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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


William Gustafson

Earth System Measuremts & Data
Earth Scientist
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Gustafson’s research focuses on development and application of climate models with emphasis on cloud parameterization, aerosol-cloud interactions, regional downscaling of climate, and issues of scale within atmospheric models. In 2010 he was awarded a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career award to study scale adaptability of atmospheric model parameterizations, which is the primary focus of his current research. He has experience with the Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Recently, he has contributed substantially to the development of the chemistry version of the WRF model in order to advance the understanding of aerosol feedbacks to climate. He has also contributed substantially to developing the Aerosol Modeling Testbed, which is a software program for validating atmospheric models against observations. In addition to aerosol and cloud parameterization work, Dr. Gustafson has studied Tropical dynamics where he has focused on the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

Education and Credentials

  • 2003 Ph.D. Atmospheric Science University of California, Davis
  • 1993 A.B. Physics Occidental College, Los Angeles

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member American Geophysical Union
  • Member American Meteorological Society
  • Sigma Pi Sigma National Physics Honor Society

Awards and Recognitions

  • Recipient of 2010 DOE Early Career Research Program grant

PNNL Publications


  • Gaudet B.J., G. Garcia Medina, R. Krishnamurthy, L.M. Sheridan, Z. Yang, R.K. Newsom, and M.S. Pekour, et al. 2024. Assessing Impacts of Waves on Hub-Height Winds off the U.S. West Coast Using Lidar Buoys and Coupled Modeling Approaches. PNNL-35856. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Assessing Impacts of Waves on Hub-Height Winds off the U.S. West Coast Using Lidar Buoys and Coupled Modeling Approaches
  • Mei F., H. Wang, Z. Zhu, D. Zhang, Q. Zhang, J.D. Fast, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2024. "Bridging new observational capabilities and process-level simulation: Insights into aerosol roles in the Earth system." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 105, no. 3:E709-E724. PNNL-SA-189607. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-23-0110.1
  • Sheridan L.M., R. Krishnamurthy, W.I. Gustafson, Y. Liu, B.J. Gaudet, N. Bodini, and R.K. Newsom, et al. 2024. "Offshore Low-Level Jet Observations and Model Representation Using Lidar Buoy Data off the California Coast." Wind Energy Science 9, no. 3:741-758. PNNL-SA-192096. doi:10.5194/wes-2023-152


  • Krishnamurthy R., G. Garcia Medina, B.J. Gaudet, W.I. Gustafson, E.I. Kassianov, J. Liu, and R.K. Newsom, et al. 2023. "Year-long Buoy-Based Observations of the Air-Sea Transition Zone off the U.S. West Coast." Earth System Science Data 15, no. 12:5667-5699. PNNL-SA-182977. doi:10.5194/essd-15-5667-2023
  • Yang Z., A.C. Varble, L.K. Berg, Y. Qian, S. Tai, J. Chen, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2023. "Sensitivity of Precipitation Displacement of a Simulated MCS to Changes in Land Surface Conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128, no. 10:Art. No. e2022JD037642. PNNL-SA-176807. doi:10.1029/2022JD037642
  • Zhang D., A. Vogelmann, F. Yang, E. Luke, P. Kollias, Z. Wang, and P. Wu, et al. 2023. "Evaluation of Four Ground-based Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in Marine Stratocumulus with Aircraft In Situ Measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16, no. 23:5827-5846. PNNL-SA-186894. doi:10.5194/amt-16-5827-2023


  • Li X., H. Wang, J. Chen, S. Endo, G. George, B. Cairns, and S. Chellappan, et al. 2022. "Large-Eddy Simulations of Marine Boundary Layer Clouds Associated with Cold-Air Outbreaks during the ACTIVATE Campaign. Part I: Case Setup and Sensitivities to Large-Scale Forcings." Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 79, no. 1:73-100. PNNL-SA-162328. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-21-0123.1
  • Ovchinnikov M., J.D. Fast, L.K. Berg, W.I. Gustafson, J. Chen, K. Sakaguchi, and H. Xiao. 2022. "Effects of Horizontal Resolution, Domain Size, Boundary Conditions, and Surface Heterogeneity on Coarse LES of a Convective Boundary Layer." Monthly Weather Review 150, no. 6:1397-1415. PNNL-SA-156347. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-21-0244.1
  • Parajuli S., G. Stenchikov, A. Ukhov, S. Mostamandi, P. Kucera, D. Axisa, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2022. "Effect of dust on rainfall over the Red Sea coast based on WRF-Chem model simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 13:8659-8682. PNNL-SA-170694. doi:10.5194/acp-22-8659-2022
  • Sakaguchi K., L.K. Berg, J. Chen, J.D. Fast, R.K. Newsom, S. Tai, and Z. Yang, et al. 2022. "Determining Spatial Scales of Soil Moisture - Cloud Coupling Pathways using Semi-Idealized Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 127, no. 2:Art. No. e2021JD035282. PNNL-SA-162397. doi:10.1029/2021JD035282
  • Sheridan L.M., R. Krishnamurthy, G. Garcia Medina, B.J. Gaudet, W.I. Gustafson, A.M. Mahon, and W.J. Shaw, et al. 2022. "Offshore Reanalysis Wind Speed Assessment Across the Wind Turbine Rotor Layer off the United States Pacific Coast." Wind Energy Science 7, no. 5:2059-2084. PNNL-SA-169723. doi:10.5194/wes-7-2059-2022


