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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


Steven J. Smith

Joint Global Chg Research Inst
Earth Scientist


Smith’s research has focused on long-term socioeconomic scenarios, the interface between socioeconomic systems and the climate system, and the interactions between air pollution and climate. Smith is principal investigator of the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) project that produces global historical air pollutant emissions over the industrial era (1750-present). Smith also works with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), which he and collaborators are currently using to examine multi-sector interactions between the energy system and air-pollutant emissions from global to regional scales.

Prior to joining PNNL in 1999, Dr. Smith worked with Dr. T.M.L. Wigley as a project scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research and was a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios.

Research Interests

  • Aerosols
  • Emissions
  • Non-CO2 greenhouse gases
  • Carbon cycle
  • Biomass energy
  • Renewable energy; Energy efficiency
  • Land-use changes

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Physics, University of California Los Angeles
  • M.S., Electrical Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana
  • B.S., Electrical Engineering, West Virginia Institute of Technology

PNNL Publications


  • Fei L., Z. Tao, S. Beirle, J. Joiner, Y. Yoshida, S.J. Smith, and K.E. Knowland, et al. 2022. "A new method for inferring city emissions and lifetimes of nitrogen oxides from high-resolution nitrogen dioxide observations: A model study." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 2:1333-1349. PNNL-SA-166725. doi:10.5194/acp-22-1333-2022


  • Charles M.M., Z. Khan, S. Yu, S.J. Smith, T.C. Douville, J.S. Homer, and T.D. Hardy, et al. 2021. Electrification of Pakistan's Transport System: Modeling Electric Vehicle Penetration and Energy Supply Chain Impacts. PNNL-31757. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Electrification of Pakistan's Transport System: Modeling Electric Vehicle Penetration and Energy Supply Chain Impacts
  • Dorheim K.R., S.J. Smith, and B. Bond-Lamberty. 2021. "HIRM v1.0: a hybrid impulse response model for climate modeling and uncertainty analyses." Geoscientific Model Development 14, no. 1:365-375. PNNL-SA-151049. doi:10.5194/gmd-14-365-2021
  • Goldberg D., S.C. Anenberg, Z. Lu, D.G. Streets, L.N. Lamsal, E.E. Mcduffie, and S.J. Smith. 2021. "Urban NOx emissions around the world declined faster than anticipated between 2005 and 2019." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 11:Art. No. 115004. PNNL-SA-167181. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac2c34
  • Mcduffie E.E., R.V. Martin, J. Spadaro, R. Burnett, S.J. Smith, P. O'Rourke, and M. Hammer, et al. 2021. "Source sector and fuel contributions to ambient PM2.5 and attributable mortality across multiple spatial scales." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:3594. PNNL-SA-158393. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23853-y
  • Minx J., W.F. Lamb, R. Andrew, J.G. Canadell, M. Crippa, N. Dobbeling, and P. Forster, et al. 2021. "A comprehensive and synthetic dataset for global, regional and national greenhouse gas emissions by sector 1970-2018, with an extension to 2019." Earth System Science Data 13, no. 11:52135252. PNNL-SA-166102. doi:10.5194/essd-13-5213-2021
  • Nicholls Z., M. Meinshausen, J. Lewis, M. Rojas Corradi, K.R. Dorheim, T. Gasser, and R. Gieseke, et al. 2021. "Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2: Synthesising Earth system knowledge for probabilistic climate projections." Earth's Future 9, no. 6:e2020EF001900. PNNL-SA-157937. doi:10.1029/2020EF001900
  • Ou Y., C.W. Roney, J. Alsalam, K.V. Calvin, J. Creason, J.A. Edmonds, and A.A. Fawcett, et al. 2021. "Deep mitigation of CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gases toward 1.5°C and 2°C futures." Nature Communications 12, no. 1:Art. No. 6245. PNNL-SA-158423. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26509-z
  • Ou Y., N. Kittner, S. Babaee, S.J. Smith, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2021. "Evaluating long-term emission impacts of large-scale electric vehicle deployment in the US using a human-Earth systems model." Applied Energy 300. PNNL-SA-156329. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117364
  • Smith S.J. 2021. "Cleaning cars, grid and air." Nature Energy 6, no. 1:19-20. PNNL-SA-157736. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-00769-3
  • Zhang Y., S.J. Smith, M. Bell, A. Mueller, M. Eckelman, S. Wylie, and E. Sweet, et al. 2021. "Pollution Inequality 50 years after the Clean Air Act: the Need for Hyperlocal Data and Action." Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 7:071001. PNNL-SA-160452. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac09b1


