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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


Steven J. Smith

Integrat Analys & Dec Sci Team


Steven Smith's research focuses on long-term socioeconomic scenarios and the interface between socioeconomic systems and the climate system. Dr. Smith's research interests include aerosols, non-CO2 greenhouse gases, the carbon cycle, biomass energy, energy technologies, and land-use changes. His recent research concerns the role of non-CO2 forcing agents in policy scenarios, including sulfate aerosols, black carbon, and non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Model development efforts include implementing in the MiniCAM framework emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols (sulfur-dioxide and carbonaceous aerosols). At the Joint Global Change Research Institute, Smith is part of the team that has developed ObjECTS, a new object-oriented modeling framework.

Prior to joining PNNL in 1999, Dr. Smith worked with Dr. T.M.L. Wigley as a project scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. He also has served on the Panel on Public Affairs of the American Physical Society, as well as on the Executive Committee of the APS Forum on Physics and Society.

For further information and a full list of publications:

Research Interests

  • aerosols
  • Non-CO2 greenhouse gases
  • Carbon cycle
  • Biomass energy
  • Renewable energy; Energy efficiency
  • Land-use changes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of California, Los Angeles

PNNL Publications


  • Yang Y, H Wang, SJ Smith, R Zhang, S Lou, Y Qian, PL Ma, and PJ Rasch. 2018. "Recent intensification of winter haze in China linked to foreign emissions and meteorology." Scientific Reports 8:Article No. 2107.  doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20437-7
  • Yang Y, H Wang, SJ Smith, RC Easter, Jr, and PJ Rasch. 2018. "Sulfate aerosol in the Arctic: source attribution and direct radiative forcing." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 123(3):1899-1918.  doi:10.1002/2017JD027298
  • Hoesly RM, SJ Smith, L Feng, Z Klimont, G Janssens-Maenhout, TT Pitkanen, JJ Seibert, LD Vu, RJ Andres, RM Bolt, TC Bond, L Dawidowski, N Kholod, JI Kurokawa, M Li, L Liu, Z Lu, MC Pinto De Moura, P O'Rourke, and Q Zhang. 2018. "Historical (1750 – 2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emission Data System (CEDS)." Geoscientific Model Development 11(1):369-408.  doi:10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018
  • Markandya A, J Sampedro, SJ Smith, R van Dingenen, C Pizarro-Irizar, Iñ Arto, and M Gonzalez-Eguino. 2018. "Health Co-Benefits from Air Pollution and Mitigation Costs of the Paris Agreement: A Modelling Study." The Lancet Planetary Health 2(3):e126-e133.  doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30029-9
  • Ou Y, W Shi, SJ Smith, CM Ledna, JJ West, CG Nolte, and DH Loughlin. 2018. "Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution." Applied Energy 216:482–493.  doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.122