  • Shin H., L. Xue, W. Li, G. Firl, D.F. D'Amico, D. Munoz-Esparza, and M. Ek, et al. 2021. "Large-scale forcing impact on the development of shallow convective clouds revealed from LASSO large-eddy simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 20:Art. No. e2021JD035208. PNNL-SA-161926. doi:10.1029/2021JD035208
  • Wang C., Y. Qian, Q. Duan, M. Huang, Z. Yang, L.K. Berg, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2021. "Quantifying physical parameterization uncertainties associated with land-atmosphere interactions in the WRF model over Amazon." Atmospheric Research 262. PNNL-SA-161024. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105761
  • Yang Z., M. Huang, L.K. Berg, Y. Qian, W.I. Gustafson, Y. Fang, and Y. Liu, et al. 2021. "Impact of Lateral Flow on Surface Water and Energy Budgets over the Southern Great Plains - A Modeling Study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 126, no. 12:e2020JD033659. PNNL-SA-157977. doi:10.1029/2020JD033659


  • Gustafson W.I., A.M. Vogelmann, Z. Li, X. Cheng, K. Dumas, S. Endo, and K. Johnson, et al. 2020. "The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) activity for continental shallow convection." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101, no. 4:E462-E479. PNNL-SA-147833. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0065.1
  • Qian Y., Z. Yang, Z. Feng, Y. Liu, W.I. Gustafson, L.K. Berg, and M. Huang, et al. 2020. "Neglecting Irrigation Contributes to the Simulated Summertime Warm-and-Dry Bias in the Central United States." npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 3. PNNL-SA-154322. doi:10.1038/s41612-020-00135-w
  • Tai S., J.D. Fast, W.I. Gustafson, D. Chand, B.J. Gaudet, Z. Feng, and R.K. Newsom. 2020. "Simulation of Continental Shallow Cumulus Populations using an Observation-Constrained Cloud-System Resolving Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12, no. 9:e2020MS002091. PNNL-SA-151559. doi:10.1029/2020MS002091
  • Yang Z., Y. Qian, Y. Liu, L.K. Berg, W.I. Gustafson, Z. Feng, and K. Sakaguchi, et al. 2020. "Understanding Irrigation Impacts on Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains." Climate Dynamics 55, no. 3-4:925-943. PNNL-SA-146743. doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05301-7


  • Endo S., D. Zhang, A.M. Vogelmann, P. Kollias, K. Lamer, M. Oue, and H. Xiao, et al. 2019. "Reconciling differences between large-eddy simulations and Doppler-lidar observations of continental shallow cumulus cloud-base vertical velocity." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 20:11,539-11,547. PNNL-SA-142534. doi:10.1029/2019GL084893
  • Feng Z., R.A. Houze, L. Leung, F. Song, J.C. Hardin, J. Wang, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2019. "Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Large-scale Environments of Mesoscale Convective Systems East of the Rocky Mountains." Journal of Climate 32, no. 21:7303-7328. PNNL-SA-141508. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0137.1
  • Lim K., L.D. Riihimaki, Y. Shi, D.M. Flynn, J. Kleiss, L.K. Berg, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2019. "Long-term retrievals of cloud type and fair-weather shallow cumulus events at the ARM SGP site." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 36, no. 10:2031-2043. PNNL-SA-146401. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0215.1
  • Lin G., J. Fan, Z. Feng, W.I. Gustafson, P. Ma, and K. Zhang. 2019. "Can the Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) simulate the MCS-associated precipitation over the Central United States?." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 11, no. 12:4669-4686. PNNL-SA-150185. doi:10.1029/2019MS001849
  • Yang Z., Y. Qian, Y. Liu, L.K. Berg, H. Hu, F. Dominguez, and B. Yang, et al. 2019. "Irrigation Impact on Water and Energy Cycle During Dry Years over the United States using Convection-permitting WRF and Dynamical Recycling Model." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 21:11220-11241. PNNL-SA-141462. doi:10.1029/2019JD030524