  • Feng L., S.J. Smith, C.J. Braun, M. Crippa, M. Gidden, R.M. Hoesly, and K. Zbigniew, et al. 2020. "The generation of gridded emissions data for CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 13, no. 2:461482. PNNL-SA-145300. doi:10.5194/gmd-13-461-2020
  • Harmsen M., D. Van Vuuren, B. Bodirsky, J. Chateau, O. Durand-Lasserve, L. Drouet, and O. Fricko, et al. 2020. "The role of methane in future climate strategies: Mitigation potentials and climate impacts." Climatic Change 163, no. 3:1409-1425. PNNL-SA-131904. doi:10.1007/s10584-019-02437-2
  • Harmsen M., O. Fricko, J. Hilaire, D. Van Vuuren, L. Drouet, O. Durand-Lasserve, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2020. "Taking some heat off the NDCs? The limited potential of additional short-lived climate forcers’ mitigation." Climatic Change 163, no. 3:1443-1461. PNNL-SA-132235. doi:10.1007/s10584-019-02436-3
  • Meinshausen M., Z. Nicholls, J. Lewis, M. Gidden, E. Vogel, M. Freund, and U. Beyerle, et al. 2020. "The shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions to 2500." Geoscientific Model Development 13, no. 8:35713605. PNNL-SA-155570. doi:10.5194/gmd-13-3571-2020
  • Nicholls Z., M. Meinshausen, J. Lewis, R. Gieseke, D. Dommenget, K.R. Dorheim, and C. Fan, et al. 2020. "Reduced complexity model intercomparison project phase 1: introduction and evaluation of global-mean temperature response." Geoscientific Model Development 13, no. 11:51755190. PNNL-SA-150377. doi:10.5194/gmd-13-5175-2020
  • Ou Y., J.J. West, S.J. Smith, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2020. "Air pollution control strategies directly limiting national health damages in the US." Nature Communications 11, no. 1:957. PNNL-SA-148416. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14783-2
  • Sampedro Martinez de Estivariz J., R. Cui, H.C. McJeon, S.J. Smith, N. Hultman, L. He, and A. Sen, et al. 2020. "Quantifying the reductions in mortality from air-pollution by cancelling new coal power plants." Energy and Climate Change 2. PNNL-ACT-SA-10477. doi:10.1016/j.egycc.2020.100023
  • Sampedro Martinez de Estivariz J., S.J. Smith, I. Arto, M. Gonzalez-Eguino, A. Markandya, K.M. Mulvaney, and C. Pizarro-Irizar, et al. 2020. "Health co-benefits and mitigation costs as per the Paris Agreement under different technological pathways for energy supply." Environment International 136. PNNL-ACT-SA-10474. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105513
  • Saunois M., A.R. Stavert, B. Poulter, P. Bousquet, J.G. Canadell, R.B. Jackson, and P.A. Raymond, et al. 2020. "The Global Methane Budget 20002017." Earth System Science Data 12, no. 3:15611623. PNNL-SA-149722. doi:10.5194/essd-12-1561-2020
  • Smith S.J., J. Chateau, K.R. Dorheim, L. Drouet, O. Durand-Lasserve, O. Fricko, and S. Fujimori, et al. 2020. "Impact of Methane and Black Carbon Mitigation on Forcing and Temperature: A Multi-Model Scenario Analysis." Climatic Change 163. PNNL-SA-149757. doi:10.1007/s10584-020-02794-3
  • Smith S.J., Z. Klimont, L. Drouet, M. Harmsen, G. Luderer, K. Riahi, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2020. "The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF)-30 Study on Short-Lived Climate Forcers: Introduction and Overview." Climatic Change 163, no. 3:13991408. PNNL-SA-157391. doi:10.1007/s10584-020-02938-5
  • Yu H., Y. Yang, H. Wang, Q. Tan, M. Chin, R. Levy, and L.A. Remer, et al. 2020. "Interannual Variability and Trends of Combustion Aerosol and Dust in Major Continental Outflows Revealed by MODIS Retrievals and CAM5 Simulations During 2003 2017." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 1:139-161. PNNL-SA-147334. doi:10.5194/acp-20-139-2020