  • Muratori M, SJ Smith, GP Kyle, RP Link, BK Mignone, and H Kheshgi. 2017. "Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios." Environmental Science & Technology 51(6):3526–3533.  doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04515
  • Shi W, Y Ou, SJ Smith, CM Ledna, CG Nolte, and DH Loughlin. 2017. "Projecting state-level air pollutant emissions using an integrated assessment model: GCAM-USA." Applied Energy 208:511-521.  doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.122
  • Yang Y, H Wang, SJ Smith, PL Ma, and PJ Rasch. 2017. "Source attribution of black carbon and its direct radiative forcing in China." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(6):4319-4336.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-4319-2017
  • Yang Y, H Wang, SJ Smith, RC Easter, Jr, PL Ma, Y Qian, H Yu, C Li, and PJ Rasch. 2017. "Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17(14):8903-8922.  doi:10.5194/acp-17-8903-2017
  • Calvin KV, B Bond-Lamberty, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, J Eom, CA Hartin, SH Kim, GP Kyle, RP Link, RH Moss, HC McJeon, PL Patel, SJ Smith, ST Waldhoff, and MA Wise. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42:284-296.  doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Campbell JE, J Berry, U Seibt, SJ Smith, S Montzka, T Launois, S Belviso, L Bopp, and M Laine. 2017. "Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production." Nature 544(7648):84–87.  doi:10.1038/nature22030
  • Campbell JE, JA Berry, U Seibt, SJ Smith, S Montzka, T Launois, S Belviso, L Bopp, and M Laine. 2017. "Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production." Nature 544(7648):84–87.  doi:10.1038/nature22030
  • Collins W, JF Lamarque, M Schulz, O Boucher, V Eyring, MI Hegglin, A Maycock, G Myhre, M Prather, DT Shindell, and SJ Smith. 2017. "AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10(2):585-607.  doi:10.5194/gmd-10-585-2017
  • Evans M, N Kholod, T Kuklinski, A Denysenko, SJ Smith, AJ Staniszewski, WM Hao, L Liu, and TC Bond. 2017. "Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review." Atmospheric Environment 163:9–21.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.026
  • Irvine P, BS Kravitz, MG Lawrence, D Gerten , C Caminade, S Gosling, , E Hendy , B Kassie , DW Kissling , H Muri, A Oschlies, and SJ Smith. 2017. "Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering." Earths Future 5(1):93–106.  doi:10.1002/2016EF000389
  • Rao S, Z Klimont, SJ Smith, R van Dingenen, F Dentener, L Bouwman, K Riahi, M Amann, B Bodirsky, D Van Vuuren, L Reis, KV Calvin, L Drouet, O Fricko, S Fujimori, D Gernaat, P Havlik, M Harmsen, T Hasegawa, C Heyes, J Hilaire, G Luderer, T Masui, E Stehfest, J Strefler, S van der Sluis, and M Tavoni. 2017. "Future Air Pollution in the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways." Global Environmental Change 42:346-358.  doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.012
  • Riahi K, D Van Vuuren, E Kriegler, JA Edmonds, B O'Neill, S Fujimori, N Bauer, KV Calvin, R Dellink, O Fricko, W Lutz, A Popp, J Crespo Cuaresma, S Kc, M Leimbach, L Jiang, T Kram, S Rao, J Emmerling, K Ebi, T Hasegawa, P Havlik, F Humpenoder, L Da Silva, SJ Smith, E Stehfest, V Bosetti, J Eom, D Gernaat, T Masui, J Rogelj, J Strefler, L Drouet, V Krey, G Luderer, M Harmsen, K Takahashi, L Baumstark, J Doelman, M Kainuma, Z Klimont, G Marangoni, H Lotze-Campen, M Obersteiner, A Tabeau, and M Tavoni. 2017. "The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their Energy, Land Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Implications: An Overview." Global Environmental Change 42:153–168.  doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.009
  • Stevens B, S Fiedler, S Kinne, K Peters, S Rast, J Musse, SJ Smith, and T Mauritsen. 2017. "MACv2-SP: A parameterization of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect for use in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10(1):433-452.  doi:10.5194/gmd-10-433-2017
  • Zhang Y, SJ Smith, JH Bowden, Z Adelman, and J West. 2017. "Co-benefits of global, domestic, and sectoral greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality and human health in 2050." Environmental Research Letters 12(11):Article No. 114033.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8f76
  • Zumkehr A, TW Hilton, M Whelan, SJ Smith, and E Campbell. 2017. "Gridded anthropogenic emissions inventory and atmospheric transport of carbonyl sulfide in the U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 122(4):2169-2178.  doi:10.1002/2016JD025550


  • Smith SJ, S Rao, K Riahi, D van Vuuren, KV Calvin, and GP Kyle. 2016. "Future Aerosol Emissions: A Multi-Model Comparison." Climatic Change 138(1):13–24.  doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1733-y
  • Wobus C, M Flanner, M Sarofim, MC Pinto de Moura, and SJ Smith. 2016. "Future Arctic Temperature Change resulting from a Range of Aerosol Emissions Scenarios." Earths Future 4(6):270-281.  doi:10.1002/2016EF000361
  • Zhang Y, JH Bowden, Z Adelman, V Naik, L Horowitz, SJ Smith, and J West. 2016. "Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(15):9533-9548.  doi:10.5194/acp-16-9533-2016