  • Angevine W.M., J.B. Olson, J. Kenyon, W.I. Gustafson, S. Endo, K. Suselj, and D. Turner. 2018. "Shallow cumulus in WRF parameterizations evaluated against LASSO large-eddy simulations." Monthly Weather Review 146, no. 12:4303-4322. PNNL-SA-132389. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0115.1
  • Ma H., S.A. Klein, S. Xie, C. Zhang, S. Tang, Q. Tang, and C.J. Morcrette, et al. 2018. "CAUSES: On the role of surface energy budget errors to the warm surface air temperature error over the Central United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, no. 5:2888-2909. PNNL-SA-126060. doi:10.1002/2017JD027194
  • Morcrette C.J., K. Van Weverberg, H. Ma, M. Ahlgrimm, E. Bazile, L.K. Berg, and A. Cheng, et al. 2018. "Introduction to CAUSES: Description of weather and climate models and their near-surface temperature errors in 5-day hindcasts near the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, no. 5:2655-2683. PNNL-SA-126058. doi:10.1002/2017JD027199
  • Van Weverberg K., C.J. Morcrette, J.C. Petch, S.A. Klein, H. Ma, C. Zhang, and S. Xie, et al. 2018. "CAUSES: Attribution of Surface Radiation Biases in NWP and Climate Models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123, no. 7:3612-3644. PNNL-SA-126059. doi:10.1002/2017JD027188


  • Yun Y., J. Fan, H. Xiao, G. Zhang, S.J. Ghan, K. Xu, and P. Ma, et al. 2017. "Assessing the Resolution Adaptability of the Zhang-McFarlane Cumulus Parameterization with Spatial and Temporal Averaging." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9, no. 7:2753-2770. PNNL-SA-125729. doi:10.1002/2017MS001035


  • Li Z., X. Cheng, W.I. Gustafson, and A.M. Vogelmann. 2016. "Spectral characteristics of background error covariance and multiscale data assimilation." International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 82, no. 12:1035-1048. PNNL-SA-115060. doi:10.1002/fld.4253
  • Oue M., P. Kollias, K. North, A. Tatarevic, S. Endo, A.M. Vogelmann, and W.I. Gustafson. 2016. "Estimation of cloud fraction profile in shallow convection using a scanning cloud radar." Geophysical Research Letters 43, no. 20:10,998-11,006. PNNL-SA-121120. doi:10.1002/2016GL070776


  • Chen Q., J. Fan, S.M. Hagos, W.I. Gustafson, and L.K. Berg. 2015. "Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels: Cloud System Organization and Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120, no. 13:6551-6574. PNNL-SA-98941. doi:10.1002/2015JD023253
  • Gustafson W.I., P. Ma, and B. Singh. 2015. "Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6, no. 4:1271-1287. PNNL-SA-101950. doi:10.1002/2014ms000334
  • Ma P., P.J. Rasch, M. Wang, H. Wang, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2015. "How Does Increasing Horizontal Resolution in a Global Climate Model Improve the Simulation of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions?." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 12:5058-5065. PNNL-SA-109623. doi:10.1002/2015GL064183
  • Martini M., W.I. Gustafson, T.A. O'Brien, and P. Ma. 2015. "Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 3:1351-1367. PNNL-SA-109622. doi:10.1002/2015MS000470
  • Wyant M.C., C.S. Bretherton, R. Wood, G. Carmichael, A.D. Clarke, A.D. Clarke, and J.D. Fast, et al. 2015. "Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: The VOCA Intercomparison." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 15, no. 1:153-172. PNNL-SA-98998. doi:10.5194/acp-15-153-2015
  • Xiao H., S. Endo, M. Wong, W. Skamarock, J.B. Klemp, J.D. Fast, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2015. "Modifications to WRF’s dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large--eddy simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 4:1627-1642. PNNL-SA-112067. doi:10.1002/2015MS000532
  • Xiao H., W.I. Gustafson, S.M. Hagos, C. Wu, and H. Wan. 2015. "Resolution-dependent behavior of subgrid-scale vertical transport in the Zhang-McFarlane convection parameterization." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7, no. 2:537-550. PNNL-SA-103534. doi:10.1002/2014MS000356