  • Bond-Lamberty B., K.R. Dorheim, Y. Cui, R.L. Horowitz, A.C. Snyder, K.V. Calvin, and L. Feng, et al. 2019. "gcamdata: An R Package for Preparation, Synthesis, and Tracking of Input Data for the GCAM Integrated Human-Earth Systems Model." Journal of Open Research Software 7, no. 1:Article No. 6. PNNL-SA-135553. doi:10.5334/jors.232
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, G.R. Asrar, B. Bond-Lamberty, R. Cui, and A. Di Vittorio, et al. 2019. "GCAM v5.1: Representing the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 2:677-698. PNNL-SA-137098. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-677-2019
  • Fiedler S., B. Stevens, M. Gidden, S.J. Smith, K. Riahi, and D. Van Vuuren. 2019. "First forcing estimates from the future CMIP6 scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 3:9891007. PNNL-SA-139734. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-989-2019
  • Gidden M., K. Riahi, S.J. Smith, S. Fujimori, G. Luderer, E. Kriegler, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2019. "Global emissions pathways under different socioeconomic scenarios for use in CMIP6: a dataset of harmonized emissions trajectories through the end of the century." Geoscientific Model Development 12, no. 4:14431475. PNNL-SA-139873. doi:10.5194/gmd-12-1443-2019
  • Liu L., T. Hwang, S. Lee, Y. Ouyang, B. Lee, S.J. Smith, and C.W. Tessum, et al. 2019. "Health and climate impacts of future United States land freight modelled with global-to-urban models." Nature Sustainability 2, no. 2:105112. PNWD-SA-10564. doi:10.1038/s41893-019-0224-3
  • Lou S., Y. Yang, H. Wang, J. Lu, S.J. Smith, F. Liu, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Black carbon increases frequency of extreme ENSO events." Journal of Climate 32, no. 23:8323-8333. PNNL-SA-141442. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0549.1
  • Lou S., Y. Yang, H. Wang, S.J. Smith, Y. Qian, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Black carbon amplifies haze over the North China Plain by weakening the East Asian winter monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters 46, no. 1:452-460. PNNL-SA-140350. doi:10.1029/2018GL080941
  • Ou Y., S.J. Smith, J.J. West, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2019. "State-level drivers of future fine particulate matter mortality in the United States." Environmental Research Letters 14, no. 12:Article No. 124071. PNNL-SA-142343. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab59cb
  • Schwarber A., S.J. Smith, C.A. Hartin, B.A. Vega-Westhoff, and R. Sriver. 2019. "Evaluating Climate Emulation: Fundamental Impulse Testing of Simple Climate Models." Earth System Dynamics 10, no. 4:729739. PNNL-SA-136394. doi:10.5194/esd-10-729-2019
  • Turnock S., S.J. Smith, and F. O'Connor. 2019. "The Impact of Climate Mitigation Measures on Near Term Climate Forcers." Environmental Research Letters 14, no. 10:Article Number 104013. PNNL-ACT-SA-10411. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab4222
  • Yang Y., S.J. Smith, H. Wang, C.M. Mills, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Variability, Timescales, and Non-linearity in Climate Responses to Black Carbon Emissions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, no. 4:2405-2420. PNNL-SA-136621. doi:10.5194/acp-19-2405-2019
  • Yang Y., S.J. Smith, H. Wang, S. Lou, and P.J. Rasch. 2019. "Impact of anthropogenic emission injection height uncertainty on global sulfur dioxide and aerosol distribution." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124, no. 8:4812-4826. PNNL-SA-137329. doi:10.1029/2018JD030001