  • Pinto de Moura MC, SJ Smith, and DB Belzer. 2015. "120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space." PLoS One 10(8):Article No. e0134135.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135
  • Smith SJ, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, J Kejun, E Kriegler, T Masui, K Riahi, PR Shukla, M Tavoni, D Van Vuuren, and J Weyant. 2015. "Long History of IAM Comparisons." Nature Climate Change 5(5):391.  doi:10.1038/nclimate2576
  • Smith SJ, Y Zhou, GP Kyle, H Wang, and H Yu. 2015. "A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions." In 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference: Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions, April 13-16, 2015, San Diego, California.  US EPA, Washington, DC. 
  • Campbell E, M Whelan, U Seibt, SJ Smith, J Berry, and TW Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42(8):3004-3010.  doi:10.1002/2015GL063445
  • Campbell JE, M Whelan, U Seibt, SJ Smith, JA Berry, and TW Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42(8):3004–3010.  doi:10.1002/2015GL063445
  • Liu L, TS Hwang, S Lee, Y Ouyang, B Lee, SJ Smith, F Yan, K Daenzer, and TC Bond. 2015. "Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050." Environmental Science & Technology 49(19):11569–11576.  doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01187
  • Smith SJ, JA Edmonds, CA Hartin, A Mundra, and KV Calvin. 2015. "Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change." Nature Climate Change 5(4):333-336.  doi:10.1038/nclimate2552
  • Zhou Y, MI Hejazi, SJ Smith, JA Edmonds, H Li, LE Clarke, KV Calvin, and AM Thomson. 2015. "A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity." Energy and Environmental Science 8(9):2622-2633.  doi:10.1039/c5ee00888c
  • Zhou Y, SJ Smith, K Zhao, ML Imhoff, AM Thomson, B Bond-Lamberty, GR Asrar, X Zhang, C He, and C Elvidge. 2015. "A global map of urban extent from nightlights." Environmental Research Letters 10(5):Article No. 054011.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054011


  • Smith SJ, and TC Bond. 2014. "Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(2):537-549.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-537-2014
  • Smith SJ, TM Wigley, M Meinshausen, and J Rogelj. 2014. "Questions of bias in climate models." Nature Climate Change 4:741-742.  doi:10.1038/nclimate2345
  • Blanco AS, R Gerlagh, S Suh, JA Barrett, H de Coninck, CF Diaz Morejon, R Mathur, N Nakicenovic, AO Ahenkorah, J Pan, H Pathak, J Rice, RG Richels, SJ Smith, D Stern, FL Toth, and P Zhou. 2014. "Drivers, Trends and Mitigation." In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. O Edenhofer, et al, pp. 351-411.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Rose SK, RG Richels, SJ Smith, K Riahi, J Stefler, and D Van Vuuren. 2014. "Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios." Climatic Change 123(3-4):511-525.  doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0955-5
  • Zhou Y, SJ Smith, C Elvidge, K Zhao, AM Thomson, and ML Imhoff. 2014. "A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights." Remote Sensing of Environment 147:173-185.  doi:10.1016/j.rse.2014.03.004


  • Smith SJ, and AJ Rothwell. 2013. "Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions." BioScience 10(10):6323-6337.  doi:10.5194/bg-10-6323-2013
  • Smith SJ, and PJ Rasch. 2013. "The Long-Term Policy Context for Solar Radiation Management." Climatic Change 121(3):487-497.  doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0577-3
  • Chaturvedi V, SH Kim, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, Y Zhou, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2013. "Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model." Energy 61:479-490.  doi:10.1016/
  • Ghan SJ, SJ Smith, M Wang, K Zhang, KJ Pringle, KS Carslaw, J Pierce, SE Bauer, and PJ Adams. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(12):6688–6707.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Klimont Z, SJ Smith, and J Cofala. 2013. "The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions." Environmental Research Letters 8(1):Article No. 014003.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014003
  • Kyle GP, E Davies, JJ Dooley, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, and MI Hejazi. 2013. "Corrigendum to "Influence of climate change mitigation technology on global demands of water for electricity generation"." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 17:549-552.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.017
  • Kyle GP, E Davies, JJ Dooley, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, and MI Hejazi. 2013. "Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 13:112–123.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.006
  • Smith SJ, and AH Mizrahi. 2013. "Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(35):14202-14206.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1308470110
  • Smith SJ, JF Karas, JA Edmonds, J Eom, and AH Mizrahi. 2013. "Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics." Climatic Change 117(4):663-675.  doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0565-7
  • West J, SJ Smith, R Silva, V Naik, Y Zhang, Z Adelman, MM Fry, SC Anenberg, L Horowitz, and JF Lamarque. 2013. "Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health." Nature Climate Change 3(10):885-889.  doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2009
  • Zhou Y, and SJ Smith. 2013. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution." Environmental Research Letters 8(3):Article No. 034029.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034029


