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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Steven Smith

Steven J. Smith

Integrated Modeling & Energy


Steven Smith's research focuses on long-term socioeconomic scenarios and the interface between socioeconomic systems and the climate system. Dr. Smith's research interests include aerosols, non-CO2 greenhouse gases, the carbon cycle, biomass energy, energy technologies, and land-use changes. His recent research concerns the role of non-CO2 forcing agents in policy scenarios, including sulfate aerosols, black carbon, and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Model development efforts include implementing in the MiniCAM framework emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols (sulfur-dioxide and carbonaceous aerosols). At the Joint Global Change Research Institute, Smith is part of the team that has developed ObjECTS, a new object-oriented modeling framework.

Prior to joining PNNL in 1999, Dr. Smith worked with Dr. T.M.L. Wigley as a project scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. He also has served on the Panel on Public Affairs of the American Physical Society, as well as on the Executive Committee of the APS Forum on Physics and Society.

For further information and a full list of publications:

Research Interests

  • aerosols
  • Non-CO2 greenhouse gases
  • Carbon cycle
  • Biomass energy
  • Renewable energy; Energy efficiency
  • Land-use changes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of California, Los Angeles

PNNL Publications


  • Pinto de Moura MC, SJ Smith, and DB Belzer. 2015. "120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space." PLoS One 10(8):Article No. e0134135.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135
  • Campbell E, M Whelan, U Seibt, SJ Smith, J Berry, and TW Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42(8):3004-3010.  doi:10.1002/2015GL063445
  • Campbell JE, M Whelan, U Seibt, SJ Smith, JA Berry, and TW Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42(8):3004-3010.  doi:10.1002/2015GL063445


  • Smith SJ, and TC Bond. 2014. "Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(2):537-549.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-537-2014
  • Smith SJ, TM Wigley, M Meinshausen, and J Rogelj. 2014. "Questions of bias in climate models." Nature Climate Change 4:741-742.  doi:10.1038/nclimate2345
  • Blanco AS, R Gerlagh, S Suh, JA Barrett, H de Coninck, CF Diaz Morejon, R Mathur, N Nakicenovic, AO Ahenkorah, J Pan, H Pathak, J Rice, RG Richels, SJ Smith, D Stern, FL Toth, and P Zhou. 2014. "Drivers, Trends and Mitigation." In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. O Edenhofer, et al, pp. 351-411.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Rose SK, RG Richels, SJ Smith, K Riahi, J Stefler, and D Van Vuuren. 2014. "Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios." Climatic Change 123(3-4):511-525.  doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0955-5


  • Smith SJ, and AJ Rothwell. 2013. "Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions." BioScience 10(10):6323-6337.  doi:10.5194/bg-10-6323-2013
  • Chaturvedi V, SH Kim, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, Y Zhou, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2013. "Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model." Energy 61:479-490.  doi:10.1016/
  • Klimont Z, SJ Smith, and J Cofala. 2013. "The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions." Environmental Research Letters 8(1):Article No. 014003.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014003
  • Smith SJ, and AH Mizrahi. 2013. "Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(35):14202-14206.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1308470110
  • West J, SJ Smith, R Silva, V Naik, Y Zhang, Z Adelman, MM Fry, SC Anenberg, L Horowitz, and JF Lamarque. 2013. "Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health." Nature Climate Change 3(10):885-889.  doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2009
  • Zhou Y, and SJ Smith. 2013. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution." Environmental Research Letters 8(3):Article No. 034029.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034029


  • Frost GJ, S Falke, C Granier, T Keating, JF Lamarque, M Melamed, P Middleton, G Petron, and SJ Smith. 2012. "New Directions: Toward a community emissions approach." Atmospheric Environment 51:333-334.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.055
  • Zhou Y, P Luckow, SJ Smith, and LE Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46(14):7857-7864.  doi:10.1021/es204706m


  • Smith SJ, J West, and GP Kyle. 2011. "Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions." Climatic Change 108(3):619-627.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0219-1
  • Lamarque JF, GP Kyle, M Meinshausen, K Riahi, SJ Smith, D Van Vuuren, A Conley, and F Vitt. 2011. "Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways." Climatic Change 109(1-2):191-212.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0155-0
  • Meinshausen M, SJ Smith, KV Calvin, JS Daniel, M Kainuma, JF Lamarque, K Matsumoto, S Montzka, S Raper, K Riahi, AM Thomson, GJM Velders, and D Van Vuuren. 2011. "The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300." Climatic Change 109(1-2):213-241.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z
  • Smith SJ, AH Mizrahi, JF Karas, and M Nathan. 2011. US Renewable Futures in the GCAMPNNL-20823, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Streets DG, J van Aardenne, B Battye, S Garivait, D Grano, A Guenther, Z Klimont, JF Lamarque, Z Lu, G Maenhout, T Ohara, DJ Parrish, SJ Smith, and H Vallack. 2011. "Emission Inventories and Projections." Chapter 3 in Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010 Part A: Ozone and Particulate Matter. Air Pollution Studies No. 17, ed. F Dentener, T Keating and H Akimoto, pp. 77-133.  UNECE Information Service, Geneva, Switzerland. 
  • Van Vuuren D, L Bouwman, SJ Smith, and F Dentener. 2011. "Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3(5):359-369.  doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.08.014


  • Lamarque JF, TC Bond, V Eyring, C Granier, A Heil, Z Klimont, DS Lee, C Liousse, A Mieville, B Owen, M Schultz, D Shindell, SJ Smith, E Stehfest, J van Aardenne, O Cooper, M Kainuma, N Mahowald, JR McConnell, V Naik, K Riahi, and D Van Vuuren. 2010. "Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(15):7017-7039.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010
  • Zhang Y, SJ Smith, GP Kyle, and PW Stackhouse, Jr.. 2010. "Modeling The Potential For Thermal Concentrating Solar Power Technologies ." Energy Policy 38(12):7884-7897.  doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.008








  • Smith SJ. 2003. "The Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Indices--an Editorial Comment." Climatic Change 58(3):261-265. 




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