Joint Global Change Research Institute
Dr. Leon Clarke is a Senior Research Economist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and he is a staff member of the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), a collaboration between PNNL and the University of Maryland at College Park. Dr. Clarke's current research focuses on the role of technology in addressing climate change, scenario analysis, and integrated assessment model development. Dr. Clarke coordinated the U.S. Climate Change Science Program's emissions scenario development process, and he was a contributing author on the Working Group III contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report. Prior to joining PNNL, Dr. Clarke worked for RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc. (1990-1992), Pacific Gas & Electric Company (1992-1996), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2002-2003). He was also a research assistant at Stanford's Energy Modeling Forum (1999-2002), where he worked on issues related to technological change and integrated assessment modeling. Dr. Clarke received B.S. and M.S. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from U.C. Berkeley and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Engineering Economic Systems and Operations Research at Stanford University.
- Economics of technological change
- Environmental economics
- Research and development strategy
Education and Credentials
- Ph.D., Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, Stanford University
- M.S., Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, Stanford University
- M.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley
- B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley
- Chaturvedi V, J Eom, LE Clarke, and PR Shukla. 2014. "Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework." Energy Policy (64):226-242. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.021
- Scott MJ, DS Daly, Y Zhou, JS Rice, PL Patel, HC McJeon, GP Kyle, SH Kim, J Eom, and LE Clarke. 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model. ." Energy Economics 43(2014):22-33. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.012
- Zhou Y, LE Clarke, J Eom, GP Kyle, PL Patel, SH Kim, JA Dirks, EA Jensen, Y Liu, JS Rice, LC Schmidt, and TE Seiple. 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework." Applied Energy 113:1077-1088. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.034
- Calvin KV, MA Wise, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, GP Kyle, PW Luckow, and AM Thomson. 2013. "Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM." Climatic Change 117(3):545-560. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0650-y
- Chaturvedi V, MI Hejazi, JA Edmonds, LE Clarke, GP Kyle, E Davies, MA Wise, and KV Calvin. 2013. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand. PNNL-22356, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Edmonds JA, PW Luckow, KV Calvin, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, GP Kyle, SH Kim, PL Patel, and LE Clarke. 2013. "Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm-2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?" Climatic Change 118(1):29-43. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0678-z
- Eom J, RH Moss, JA Edmonds, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, R Kopp, GP Kyle, PW Luckow, PL Patel, AM Thomson, MA Wise, and Y Zhou. 2013. "Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing." In Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd Ed., ed. RG Watts, pp. 81-138 CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL.
- Kyle GP, E Davies, JJ Dooley, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, and MI Hejazi. 2013. "Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 13:112-123. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.006
- Le Page YLB, G Hurtt, AM Thomson, B Bond-Lamberty, PL Patel, MA Wise, KV Calvin, GP Kyle, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, and AC Janetos. 2013. "Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances." Environmental Research Letters 8(1):Article No. 015018. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015018
- Zhou S, GP Kyle, S Yu, LE Clarke, J Eom, PW Luckow, V Chaturvedi, X Zhang, and JA Edmonds. 2013. "Energy use and CO2 emissions of China's industrial sector from a global perspective." Energy Policy 58:284-294. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.03.014
- Zhou Y, J Eom, and LE Clarke. 2013. "The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China." Climatic Change 119(3-4):979-992. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0772-x
- Chaturvedi V, S Waldhoff, LE Clarke, and S Fujimori. 2012. "What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 3):S261-S271. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.05.004
- Calvin KV, LE Clarke, V Krey, GJ Blanford, K Jiang, M Kainuma, E Kriegler, G Luderer, and PR Shukla. 2012. "The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 3):S251-S260. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.09.003
- Clarke LE, V Krey, J Weyant, and V Chaturvedi. 2012. "Regional energy system variations in global models: Results from the Asian Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 3):S293-S305. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.07.018
- Edmonds JA, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, AC Janetos, SH Kim, MA Wise, and HC McJeon. 2012. "Integrated Assessment Modeling." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, ed. RA Meyers, pp. 5398-5428. Springer , New York, NY.
- Edmonds JA, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, GP Kyle, and MA Wise. 2012. "Energy and technology lessons since Rio." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 1):S7-S14. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.08.037
- Eom J, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, SH Kim, R Kopp, GP Kyle, P Luckow, RH Moss, PL Patel, and MA Wise. 2012. "Exploring the Future Role of Asia Utilizing A Scenario Matrix Architecture and Shared Socio-Ecosystem Pathways." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 3):S325-S338. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.03.012
- Eom J, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2012. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment. PNNL-21073, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Eom J, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2012. "China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment." Energy 46(1):405-419. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2012.08.009
- Zhou Y, P Luckow, SJ Smith, and LE Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46(14):7857-7864. doi:10.1021/es204706m
- Kyle GP, LE Clarke, SJ Smith, SH Kim, M Nathan, and MA Wise. 2011. "The Value of Advanced End-Use Energy Technologies in Meeting U.S. Climate Policy Goals." The Energy Journal 32(Special Issue):Article No. 5.
