M.A. Wise, S.T. Waldhoff, P. Kyle, J.E. Huster, C.W. Ramig, and L. Rafelski, et al. 2022. "The impact of agricultural trade approaches on global economic modeling." Global Environmental Change 73. PNNL-SA-153428. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102413


  • Kyle P., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, N.T. Graham, and Y. Liu. 2021. "Assessing the future of global energy-for-water." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 2:024031. PNNL-SA-139311. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abd8a9
  • McJeon H.C., B. Mignone, P. O'Rourke, R. Horowitz, H. Kheshgi, L.E. Clarke, and P. Kyle, et al. 2021. "Fossil energy deployment through midcentury consistent with 2°C climate stabilization." Energy and Climate Change 2. PNNL-ACT-SA-10418. doi:10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100034
  • Ou Y., C.W. Roney, J. Alsalam, K.V. Calvin, J. Creason, J.A. Edmonds, and A.A. Fawcett, et al. 2021. "Deep mitigation of CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gases toward 1.5°C and 2°C futures." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:Art. No. 6245. PNNL-SA-158423. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26509-z
  • Sampedro Martinez de Estivariz J., P. Kyle, C.W. Ramig, D. Tanner, J.E. Huster, and M.A. Wise. 2021. "Dynamic Linking of Upstream Energy and Freight Demands for Bio and Fossil Energy Pathways in the Global Change Analysis Model." Applied Energy 302. PNNL-SA-161004. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117580


  • Burleyson C.D., G.C. Iyer, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, J.S. Rice, and A.D. Smith, et al. 2020. "Future western U.S. building electricity consumption in response to climate and population drivers: A comparative study of the impact of model structure." Energy 208. PNNL-SA-151017. doi:10.1016/
  • Graham N.T., M.I. Hejazi, M. Chen, E. Davies, J.A. Edmonds, S.H. Kim, and S. Turner, et al. 2020. "Humans drive future water scarcity changes across all Shared Socioeconomic Pathways." Environmental Research Letters 15, no. 1:Article No. 014007. PNNL-SA-151297. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab639b
  • Khan Z., T.B. Wild, M. Silva Carrazzone, R. Gaudioso, M. Mascari, F. Bianchi, and F. Weinstein, et al. 2020. "Integrated energy-water-land nexus planning to guide national policy: an example from Uruguay." Environmental Research Letters 15, no. 9. PNNL-SA-150376. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab9389
  • Snyder A.C., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, P. Kyle, K. Narayan, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2020. "The domestic and international implications of future climate for U.S. agriculture in GCAM." PLOS ONE 15, no. 8:e0237918. PNNL-SA-134943. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0237918
  • Van Zeist W., E. Stehfest, J. Doelman, H. Valin, H. Valin, K.V. Calvin, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2020. "Are scenario projections overly optimistic about future yield progress?." Global Environmental Change 64. PNNL-SA-150084. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102120


  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.R. Dorheim, Y. Cui, R.L. Horowitz, A.C. Snyder, K.V. Calvin, and L. Feng, et al. 2019. "gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 6. PNNL-SA-135553. doi:10.5334/jors.232
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Cui, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2019. "GCAM v5.1: Representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 2:677-698. PNNL-SA-137098. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-677-2019
  • Santos Da Silva S., F.R. Miralles-Wilhelm, R. Muñoz Castillo, L.E. Clarke, C.J. Braun, A. Delgado, and J.A. Edmonds, et al. 2019. "The Paris pledges and the energy-water-land nexus in Latin America: Exploring implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions." PLoS One 14, no. 4:e0215013. PNNL-SA-136697. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215013
  • Stehfest E., W. Van Zeist, H. Valin, H. Valin, P. Havlik, A. Popp, and P. Kyle, et al. 2019. "Key determinants of global land-use projections." Nature Communications 10, no. 1:2166. PNNL-ACT-SA-10368. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09945-w
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, C. Yonkofski, S.H. Kim, and P. Kyle. 2019. "Influence of groundwater extraction costs and resource depletion limits on simulated global nonrenewable water withdrawals over the twenty-first century." Earth's Future 7, no. 2:123-135. PNNL-SA-129871. doi:10.1029/2018EF001105
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, P. Kyle, and S.H. Kim. 2019. "A pathway of global food supply adaptation in a world with increasingly constrained groundwater." Science of the Total Environment 673. PNNL-SA-141009. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.070