  • Smith SJ. 2012. "The Long-Term Market Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems." Chapter 14 in Concentrating Solar Power Technology: Principles, Developments and Applications. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy, vol. 21, ed. K Lovegrove and W Stein, pp. 437-465.  Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Frost GJ, S Falke, C Granier, T Keating, JF Lamarque, M Melamed, P Middleton, G Petron, and SJ Smith. 2012. "New Directions: Toward a community emissions approach." Atmospheric Environment 51:333–334.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.055
  • Zhou Y, P Luckow, SJ Smith, and LE Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46(14):7857-7864.  doi:10.1021/es204706m


  • Smith SJ, J West, and GP Kyle. 2011. "Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions." Climatic Change 108(3):619-627.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0219-1
  • Granier C, B Bessagnet, TC Bond, A D'Angiola, H Denier van der Gon, GJ Frost, A Heil, JW Kaiser, S Kinne, Z Klimont, J Kloster, JF Lamarque, C Liousse, T Masui, F Meleux, A Mieville, T Ohara, JC Raut, K Riahi, M Schultz, SJ Smith, AM Thomson, J van Aardenne, GR van der Werf, and D Van Vuuren. 2011. "Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period." Climatic Change 109(1-2):163-190.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0154-1
  • Hurtt G, LP Chini, S Frolking, R Betts, J Feddema, GM Fischer, JP Fisk, KA Hibbard, RA Houghton, AC Janetos, C Jones, G Kindermann, T Kinoshita, KK Goldeweijk, K Riahi, E Shevliakova, SJ Smith, E Stehfest, AM Thomson, P Thornton, D Van Vuuren, and Y Wang. 2011. "Harmonization of Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100: 600 Years of Global Gridded Annual Land-Use Transitions, Wood Harvest, and Resulting Secondary Lands." Climatic Change 109(1-2):117-161.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, SJ Smith, SH Kim, M Nathan, and MA Wise. 2011. "The Value of Advanced End-Use Energy Technologies in Meeting U.S. Climate Policy Goals." The Energy Journal 32(Special Issue):Article No. 5. 
  • Lamarque JF, GP Kyle, M Meinshausen, K Riahi, SJ Smith, D Van Vuuren, A Conley, and F Vitt. 2011. "Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways." Climatic Change 109(1-2):191-212.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0155-0
  • Meinshausen M, SJ Smith, KV Calvin, JS Daniel, M Kainuma, JF Lamarque, K Matsumoto, S Montzka, S Raper, K Riahi, AM Thomson, GJM Velders, and D Van Vuuren. 2011. "The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300." Climatic Change 109(1-2):213-241.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z
  • Smith SJ, AH Mizrahi, JF Karas, and M Nathan. 2011. US Renewable Futures in the GCAMPNNL-20823, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Smith SJ, J van Aardenne, Z Klimont, R Andres, AC Volke, and S Delgado Arias. 2011. "Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(3):1101-1116.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-1101-2011
  • Streets DG, J van Aardenne, B Battye, S Garivait, D Grano, A Guenther, Z Klimont, JF Lamarque, Z Lu, G Maenhout, T Ohara, DJ Parrish, SJ Smith, and H Vallack. 2011. "Emission Inventories and Projections." Chapter 3 in Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010 Part A: Ozone and Particulate Matter. Air Pollution Studies No. 17, ed. F Dentener, T Keating and H Akimoto, pp. 77-133.  UNECE Information Service, Geneva, Switzerland. 
  • Thomson AM, KV Calvin, SJ Smith, GP Kyle, AC Volke, PL Patel, S Delgado Arias, B Bond-Lamberty, MA Wise, LE Clarke, and JA Edmonds. 2011. "RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100." Climatic Change 109(1-2):77-94.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4
  • Van Vuuren D, JA Edmonds, M Kainuma, K Riahi, AM Thomson, KA Hibbard, G Hurtt, T Kram, V Krey, JF Lamarque, T Masui, M Meinhausen, N Nakicenovic, SJ Smith, and SK Rose. 2011. "The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview." Climatic Change 109(1-2):5-31.  doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z
  • Van Vuuren D, L Bouwman, SJ Smith, and F Dentener. 2011. "Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3(5):359–369.  doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.08.014