  • Gidden M., S. Fujimori, M.S. Van Den Berg, D. Klein, S.J. Smith, D. Van Vuuren, and K. Riahi. 2018. "A Methodology and Implementation of Automated Emissions Harmonization for Use in Integrated Assessment Models." Environmental Modelling & Software 105. PNNL-SA-129400. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.04.002
  • Hoesly R.M., and S.J. Smith. 2018. "Informing energy consumption uncertainty: an analysis of energy data revisions." Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 12:124023. PNNL-SA-136517. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aaebc3
  • Hoesly R.M., S.J. Smith, L. Feng, Z. Klimont, G. Janssens-Maenhout, T.T. Pitkanen, and J.J. Seibert, et al. 2018. "Historical (1750 2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emission Data System (CEDS)." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 1:369-408. PNNL-SA-123932. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-369-2018
  • Markandya A., J. Sampedro, S.J. Smith, R. van Dingenen, C. Pizarro-Irizar, I. Arto, and M. Gonzalez-Eguino. 2018. "Health Co-Benefits from Air Pollution and Mitigation Costs of the Paris Agreement: A Modelling Study." The Lancet Planetary Health 2, no. 3:e126-e133. PNNL-SA-132141. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30029-9
  • Ou Y., W. Shi, S.J. Smith, C.M. Ledna, J.J. West, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2018. "Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution." Applied Energy 216. PNNL-SA-132500. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.122
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, R. Zhang, S. Lou, H. Yu, and C. Li, et al. 2018. "Source apportionments of aerosols and their direct radiative forcing and long-term trends over continental United States." Earth's Future 6, no. 6:793-808. PNNL-SA-129873. doi:10.1029/2018EF000859
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, R. Zhang, S. Lou, Y. Qian, and P. Ma, et al. 2018. "Recent intensification of winter haze in China linked to foreign emissions and meteorology." Scientific Reports 8, no. 1:Article No. 2107. PNNL-SA-128267. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20437-7
  • Zhou Y., X. Li, G.R. Asrar, S.J. Smith, and M. Imhoff. 2018. "A global record of annual urban dynamics (1992-2013) from nighttime lights." Remote Sensing of Environment 219. PNNL-SA-129683. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2018.10.015


  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Campbell J.E., J. Berry, U. Seibt, S.J. Smith, S. Montzka, T. Launois, and S. Belviso, et al. 2017. "Large historical growth in global terrestrial gross primary production." Nature 544, no. 7648:8487. PNNL-SA-115736. doi:10.1038/nature22030
  • Collins W., J. Lamarque, M. Schulz, O. Boucher, V. Eyring, M.I. Hegglin, and A. Maycock, et al. 2017. "AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 2:585-607. PNNL-SA-121058. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-585-2017
  • Evans M., N. Kholod, T. Kuklinski, A. Denysenko, S.J. Smith, A.J. Staniszewski, and W. Hao, et al. 2017. "Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review." Atmospheric Environment 163. PNNL-SA-120649. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.026
  • Irvine P., B.S. Kravitz, M.G. Lawrence, D. Gerten, C. Caminade, S. Gosling,, and E. Hendy, et al. 2017. "Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering." Earth's Future 5, no. 1:93106. PNNL-SA-115412. doi:10.1002/2016EF000389
  • Muratori M., S.J. Smith, P. Kyle, R.P. Link, B.K. Mignone, and H. Kheshgi. 2017. "Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios." Environmental Science & Technology 51, no. 6:35263533. PNNL-ACT-SA-10153. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04515
  • Rao S., Z. Klimont, S.J. Smith, R. van Dingenen, F. Dentener, L. Bouwman, and K. Riahi, et al. 2017. "Future Air Pollution in the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-116149. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.012
  • Riahi K., D. Van Vuuren, E. Kriegler, J.A. Edmonds, B. O'Neill, S. Fujimori, and N. Bauer, et al. 2017. "The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways and their Energy, Land Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Implications: An Overview." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115333. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.05.009
  • Shi W., Y. Ou, S.J. Smith, C.M. Ledna, C.G. Nolte, and D.H. Loughlin. 2017. "Projecting state-level air pollutant emissions using an integrated assessment model: GCAM-USA." Applied Energy 208. PNNL-SA-126417. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.122
  • Stevens B., S. Fiedler, S. Kinne, K. Peters, S. Rast, J. Musse, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2017. "MACv2-SP: A parameterization of anthropogenic aerosol optical properties and an associated Twomey effect for use in CMIP6." Geoscientific Model Development 10, no. 1:433-452. PNNL-SA-119691. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-433-2017
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, P. Ma, and P.J. Rasch. 2017. "Source attribution of black carbon and its direct radiative forcing in China." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 6:4319-4336. PNNL-SA-122611. doi:10.5194/acp-17-4319-2017
  • Yang Y., H. Wang, S.J. Smith, R.C. Easter, P. Ma, Y. Qian, and H. Yu, et al. 2017. "Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17, no. 14:8903-8922. PNNL-SA-125012. doi:10.5194/acp-17-8903-2017
  • Zhang Y., S.J. Smith, J.H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, and J. West. 2017. "Co-benefits of global, domestic, and sectoral greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality and human health in 2050." Environmental Research Letters 12, no. 11:Article No. 114033. PNNL-SA-125810. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8f76
  • Zumkehr A., T.W. Hilton, M. Whelan, S.J. Smith, and E. Campbell. 2017. "Gridded anthropogenic emissions inventory and atmospheric transport of carbonyl sulfide in the U.S." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122, no. 4:2169-2178. PNNL-SA-125015. doi:10.1002/2016JD025550