- McJeon HC, LE Clarke, GP Kyle, MA Wise, A Hackbarth, B Bryant, and R Lempert. 2011. "Technology Interactions among Low Carbon Energy Technologies: What Can We Learn from a Large Number of Scenarios?" Energy Economics 33(4):619-631. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2010.10.007
- Pugh G, LE Clarke, R Marlay, GP Kyle, MA Wise, HC McJeon, and G Chan. 2011. "Energy R&D portfolio analysis based on climate change mitigation." Energy Economics 33(4):634-643. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2010.11.007
- Thomson AM, KV Calvin, SJ Smith, GP Kyle, AC Volke, PL Patel, S Delgado Arias, B Bond-Lamberty, MA Wise, LE Clarke, and JA Edmonds. 2011. "RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100." Climatic Change 109(1-2):77-94. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4
- Kyle GP, LE Clarke, F Rong, and SJ Smith. 2010. "Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector." The Energy Journal Vol. 31(2):145-172.
- Clarke LE, and J Weyant. 2009. "Introduction to the EMF 22 special issue on climate change control scenarios." Energy Economics 31(2):63.
- Clarke LE, JA Edmonds, V Krey, RG Richels, S Rose, and M Tavoni. 2009. "International Climate Policy Architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 International Scenarios ." Energy Economics 31(2):S64-S81.
- Kyle GP, LE Clarke, G Pugh, MA Wise, KV Calvin, JA Edmonds, and SH Kim. 2009. "The Value of Advanced Technology in Meeting 2050 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the United States." Energy Economics 31(2):S254-S267.
- Calvin KV, PL Patel, AA Fawcett, LE Clarke, K Fisher-Vanden, JA Edmonds, SH Kim, R Sands, and MA Wise. 2009. "The Distribution and Magnitude of Emissions Mitigation Costs in Climate Stabilization Under Less Than Perfect International Cooperation: SGM Results." Energy Economics 31(2):S187-S197 .
- Calvin KV, JA Edmonds, B Bond-Lamberty, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, SJ Smith, AM Thomson, and MA Wise. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31(2):S107-S120.
- Calvin KV, JA Edmonds, LE Clarke, B Bond-Lamberty, SH Kim, MA Wise, AM Thomson, and GP Kyle. 2009. Land-use Leakage. PNNL-18585, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Wigley TM, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, HD Jacoby, S Paltsev, HM Pitcher, JM Reilly, RG Richels, MC Sarofim, and SJ Smith. 2009. "Uncertainties in climate stabilization." Journal of Climate 97(1-2):85-121 .
- Wise MA, KV Calvin, AM Thomson, LE Clarke, B Bond-Lamberty, RD Sands, SJ Smith, AC Janetos, and JA Edmonds. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324(5931):1183-1186 .
- Clarke LE, J Weyant, and JA Edmonds. 2008. "On the sources of technological change: What do the models assume." Energy Economics 30(2):409-424.
- Baker ED, LE Clarke, and E Shittu. 2008. "Technical Change and the Marginal Cost of Abatement." Energy Economics 30(6):2799-2816. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2008.01.004
- Edmonds JA, LE Clarke, JP Lurz, and MA Wise. 2008. "Stabilizing CO2 Concentrations with Incomplete International Cooperation." Climate Policy 8(4):355-376.
- Edmonds JA, LE Clarke, MA Wise, HM Pitcher, and SJ Smith. 2008. "Implications for the USA of stabilization of radiative forcing at 3.4 W/m2 ." Climate Policy 8:S76 - S92.
- Kyle GP, LE Clarke, and SJ Smith. 2008. "The Value of Advanced Technologies in the U.S. Buildings Sector in Climate Change Mitigation." In Scaling Up: Building Tomorrow's Solutions : Proceedings from the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, p. 267. ACEEE, Washington DC.
- Thomson AM, RC Izaurralde, SJ Smith, and LE Clarke. 2008. "Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration." Global Environmental Change. Part A, Human and Policy Dimensions 18(1):192-203.
- Edmonds JA, LE Clarke, MA Wise, and JP Lurz. 2007. International CO2 Stabilization Scenarios with Less-Than-Perfect "Where" and "When" Flexibility. PNNL-16932, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Edmonds JA, and LE Clarke. 2007. "Forum." Issues in Science and Technology 23(2):16-17.
- Edmonds JA, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, SJ Smith, PJ Runci, LE Clarke, EL Malone, and GM Stokes. 2007. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program. Battetlle Memorial Institute, College Park, MD.
- Kyle GP, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, SH Kim, and MA Wise. 2007. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions. PNNL-17039, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Richels RG, T Rutherford, GJ Blanford, and L Clarke. 2007. "Managing the transition to climate stabilization." Climate Policy 7(5):409-428.
- Rong F, LE Clarke, and SJ Smith. 2007. Climate Change and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector. PNNL-16869, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Clarke LE, J Weyant, and A Birky. 2006. "On the Sources of Technological Advance: Assessing the Evidence." Energy Economics 28(5-6):579-595.
- Baker ED, LE Clarke, and J Weyant. 2006. "Optimal Technology R&D in the Face of Climate Uncertainty." Climatic Change 78(1):157-179 .
- Clarke LE, MA Wise, M Placet, RC Izaurralde, JP Lurz, SH Kim, SJ Smith, and AM Thomson. 2006. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology Scenarios. PNNL-16078, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
- Runci PJ, LE Clarke, and JJ Dooley. 2006. "Energy Research (Letter)." Issues in Science and Technology XXII(3):10-11.