  • Gregg JS, and SJ Smith. 2010. "Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(3):241-262.  doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9215-4
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, F Rong, and SJ Smith. 2010. "Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector." The Energy Journal Vol. 31(2):145-172. 
  • Lamarque JF, TC Bond, V Eyring, C Granier, A Heil, Z Klimont, DS Lee, C Liousse, A Mieville, B Owen, M Schultz, D Shindell, SJ Smith, E Stehfest, J van Aardenne, O Cooper, M Kainuma, N Mahowald, JR McConnell, V Naik, K Riahi, and D Van Vuuren. 2010. "Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(15):7017-7039.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010
  • Manning M, JA Edmonds, S Emori, A Grubler, KA Hibbard, F Joos, M Kainuma, R Keeling, T Kram, A Manning, M Meinhausen, RH Moss, N Nakicenovic, K Riahi, SK Rose, SJ Smith, R Swart, and D Van Vuuren. 2010. "Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios ." Nature Geoscience 3(6):376-377. 
  • Moss RH, JA Edmonds, K Hibbard, M Manning, SK Rose, D Van Vuuren, T Carter, S Emori, M Kainuma, T Kram, G Meehl, J Mitchell, N Nakicenovic, K Riahi, SJ Smith, R Stouffer, AM Thomson, J Weyant, and T Wilbanks. 2010. "The Next Generation of Scenarios for Climate Change Research and Assessment." Nature 463(7282):747-756.  doi:10.1038/nature08823
  • Smith SJ, AC Volke, and S Delgado Arias. 2010. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM ModelPNNL-18829, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Van Vuuren D, SJ Smith, and K Riahi. 2010. "Downscaling socioeconomic and emissions scenarios for global environmental change research:a review." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change 1:393-404.  doi:10.1002/wcc.50
  • Van Vuuren D, JA Edmonds, SJ Smith, KV Calvin, JF Karas, M Kainuma, N Nakicenovic, K Riahi, B van Ruijven, R Swart, and AM Thomson. 2010. "What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?" Climatic Change 103(3-4):635-642.  doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9940-4
  • Zhang Y, SJ Smith, GP Kyle, and PW Stackhouse, Jr.. 2010. "Modeling The Potential For Thermal Concentrating Solar Power Technologies ." Energy Policy 38(12):7884-7897.  doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.09.008


  • Calvin KV, JA Edmonds, B Bond-Lamberty, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, SJ Smith, AM Thomson, and MA Wise. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31(2):S107-S120. 
  • Hannam P, GP Kyle, and SJ Smith. 2009. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0PNNL-19231, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Hurtt G, LP Chini, S Frolking, R Betts, J Feddema, G Fischer, KK Goldeweijk, K Hibbard, AC Janetos, C Jones, G Kindermann, T Kinoshita, K Riahi, E Shevliakova, SJ Smith, E Stehfest, AM Thomson, P Thornton, D van Vuuren, and Y Wang. 2009. "Harmonisation of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5." iLEAPS Newsletter 7:6-8. 
  • Rosenberg NJ, and SJ Smith. 2009. "A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains ." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1(2):121-132. 
  • Wigley TM, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, HD Jacoby, S Paltsev, HM Pitcher, JM Reilly, RG Richels, MC Sarofim, and SJ Smith. 2009. "Uncertainties in climate stabilization." Journal of Climate 97(1-2):85-121 . 
  • Wise MA, KV Calvin, AM Thomson, LE Clarke, B Bond-Lamberty, RD Sands, SJ Smith, AC Janetos, and JA Edmonds. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324(5931):1183-1186 . 