  • Smith S.J., S. Rao, K. Riahi, D. van Vuuren, K.V. Calvin, and P. Kyle. 2016. "Future Aerosol Emissions: A Multi-Model Comparison." Climatic Change 138, no. 1:1324. PNNL-SA-97434. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1733-y
  • Wobus C., M. Flanner, M. Sarofim, M.C. Pinto de Moura, and S.J. Smith. 2016. "Future Arctic Temperature Change resulting from a Range of Aerosol Emissions Scenarios." Earth's Future 4, no. 6:270-281. PNNL-SA-118327. doi:10.1002/2016EF000361
  • Zhang Y., J.H. Bowden, Z. Adelman, V. Naik, L. Horowitz, S.J. Smith, and J. West. 2016. "Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16, no. 15:9533-9548. PNNL-SA-121099. doi:10.5194/acp-16-9533-2016


  • Campbell J., M. Whelan, U. Seibt, S.J. Smith, J. Berry, and T.W. Hilton. 2015. "Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints." Geophysical Research Letters 42, no. 8:30043010. PNNL-SA-83003. doi:10.1002/2015GL063445
  • Liu L., T. Hwang, S. Lee, Y. Ouyang, B. Lee, S.J. Smith, and F. Yan, et al. 2015. "Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050." Environmental Science & Technology 49, no. 19:1156911576. PNWD-SA-10447. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01187
  • Pinto de Moura M.C., S.J. Smith, and D.B. Belzer. 2015. "120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space." PLoS One 10, no. 8:Article No. e0134135. PNNL-SA-104984. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134135
  • Smith S.J., J.A. Edmonds, C.A. Hartin, A. Mundra, and K.V. Calvin. 2015. "Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 4:333-336. PNNL-SA-93187. doi:10.1038/nclimate2552
  • Smith S.J., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Kejun, E. Kriegler, T. Masui, and K. Riahi, et al. 2015. "Long History of IAM Comparisons." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 5:391. PNNL-SA-108156. doi:10.1038/nclimate2576
  • Smith S.J., Y. Zhou, P. Kyle, H. Wang, and H. Yu. 2015. "A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions." In 2015 International Emission Inventory Conference: Air Quality Challenges: Tackling the Changing Face of Emissions, April 13-16, 2015, San Diego, California. Washington, District Of Columbia:US EPA. PNNL-SA-109670.
  • Zhou Y., M.I. Hejazi, S.J. Smith, J.A. Edmonds, H. Li, L.E. Clarke, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity." Energy and Environmental Science 8, no. 9:2622-2633. PNNL-SA-109269. doi:10.1039/c5ee00888c
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, K. Zhao, M.L. Imhoff, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, and G.R. Asrar, et al. 2015. "A global map of urban extent from nightlights." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 5:Article No. 054011. PNNL-SA-107842. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054011


  • Blanco A.S., R. Gerlagh, S. Suh, J.A. Barrett, H. de Coninck, C. Diaz Morejon, and R. Mathur, et al. 2014. "Drivers, Trends and Mitigation." In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O Edenhofer, et al. 351-411. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-102563.
  • Rose S.K., R.G. Richels, S.J. Smith, K. Riahi, J. Stefler, and D. Van Vuuren. 2014. "Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:511-525. PNNL-SA-93432. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0955-5
  • Smith S.J., and T.C. Bond. 2014. "Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14, no. 2:537-549. PNNL-SA-82771. doi:10.5194/acp-14-537-2014
  • Smith S.J., T.M. Wigley, M. Meinshausen, and J. Rogelj. 2014. "Questions of bias in climate models." Nature Climate Change 4. PNNL-SA-101590. doi:10.1038/nclimate2345
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, C. Elvidge, K. Zhao, A.M. Thomson, and M.L. Imhoff. 2014. "A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights." Remote Sensing of Environment 147. PNNL-SA-99060. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2014.03.004