  • Clarke L.E., J. Eom, E.L. Hodson, R.L. Horowitz, P. Kyle, R.P. Link, and B. Mignone, et al. 2018. "Effects of long-term climate change on global building energy expenditures." Energy Economics 72. PNNL-SA-131718. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2018.01.003
  • Cui Y., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel, et al. 2018. "Regional responses to future, demand-driven water scarcity." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 9:Article No. 094006. PNNL-SA-132928. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad8f7
  • Graham N.T., E. Davies, M.I. Hejazi, K.V. Calvin, S.H. Kim, L. Helinski, and F. Miralles-Wilhelm, et al. 2018. "Water Sector Assumptions for the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways in an Integrated Modeling framework." Water Resources Research 54, no. 9:6423-6440. PNNL-SA-126476. doi:10.1029/2018WR023452
  • Paladugula A., N. Kholod, V. Chaturvedi, P. Ghosh, S. Pal, L.E. Clarke, and M. Evans, et al. 2018. "A Multi-Model Assessment of Energy and Emissions for India’s Transport Sector through 2050." Energy Policy 116. PNNL-SA-127815. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.037
  • Yu S., M. Evans, P. Kyle, L.D. Vu, Q. Tan, A. Gupta, and P.L. Patel. 2018. "Implementing Nationally Determined Contributions: Building Energy Policies in India’s Mitigation Strategy." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 3:Article Number 034034. PNNL-SA-124403. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaad84


  • Bauer N., K.V. Calvin, J. Emmerling, O. Fricko, S. Fujimori, J. Hilaire, and J. Eom, et al. 2017. "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways of the Energy Sector – Quantifying the Narratives." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115383. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.07.006
  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, P. Kyle, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "A Hindcast Experiment Using the GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land-Use Module." Climate Change Economics 8, no. 1:Article No. 1750005. PNNL-SA-121098. doi:10.1142/s2010007817500051
  • Edelenbosch O.Y., D. McCollum, D. Van Vuuren, C. Bertram, S. Carrara, H. Daly, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2017. "Decomposing passenger transport futures: Comparing results of global integrated assessment models." Transportation Research. Part D: Transport and Environment 55. PNNL-SA-120285. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2016.07.003
  • Edelenbosch O.Y., K. Kermeli, W. Crijns-Graus, E. Worrell, R. Bibas, B. Fais, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2017. "Comparing projections of industrial energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in long-term energy models." Energy 122. PNNL-SA-113207. doi:10.1016/
  • Iyer G.C., C.M. Ledna, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.C. McJeon, P. Kyle, and J. Williams. 2017. "Measuring Progress from Nationally Determined Contributions to Mid-Century Strategies." Nature Climate Change 7. PNNL-ACT-SA-10269. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0005-9
  • Muratori M., C.M. Ledna, H.C. McJeon, P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2017. "Cost of Power or Power of Cost: a U.S. Modeling Perspective." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 77. PNNL-ACT-SA-10131. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.055
  • Muratori M., S.J. Smith, P. Kyle, R.P. Link, B.K. Mignone, and H. Kheshgi. 2017. "Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 6:3526–3533. PNNL-ACT-SA-10153. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04515
  • Popp A., K.V. Calvin, S. Fujimori, P. Havlik, F. Humpenoder, E. Stehfest, and B. Bodirsky, et al. 2017. "Land use futures in the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-120882. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.10.002
  • Wise M.A., M. Muratori, and P. Kyle. 2017. "Biojet Fuels and Emissions Mitigation in Aviation: an Integrated Assessment Modeling Analysis." Transportation Research. Part D: Transport and Environment 52, no. Part A:244 - 253. PNNL-SA-120807. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.03.006
  • Yeh S., G.S. Mishra, L.M. Fulton, P. Kyle, D. McCollum, J. Miller, and P. Cazzola, et al. 2017. "Detailed assessment of global transport-energy models’ structures and projections." Transportation Research. Part D: Transport and Environment 55. PNNL-SA-117294. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2016.11.001
  • Yu S., Q. Tan, M. Evans, P. Kyle, L.D. Vu, and P.L. Patel. 2017. "Improving Building Energy Efficiency in India: State-level Analysis of Building Energy Efficiency Policies." Energy Policy 110. PNNL-SA-120611. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.07.013