  • Thomson AM, RC Izaurralde, SJ Smith, and LE Clarke. 2008. "Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration." Global Environmental Change. Part A, Human and Policy Dimensions 18(1):192-203. 
  • Edmonds JA, LE Clarke, MA Wise, HM Pitcher, and SJ Smith. 2008. "Implications for the USA of stabilization of radiative forcing at 3.4 W/m2 ." Climate Policy 8:S76 - S92. 
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, and SJ Smith. 2008. "The Value of Advanced Technologies in the U.S. Buildings Sector in Climate Change Mitigation." In Scaling Up: Building Tomorrow's Solutions : Proceedings from the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, p. 267.  ACEEE, Washington DC. 
  • Van Vuuren D, M Meinshausen, GK Plattner, F Joos, KM Strassmann, SJ Smith, TM Wigley, S Raper, K Riahi, F De La Chesnaye, M Den Elzen, J Fujino, J Kejun, N Nakicenovic, S Paltsev, and JM Reilly. 2008. "Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(40):15258-15262.  doi:10.1073/pnas.0711129105
  • Zhang Y, and SJ Smith. 2008. "An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential." In Proceedings of the Solar Conference: Solar 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, ed. R Campbell-Howe, pp. 714-740.  American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO. 



  • Smith SJ, and JA Edmonds. 2006. "The Economic Implications of Carbon Cycle Uncertainty." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 58(5):586-590.  doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00217.x
  • Smith SJ, and TM Wigley. 2006. "Multi-Gas Forcing Stabilization with the MiniCAM." The Energy Journal (Special Issue):373-391. 
  • Clarke LE, MA Wise, M Placet, RC Izaurralde, JP Lurz, SH Kim, SJ Smith, and AM Thomson. 2006. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology ScenariosPNNL-16078, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Edmonds JA, and SJ Smith. 2006. "The Technology of Two Degrees." In Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, pp. 385-392.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Kim SH, JA Edmonds, J Lurz, SJ Smith, and MA Wise. 2006. "The ObjECTS: Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation." The Energy Journal (Special Issue No. 2 2006):63. 


  • Smith SJ, HM Pitcher, and TM Wigley. 2005. "Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions." Climatic Change 73(3):267-318. 
  • Smith SJ. 2005. "Income and Pollutant Emissions in the ObjECTS MiniCAM Model." Journal of Environment and Development 14(1):175–196. 
  • Kheshgi H, SJ Smith, and JA Edmonds. 2005. "Emissions and Atmospheric CO2 Stabilization: Long-Term Limits and Paths." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10(2):213–220. 
  • Smith SJ, AM Thomson, NJ Rosenberg, RCC Izaurralde, RA Brown, JR, and TM Wigley. 2005. "Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 1. Scenarios and Context." Climatic Change 69(1):7-25.  doi:10.1007/s10584-005-3614-7


  • Smith SJ, R Andres, E Conception , and J Lurz. 2004. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and ResultsPNNL-14537, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Edmonds JA, JF Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, and SJ Smith. 2004. "Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change." Energy 29(9-10 (Special Issue)):1529-1536 . 
  • Edmonds JA, JF Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, and SJ Smith. 2004. "Stabilization of CO2 in a B2 World: Insights on The Roles of Carbon Capture and Disposal, Hydrogen, and Transportation Technologies." Energy Economics 26(4):517-537. 
  • Massie ST, O Torres, and SJ Smith. 2004. " Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109(D18211):1 of 14.  doi:10.1029/2004JD004620