  • Ghan S.J., S.J. Smith, M. Wang, K. Zhang, K.J. Pringle, K.S. Carslaw, and J. Pierce, et al. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118, no. 12:66886707. PNNL-SA-93538. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Klimont Z., S.J. Smith, and J. Cofala. 2013. "The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 014003. PNNL-SA-89939. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014003
  • Smith S.J., and A.H. Mizrahi. 2013. "Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, no. 35:14202-14206. PNNL-SA-95938. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308470110
  • Smith S.J., and A.J. Rothwell. 2013. "Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions." BioScience 10, no. 10:6323-6337. PNNL-SA-93356. doi:10.5194/bg-10-6323-2013
  • Smith S.J., and P.J. Rasch. 2013. "The Long-Term Policy Context for Solar Radiation Management." Climatic Change 121, no. 3:487-497. PNWD-SA-9460. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0577-3
  • Smith S.J., J.F. Karas, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, and A.H. Mizrahi. 2013. "Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics." Climatic Change 117, no. 4:663-675. PNNL-SA-81588. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0565-7
  • West J., S.J. Smith, R. Silva, V. Naik, Y. Zhang, Z. Adelman, and M.M. Fry, et al. 2013. "Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health." Nature Climate Change 3, no. 10:885-889. PNNL-SA-93184. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2009
  • Zhou Y., and S.J. Smith. 2013. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 3:Article No. 034029. PNNL-SA-92908. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034029


  • Frost G.J., S. Falke, C. Granier, T. Keating, J. Lamarque, M. Melamed, and P. Middleton, et al. 2012. "New Directions: Toward a community emissions approach." Atmospheric Environment 51. PNNL-SA-84747. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.055
  • Smith S.J. 2012. "The Long-Term Market Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Systems." In Concentrating Solar Power Technology: Principles, Developments and Applications. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy, edited by K Lovegrove and W Stein. 437-465. Cambridge:Woodhead Publishing Limited. PNNL-SA-71229.
  • Zhou Y., P. Luckow, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 14:7857-7864. PNNL-SA-84749. doi:10.1021/es204706m


  • Granier C., B. Bessagnet, T.C. Bond, A. D'Angiola, H. Denier van der Gon, G.J. Frost, and A. Heil, et al. 2011. "Evolution of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of air pollutants at global and regional scales during the 1980-2010 period." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:163-190. PNNL-SA-76975. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0154-1
  • Hurtt G., L. Chini, L. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feddema, and G.M. Fischer, et al. 2011. "Harmonization of Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100: 600 Years of Global Gridded Annual Land-Use Transitions, Wood Harvest, and Resulting Secondary Lands." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:117-161. PNNL-SA-75360. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2
  • Meinshausen M., S.J. Smith, K.V. Calvin, J.S. Daniel, M. Kainuma, J. Lamarque, and K. Matsumoto, et al. 2011. "The RCP Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and their Extensions from 1765 to 2300." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:213-241. PNNL-SA-74869. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z
  • Smith S.J., A.H. Mizrahi, J.F. Karas, and M. Nathan. 2011. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM. PNNL-20823. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM
  • Smith S.J., J. van Aardenne, Z. Klimont, R. Andres, A.C. Volke, and S. Delgado Arias. 2011. "Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 3:1101-1116. PNNL-SA-72901. doi:10.5194/acp-11-1101-2011
  • Streets D.G., J. van Aardenne, B. Battye, S. Garivait, D. Grano, A. Guenther, and Z. Klimont, et al. 2011. "Emission Inventories and Projections." In Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution 2010 Part A: Ozone and Particulate Matter. Air Pollution Studies No. 17, edited by F Dentener, T Keating and H Akimoto. 77-133. Geneva:UNECE Information Service. PNNL-SA-79659.
  • Van Vuuren D., J.A. Edmonds, M. Kainuma, K. Riahi, A.M. Thomson, K.A. Hibbard, and G. Hurtt, et al. 2011. "The Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:5-31. PNNL-SA-79134. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z
  • Van Vuuren D., L. Bouwman, S.J. Smith, and F. Dentener. 2011. "Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 3, no. 5:359369. PNNL-SA-79731. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.08.014