  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, P. Luckow, P. Kyle, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2016. "Implications of uncertain future fossil energy resources on bioenergy use and terrestrial carbon emissions." Climatic Change 136, no. 1:57-68. PNWD-SA-10003. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0923-0
  • Di Vittorio A., P. Kyle, and W.D. Collins. 2016. "What are the effects of Agro-Ecological Zones and land use region boundaries on land resource projection using the Global Change Assessment Model?." Environmental Modelling & Software 85. PNNL-SA-110763. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.08.016
  • Gao J., A. Zhang, S. Lam, X. Zhang, A.M. Thomson, E. Lin, and K. Jiang, et al. 2016. "An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 8, no. 5:880-893. PNNL-SA-121186. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12305
  • Kim S.H., M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and P. Kyle, et al. 2016. "Balancing Global Water Availability and Use at Basin Scale in an Integrated Assessment Model." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:217-231. PNNL-SA-112666. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1604-6
  • Liu Y., M.I. Hejazi, P. Kyle, S.H. Kim, E. Davies, D. Miralles, and A. Teuling, et al. 2016. "Global and regional evaluation of energy for water." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 17:9736-9745. PNNL-SA-116425. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01065
  • Muratori M., K.V. Calvin, M.A. Wise, P. Kyle, and J.A. Edmonds. 2016. "Global Economic Consequences of Deploying Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 9:095004. PNNL-ACT-SA-10154. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095004
  • Prestele R., P. Alexander, M. Rounsevell, A. Arneth, A. Arneth, K.V. Calvin, and J. Doelman, et al. 2016. "Hotspots of uncertainty in land use and land cover change projections: a global scale model comparison." Global Change Biology 22, no. 12:3967-3983. PNNL-SA-115917. doi:10.1111/gcb.13337
  • Schafer A., P. Kyle, and R. Pietzcker. 2016. "Exploring the use of dynamic linear panel data models for evaluating energy/economy/environment models - an application for the transportation sector." Climatic Change 136, no. 1:141-154. PNWD-SA-10100. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1293-y
  • Scott M.J., D.S. Daly, M.I. Hejazi, P. Kyle, L. Liu, H.C. McJeon, and A. Mundra, et al. 2016. "Sensitivity of Future U.S. Water Shortages to Socioeconomic and Climate Drivers: A Case Study in Georgia Using an Integrated Human-Earth System Modeling Framework." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:233-246. PNNL-SA-105762. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1602-8
  • Smith S.J., S. Rao, K. Riahi, D. van Vuuren, K.V. Calvin, and P. Kyle. 2016. "Future Aerosol Emissions: A Multi-Model Comparison." Climatic Change 138, no. 1:13–24. PNNL-SA-97434. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1733-y
  • Talati S.K., H. Zhai, P. Kyle, M. Morgan, P.L. Patel, and L. Liu. 2016. "Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology and Policy Futures." Environmental Science & Technology 50, no. 22:12095-12104. PNNL-SA-114539. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b01389


  • Chaturvedi V., M.I. Hejazi, J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, and M.A. Wise. 2015. "Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20, no. 3:389-407. PNNL-SA-91741. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9497-4
  • Hejazi M.I., N. Voisin, L. Liu, L.M. Bramer, D.C. Fortin, J.E. Hathaway, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "21st Century United States Emissions Mitigation Could Increase Water Stress more than the Climate Change it is Mitigating." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 112, no. 34:10635-10640. PNNL-SA-105956. doi:10.1073/pnas.1421675112
  • Kyle P., A.M. Thomson, M.A. Wise, and X. Zhang. 2015. "Assessment of the importance of spatial scale in long-term land use modelling of the Midwestern United States." Environmental Modelling & Software 72. PNNL-SA-106492. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.06.006
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, P.L. Patel, P. Kyle, E. Davies, Y. Zhou, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2015. "Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water–energy nexus." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 94. PNNL-SA-100516. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2014.11.004
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 132, no. 4:739. PNNL-SA-115273. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1452-9
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:111-125. PNNL-SA-111360. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1380-8
  • Smith S.J., Y. Zhou, P. Kyle, H. Wang, and H. Yu. 2015. "A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions." In 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference: Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions, April 13-16, 2015, San Diego, California. Washington, District Of Columbia:US EPA. PNNL-SA-109670.
  • Wolf J., T.O. West, Y. Le Page, P. Kyle, X. Zhang, G. Collatz, and M.L. Imhoff. 2015. "Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29, no. 10:1617-1639. PNNL-SA-108532. doi:10.1002/2015GB005119
  • Yin X., W. Chen, J. Eom, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, and S. Yu, et al. 2015. "China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective." Energy Policy 82. PNNL-SA-112651. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.03.021