  • Smith SJ, TC Bond, TM Wigley, F de la Chesnaye, and HM Pitcher. 2003. "The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols in Climate Mitigation." In Proceedings of the 3d International Methane & Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Conference, 17-21 November 2003.  publisher unknown, Beijing, China. 
  • Smith SJ. 2003. "The Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Indices--an Editorial Comment." Climatic Change 58(3):261-265. 
  • Brenkert AL, SJ Smith, SH Kim, and HM Pitcher. 2003. Model Documentation for the MiniCAMPNNL-14337, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Mahasenan N, MJ Scott, and SJ Smith. 2002. "The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation." In International conference on greenhouse gas technologies, vol. 2, ed. J Gale and Y Kaya, pp. 1177-1182.  Pergamon, Oxford, United Kingdom. 
  • Wigley TM, SJ Smith, and M Prather. 2002. "Radiative Forcing due to Reactive Gas Emissions." Journal of Climate 15(18):2690-2696. 


  • Smith SJ. 2001. "Past and Future Climate Forcing." Physics and Society 30(4):none. 
  • Cubasch U, G Meehl , GJ Boer, R Stouffer, M Dix, A Noda, CA Senior, S Raper, KS Yap, A Abe-Ouchi, S Brinkop, M Claussen, M Collins, J Evans, I Fischer-Bruns, G Flato, JC Fyfe, A Ganopolski, JM Gregory, ZZ Hu, F Joos, T Knutson, R Knutti, C Landsea, LO Mearns, C Milly, JF Mitchell, T Nozawa, H Paeth, J Raisanen, R Sausen, SJ Smith, T Stocker, A Timmermann, U Ulbrich, A Weaver, J Wegner, P Whetton, TM Wigley, M Winton, F Zwiers, JW Kim, and J Stone. 2001. "Projections of Future Climate Change ." Chapter 9 in Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, ed. J.T. Houghton, et al, pp. 525-582.  Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 
  • Ehhalt D, M Prather, F Dentener, R Derwent, EJ Dlugokencky, E Holland, I Isaksen, J Katima, V Kirchhoff, P Matson, P Midgley, M Wang, T Berntsen, I Bey, G Brasseur, L Buja, WJ Collins, JS Daniel, WB DeMore, N Derek, R Dickerson, D Etheridge, J Feichter, P Fraser, R Friedl, J Fuglestvedt, M Gauss, L Grenfell, A Grubler, N Harris, D Hauglustaine, L Horowitz, C Jackman, D Jacob, L Jaegle, AK Jain, M Kanakidou, S Karlsdottir, M Ko, M Kurylo, M Lawrence, JA Logan, M Manning, D Mauzerall, J McConnell, LJ Mickley, S Montzka, JF Muller, J Olivier, K Pickering, G Pitari, GJ Roelofs, H Rogers, B Rognerud, SJ Smith, S Solomon, J Staehelin, P Steele, DS Stevenson, J Sundet, A Thompson, M van Weele, R von Kuhlmann, Y Wang, DK Weisenstein, TM Wigley, O Wild, DJ Wuebbles, R Yantosca, F Joos, and M McFarland. 2001. "Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases ." Chapter 4 in Climate Change 2001:Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, ed. Houghton, J. T. et al, pp. 239-288.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Ramaswamy V, O Boucher, J Haigh, D Hauglustaine, J Haywood, G Myhre, T Nakajima, G Shi, S Solomon, RE Betts, R Charlson, CC Chuang, JS Daniel, AD Del Genio, J Feichter, J Fuglestvedt, PM Forster, SJ Ghan, A Jones, JT Kiehl, D Koch, C Land, J Lean, U Lohmann, K Minschwaner, JE Penner, DL Roberts, H Rodhe, GJ Roelofs, LD Rotstayn, TL Schneider, U Schumann, SE Schwartz, MD Schwartzkopf, KP Shine, SJ Smith, DS Stevenson, F Stordal, I Tegen, R van Dorland, Y Zhang, J Srinivasan, and F Joos. 2001. "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change ." Chapter 6 in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, ed. Houghton, J. T. et al.  Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 


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