  • Gregg J.S., J.S. Gregg, and S.J. Smith. 2010. "Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15, no. 3:241-262. PNNL-SA-67426. doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9215-4
  • Lamarque J.F., T.C. Bond, V. Eyring, C. Granier, A. Heil, Z. Klimont, and D.S. Lee, et al. 2010. "Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, no. 15:7017-7039. PNNL-SA-70483. doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010
  • Manning M., J.A. Edmonds, S. Emori, A. Grubler, K.A. Hibbard, F. Joos, and M. Kainuma, et al. 2010. "Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios." Nature Geoscience 3, no. 6:376-377. PNNL-SA-70040.
  • Moss R.H., J.A. Edmonds, K. Hibbard, K. Hibbard, M. Manning, S.K. Rose, and D. Van Vuuren, et al. 2010. "The Next Generation of Scenarios for Climate Change Research and Assessment." Nature 463, no. 7282:747-756. PNNL-SA-70018. doi:10.1038/nature08823
  • Smith S.J., A.C. Volke, and S. Delgado Arias. 2010. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model. PNNL-18829. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Enhancement of Solar Energy Representation in the GCAM Model
  • Van Vuuren D., J.A. Edmonds, S.J. Smith, K.V. Calvin, J.F. Karas, M. Kainuma, and N. Nakicenovic, et al. 2010. "What do near-term observations tell us about long-term developments in greenhouse gas emissions?." Climatic Change 103, no. 3-4:635-642. PNNL-SA-74743. doi:10.1007/s10584-010-9940-4
  • Van Vuuren D., S.J. Smith, and K. Riahi. 2010. "Downscaling socioeconomic and emissions scenarios for global environmental change research:a review." Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change 1. PNNL-SA-67511. doi:10.1002/wcc.50


  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.
  • Hurtt G., L. Chini, L. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feddema, and G. Fischer, et al. 2009. "Harmonisation of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5." iLEAPS Newsletter 7. PNNL-SA-65162.
  • Rosenberg N.J., and S.J. Smith. 2009. "A Sustainable Biomass Industry for the North American Great Plains." Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1, no. 2:121-132. PNNL-SA-68167.
  • Wigley T.M., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.D. Jacoby, H.D. Jacoby, S. Paltsev, and H.M. Pitcher, et al. 2009. "Uncertainties in climate stabilization." Journal of Climate 97, no. 1-2:85-121. PNNL-SA-55498.
  • Wise M.A., K.V. Calvin, A.M. Thomson, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R.D. Sands, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324, no. 5931:1183-1186. PNNL-SA-63505.


  • Edmonds J.A., L.E. Clarke, M.A. Wise, H.M. Pitcher, and S.J. Smith. 2008. "Implications for the USA of stabilization of radiative forcing at 3.4 W/m2." Climate Policy 8. PNNL-SA-57662.
  • Thomson A.M., R. Izaurralde, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2008. "Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration." Global Environmental Change. Part A, Human and Policy Dimensions 18, no. 1:192-203. PNNL-SA-53033.
  • Van Vuuren D., M. Meinshausen, G. Plattner, F. Joos, K.M. Strassmann, S.J. Smith, and T.M. Wigley, et al. 2008. "Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 40:15258-15262. PNNL-SA-54204. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711129105
  • Zhang Y., and S.J. Smith. 2008. "An Evolutionary Path for Concentrating Thermal Solar Power Technologies: A New Approach for Modeling CSP Power Costs and Potential." In Proceedings of the Solar Conference: Solar 2008: Catch the Clean Energy Wave, edited by R Campbell-Howe, 714-740. Boulder, Colorado:American Solar Energy Society. PNNL-SA-57474.


  • Berglen T., G. Myhre, I. Isaksen, V. Vestreng, and S.J. Smith. 2007. "Sulphur trends in Europe; Are we able to model the recent observed decrease?." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 59, no. 4:773-786. PNNL-SA-48213. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00289.x
  • Edmonds J.A., M.A. Wise, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, P.J. Runci, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2007. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program. College Park, Maryland:Battetlle Memorial Institute. PNNL-SA-51712.
  • Gillingham K., S.J. Smith, and R.D. Sands. 2007. "Impact of Bioenergy Crops in a Carbon Dioxide Constrained World: An Application of the MiniCAM Energy-Agriculture and Land Use Model." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13, no. 7:675-701. PNNL-SA-42094. doi:10.1007/s11027-007-9122-5
  • Rong F., L.E. Clarke, and S.J. Smith. 2007. Climate Change and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector. PNNL-16869. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Climate Change and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector
  • Wise M.A., P. Sinha, S.J. Smith, and J.P. Lurz. 2007. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions. PNNL-17149. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions
  • Zhang Y., and S.J. Smith. 2007. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies. PNNL-16727. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies


  • Edmonds J.A., and S.J. Smith. 2006. "The Technology of Two Degrees." In Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change. 385-392. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-45609.
  • Smith S.J., and J.A. Edmonds. 2006. "The Economic Implications of Carbon Cycle Uncertainty." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 58, no. 5:586-590. PNWD-SA-7242. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00217.x
  • Smith S.J., and T.M. Wigley. 2006. "Multi-Gas Forcing Stabilization with the MiniCAM." The Energy Journal. PNNL-SA-42552.


  • Kheshgi H., S.J. Smith, and J.A. Edmonds. 2005. "Emissions and Atmospheric CO2 Stabilization: Long-Term Limits and Paths." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10, no. 2:213220. PNNL-SA-38439.
  • Smith S.J. 2005. "Income and Pollutant Emissions in the ObjECTS MiniCAM Model." Journal of Environment and Development 14, no. 1:175196. PNNL-SA-42829.
  • Smith S.J., A.M. Thomson, N.J. Rosenberg, R.C. Izaurralde, R.A. Brown, and T.M. Wigley. 2005. "Climate Change Impacts for the Conterminous USA: An Integrated Assessment Part 1. Scenarios and Context." Climatic Change 69, no. 1:7-25. PNNL-SA-36360. doi:10.1007/s10584-005-3614-7
  • Smith S.J., H.M. Pitcher, and T.M. Wigley. 2005. "Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions." Climatic Change 73, no. 3:267-318. PNNL-SA-37915.


  • Massie S.T., O. Torres, and S.J. Smith. 2004. "Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) observations of increases in Asian aerosol in winter from 1979 to 2000." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109, no. D18211:1 of 14. PNNL-SA-41776. doi:10.1029/2004JD004620
  • Smith S.J., R. Andres, E. Conception, and J. Lurz. 2004. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results. PNNL-14537. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results


  • Smith S.J. 2003. "The Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Indices--an Editorial Comment." Climatic Change 58, no. 3:261-265. PNNL-SA-37663.
  • Smith S.J., T.C. Bond, T.M. Wigley, F. de la Chesnaye, and H.M. Pitcher. 2003. "The Role of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols in Climate Mitigation." In Proceedings of the 3d International Methane & Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Conference, 17-21 November 2003. Beijing:publisher unknown. PNNL-SA-39641.


  • Mahasenan N., M.J. Scott, and S.J. Smith. 2002. "The Effect of Emissions Trading And Carbon Sequestration on The Cost Of CO2 Emissions Mitigation." In International conference on greenhouse gas technologies, edited by J Gale and Y Kaya, 2, 1177-1182. Oxford:Pergamon. PNNL-SA-36903.
  • Wigley T.M., S.J. Smith, and M. Prather. 2002. "Radiative Forcing due to Reactive Gas Emissions." Journal of Climate 15, no. 18:2690-2696. PNNL-SA-36106.


  • Cubasch U., G. Meehl, G.J. Boer, R. Stouffer, M. Dix, M. Dix, and A. Noda, et al. 2001. "Projections of Future Climate Change." In Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, edited by J.T. Houghton, et al. 525-582. New York, New York:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39649. Projections of Future Climate Change
  • Ehhalt D., M. Prather, F. Dentener, R. Derwent, E.J. Dlugokencky, E. Holland, and I. Isaksen, et al. 2001. "Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases." In Climate Change 2001:Working Group I: The Scientific Basis, edited by Houghton, J. T. et al. 239-288. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39647. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases
  • Ramaswamy V., O. Boucher, J. Haigh, D. Hauglustaine, J. Haywood, G. Myhre, and T. Nakajima, et al. 2001. "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change." In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by Houghton, J. T. et al. New York, New York:Cambridge University Press. PNNL-SA-39648. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change
  • Smith S.J. 2001. "Past and Future Climate Forcing." Physics and Society 30, no. 4:none. PNNL-SA-34724.


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