  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2014. "Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:691-704. PNNL-SA-91566. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0897-y
  • Chaturvedi V., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, K.V. Calvin, and P. Kyle. 2014. "Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales." Energy Economics 46. PNNL-SA-94964. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.09.008
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90338. doi:10.5194/hessd-10-3383-2013
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90339. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859–2883. PNNL-SA-103668. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 81. PNNL-SA-89288. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.05.006
  • Kyle P., C. Mueller, K.V. Calvin, and A.M. Thomson. 2014. "Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts." Earth's Future 2, no. 2:83-98. PNNL-SA-98532. doi:10.1002/2013EF000199
  • Lotze-Campen H., M. von Lampe, P. Kyle, S. Fujimori, P. Havlik, H. van Meijl, and T. Hasegawa, et al. 2014. "Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison." Agricultural Economics 45, no. 1:103-116. PNNL-SA-96186. doi:10.1111/agec.12092
  • Nelson G., D. van der Mensbrugghe, H. Ahammad, E. Blanc, K.V. Calvin, T. Hasegawa, and P. Havlik, et al. 2014. "Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree." Agricultural Economics 45, no. 1:85-101. PNNL-SA-96188. doi:10.1111/agec.12091
  • Popp A., S.K. Rose, K.V. Calvin, D. Van Vuuren, J.P. Dietrich, M.A. Wise, and E. Stehfest, et al. 2014. "Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:495-509. PNNL-SA-92464. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0926-x
  • Schmitz C., H. van Meijl, P. Kyle, G.C. Nelson, S. Fujimori, A. Gurgel, and P. Havlik, et al. 2014. "Land-use change trajectories up to 2050: insights from a global agro-economic model comparison." Agricultural Economics 45, no. 1:69-84. PNNL-SA-96183. doi:10.1111/agec.12090
  • Scott M.J., D.S. Daly, Y. Zhou, J.S. Rice, P.L. Patel, H.C. McJeon, and P. Kyle, et al. 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model." Energy Economics 43, no. 2014:22-33. PNNL-SA-92108. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.012
  • Thomson A.M., P. Kyle, X. Zhang, V. Bandaru, T.O. West, M.A. Wise, and R.C. Izaurralde, et al. 2014. "The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation." Global Environmental Change 24. PNNL-SA-96190. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.11.019
  • Valin H., H. Valin, R. Sands, R. Sands, D. van der Mensbrugghe, G. Nelson, and H. Ahammad, et al. 2014. "The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models." Agricultural Economics 45, no. 1:51-67. PNNL-SA-96181. doi:10.1111/agec.12089
  • von Lampe M., D. Willenbockel, H. Ahammad, E. Blanc, Y. Cai, K.V. Calvin, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2014. "Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison." Agricultural Economics 45, no. 1:3-20. PNNL-SA-96185. doi:10.1111/agec.12086
  • Wise M.A., H.C. McJeon, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, and P. Kyle. 2014. "Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade." The Energy Journal 35, no. Special Issue. PNNL-SA-92917. doi:10.5547/01956574.35.si1.9
  • Wise M.A., J.J. Dooley, P. Luckow, K.V. Calvin, and P. Kyle. 2014. "Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century." Applied Energy 114. PNNL-SA-94047. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.042
  • Wise M.A., K.V. Calvin, P. Kyle, P. Luckow, and J.A. Edmonds. 2014. "Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon." Climate Change Economics 5, no. 2:Article No. 14500. PNNL-SA-89885. doi:10.1142/S2010007814500031
  • Zhou Y., L.E. Clarke, J. Eom, P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and J.A. Dirks, et al. 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework." Applied Energy 113. PNNL-SA-94232. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.034


  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.

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