  • Hagos S.M., L. Leung, W.I. Gustafson, and B. Singh. 2014. "Eddy Fluxes and Sensitivity of the Water Cycle to Spatial Resolution in Idealized Regional Aquaplanet Model Simulations." Climate Dynamics 42, no. 3-4:931-940. PNNL-SA-90821. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1857-y
  • Ma P., P.J. Rasch, J.D. Fast, R.C. Easter, W.I. Gustafson, X. Liu, and S.J. Ghan, et al. 2014. "Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study." Geoscientific Model Development 7, no. 3:755-778. PNNL-SA-98517. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-755-2014
  • Martini M., W.I. Gustafson, Q. Yang, and H. Xiao. 2014. "Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 22:12,674-12,688. PNNL-SA-102353. doi:10.1002/2014JD021962
  • Xiao H., W.I. Gustafson, and H. Wang. 2014. "Impact of subgrid-scale radiative heating variability on the stratocumulus-to-trade cumulus transition in climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 7:4192-4203. PNNL-SA-98750. doi:10.1002/2013JD020999


  • Berg L.K., W.I. Gustafson, E.I. Kassianov, and L. Deng. 2013. "Evaluation of a Modified Scheme for Shallow Convection: Implementation of CuP and Case Studies." Monthly Weather Review 141, no. 1:134-147. PNNL-SA-87611. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00136.1
  • Gustafson W.I., P. Ma, H. Xiao, B. Singh, P.J. Rasch, and J.D. Fast. 2013. "The Separate Physics and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE) framework for determining resolution awareness: A case study of microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 16:9258-9276. PNNL-SA-92473. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50711
  • Ovchinnikov M., R.C. Easter, and W.I. Gustafson. 2013. "Untangling Dynamical and Microphysical Controls for the Structure of Stratocumulus." Geophysical Research Letters 40, no. 16:4432-4436. PNNL-SA-96521. doi:10.1002/grl.50810
  • Sego L.H., A. Marquez, A. Rawson, A. Rawson, T. Cader, K.M. Fox, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2013. "Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center." In Design Technologies for Green and Sustainable Computing Systems, edited by PP Pande, A Ganguly and K Chakrabarty. 93-116. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-91844.
  • Shrivastava M.B., L.K. Berg, J.D. Fast, R.C. Easter, A. Laskin, E.G. Chapman, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2013. "Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 3:1343-1360. PNNL-SA-88271.


  • Fast J.D., W.I. Gustafson, L.K. Berg, W.J. Shaw, M.S. Pekour, M.B. Shrivastava, and J.C. Barnard, et al. 2012. "Transport and Mixing Patterns over Central California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 4:1759-1783. PNNL-SA-83353. doi:10.5194/acp-12-1759-2012
  • Gustafson W.I., and S. Yu. 2012. "Generalized approach for using unbiased symmetric metrics with negative values: normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor." Atmospheric Science Letters 13, no. 4:262-267. PNNL-SA-88316. doi:10.1002/asl.393
  • Sego L.H., A. Marquez, A. Rawson, A. Rawson, T. Cader, K.M. Fox, and W.I. Gustafson, et al. 2012. "Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric." ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems 8, no. 4:Article No. 30. PNNL-SA-80653. doi:10.1145/2367736.2367741
  • Zaveri R.A., W.J. Shaw, D.J. Cziczo, B. Schmid, R. Ferrare, M.L. Alexander, and M. Alexandrov, et al. 2012. "Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12, no. 16:7647-7687. PNNL-SA-84648. doi:10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012


  • Fast J.D., W.I. Gustafson, E.G. Chapman, R.C. Easter, J.P. Rishel, R.A. Zaveri, and G. Grell, et al. 2011. "The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92, no. 3:343-360. PNNL-SA-70296. doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2868.1
  • Gustafson W.I., Y. Qian, and J.D. Fast. 2011. "Downscaling Aerosols and the Impact of Neglected Subgrid Processes on Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing for a Representative Global Climate Model Grid Spacing." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 116. PNNL-SA-76845. doi:10.1029/2010JD015480
  • Shrivastava M.B., J.D. Fast, R.C. Easter, W.I. Gustafson, R.A. Zaveri, J.L. Jimenez, and P. Saide, et al. 2011. "Modeling Organic Aerosols in a Megacity: Comparison of Simple and Complex Representations of the Volatility Basis Set Approach." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 13:6639-6662. PNNL-SA-75763. doi:10.5194/acp-11-6639-2011
  • Wang M., S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, M. Ovchinnikov, X. Liu, E.I. Kassianov, and Y. Qian, et al. 2011. "The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation." Geoscientific Model Development 4, no. 1:137-168. PNWD-SA-9245. doi:10.5194/gmd-4-137-2011
  • Yang Q., W.I. Gustafson, J.D. Fast, H. Wang, R.C. Easter, H. Morrison, and Y.N. Lee, et al. 2011. "Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 23:11951-11975. PNNL-SA-81515. doi:10.5194/acp-11-11951-2011
  • Yang Q., Y. Wang, C. Zhao, Z. Liu, W.I. Gustafson, and M. Shao. 2011. "NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games." Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 15:6404-6410. PNNL-SA-77855. doi:10.1021/es200675v


  • Grell G., J.D. Fast, W.I. Gustafson, S.E. Peckham, S.A. McKeen, M. Salzmann, and S. Freitas. 2010. "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." In Integrated Systems of Meso-Meteorological and Chemical Transport Models, edited by A Baklanov, A Mahura and R Sokhi. 41-54. Heidelberg:Springer-Verlag. PNNL-SA-67565.
  • Monier E., B.C. Weare, and W.I. Gustafson. 2010. "The Madden-Julian Oscillation Wind-Convection Coupling and the Role of Moisture Processes in the MM5 Model." Climate Dynamics 35, no. 2-3:435-447. PNNL-SA-63761. doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0626-4
  • Qian Y., W.I. Gustafson, and J.D. Fast. 2010. "An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10. PNNL-SA-70891. doi:10.5194/acp-10-6917-2010


  • Chapman E.G., W.I. Gustafson, R.C. Easter, J.C. Barnard, S.J. Ghan, M.S. Pekour, and J.D. Fast. 2009. "Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, no. 3:945-964. PNNL-SA-60549.
  • Ntelekos A.A., J.S. Smith, L.J. Donner, J.D. Fast, W.I. Gustafson, E.G. Chapman, and W.F. Krajewski. 2009. "The Effects of Aerosols on Intense Convective Precipitation in the Northeastern U.S." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 135, no. 643:1367-1391. PNNL-SA-60916. doi:10.1002/qj.476


  • Gustafson W.I., L.K. Berg, R.C. Easter, and S.J. Ghan. 2008. "The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant Hybrid Approach for Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Multiscale Modelling Framework Models: Tracer Transport Results." Environmental Research Letters 3, no. 2:Art. No. 025005. PNNL-SA-58748. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/025005


  • Gustafson W.I., E.G. Chapman, S.J. Ghan, R.C. Easter, and J.D. Fast. 2007. "Impact on Modeled Cloud Characteristics Due to Simplified Treatment of Uniform Cloud Condensation Nuclei During NEAQS 2004." Geophysical Research Letters 34, no. 19:L19809. PNNL-SA-54354. doi:10.1029/2007GL030021


  • Berg L.K., E.I. Kassianov, C.N. Long, and W.I. Gustafson. 2006. "A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability." In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, March 27-31, 2006, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Washington, District Of Columbia:US Department of Energy. PNNL-SA-50875.
  • Fast J.D., W.I. Gustafson, R.C. Easter, R.A. Zaveri, J.C. Barnard, E.G. Chapman, and G. Grell, et al. 2006. "Evolution of Ozone, Particulates, and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in the Vicinity of Houston Using a Fully Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry-Aerosol Model." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111, no. D21:D21305. PNNL-SA-46870. doi:10.1029/2005JD006721


  • Gustafson W.I., E.G. Chapman, and J.D. Fast. 2005. "Effect of Clouds on Sulfate Production and Aerosol Optical Depths in Western Pennsylvania During August 2004." In American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, December 5-9, 2005, San Francisco, California. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Geophysical Union. PNNL-SA-46723.
  • Gustafson W.I., J.D. Fast, R.C. Easter, and S.J. Ghan. 2005. "Triumphs and Tribulations of WRF-Chem Development and Use." In 2005 Joint WRF/MM5 User's Workshop, June 27-30, 2005, Boulder, Colorado, Paper No. 8.4. Boulder, Colorado:National Center for Atmospheric Research. PNNL-SA-45508.
  • Zhang Y., X. Hu, G. Howell, E.D. Sills, J.D. Fast, W.I. Gustafson, and R.A. Zaveri, et al. 2005. "Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols in WRF/Chem." In 2005 Joint WRF/MM5 User's Workshop, June 27-30, 2005, Boulder, Colorado. Boulder, Colorado:National Center for Atmospheric Research. PNNL-SA-45539.


  • Gustafson W.I., and B.C. Weare. 2004. "MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Implications of 30-70-Day Boundary Effects on MJO Development." Journal of Climate 17, no. 6:1338-1351. PNNL-SA-43278.
  • Gustafson W.I., and B.C. Weare. 2004. "MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Model Description and Control Run Results." Journal of Climate 17, no. 6:1320-1337. PNNL-SA-43279.

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