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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Son Kim

Integrated Modeling & Energy

PNNL Publications


  • Chaturvedi V, and SH Kim. 2015. "Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system." Energy Policy 81:176-185.  doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.11.013
  • Collins WD, AP Craig, JE Truesdale, A Di Vittorio, AD Jones, B Bond-Lamberty, KV Calvin, JA Edmonds, SH Kim, AM Thomson, PL Patel, Y Zhou, J Mao, X Shi, PE Thornton, LM Chini, and GC Hurtt. 2015. "The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality." Biogeosciences 8:2203-2219.  doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2203-2015
  • Yin X, W Chen, J Eom, LE Clarke, SH Kim, PL Patel, S Yu, and GP Kyle. 2015. "China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective." Energy Policy 82:233-248.  doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.03.021


  • Kim SH, K Wada, A Kurosawa, and M Roberts. 2014. "Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study." Climatic Change 123(3-4):443-460.  doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1098-z
  • Hejazi MI, JA Edmonds, LE Clarke, GP Kyle, E Davies, V Chaturvedi, MA Wise, PL Patel, J Eom, KV Calvin, RH Moss, and SH Kim. 2014. "LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 81:205-226.  doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.05.006
  • Iyer GC, N Hultman, S Fetter, and SH Kim. 2014. "Implications of Small Modular Reactors for Climate Change Mitigation." Energy Economics 45:144-154.  doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.06.023
  • Scott MJ, DS Daly, Y Zhou, JS Rice, PL Patel, HC McJeon, GP Kyle, SH Kim, J Eom, and LE Clarke. 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model. ." Energy Economics 43(2014):22-33.  doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.012
  • Zhou Y, LE Clarke, J Eom, GP Kyle, PL Patel, SH Kim, JA Dirks, EA Jensen, Y Liu, JS Rice, LC Schmidt, and TE Seiple. 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework." Applied Energy 113:1077-1088.  doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.034


  • Kim SH, and T Taiwo. 2013. "The Future of Energy from Nuclear Fission." Chapter 8 in Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd ed, ed. RG Watts, pp. 309-330.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 
  • Chaturvedi V, SH Kim, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, Y Zhou, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2013. "Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model." Energy 61:479-490.  doi:10.1016/
  • Edmonds JA, PW Luckow, KV Calvin, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, GP Kyle, SH Kim, PL Patel, and LE Clarke. 2013. "Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm-2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?" Climatic Change 118(1):29-43.  doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0678-z
  • Eom J, RH Moss, JA Edmonds, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, R Kopp, GP Kyle, PW Luckow, PL Patel, AM Thomson, MA Wise, and Y Zhou. 2013. "Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing." In Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd Ed., ed. RG Watts, pp. 81-138  CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL. 
  • Girod B, D Van Vuuren, M Grahn, A Kitous, SH Kim, and GP Kyle. 2013. "Climate Impact of Transportation A Model Comparison ." Climatic Change 118(3-4):595-608.  doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0663-6


  • Edmonds JA, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, AC Janetos, SH Kim, MA Wise, and HC McJeon. 2012. "Integrated Assessment Modeling." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, ed. RA Meyers, pp. 5398-5428.  Springer , New York, NY. 
  • Eom J, KV Calvin, LE Clarke, JA Edmonds, SH Kim, R Kopp, GP Kyle, P Luckow, RH Moss, PL Patel, and MA Wise. 2012. "Exploring the Future Role of Asia Utilizing A Scenario Matrix Architecture and Shared Socio-Ecosystem Pathways." Energy Economics 34(Supplement 3):S325-S338.  doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.03.012
  • Eom J, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2012. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed AssessmentPNNL-21073, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Eom J, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, and PL Patel. 2012. "China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment." Energy 46(1):405-419.  doi:10.1016/


  • Kyle GP, and SH Kim. 2011. "Long-Term Implications of Alternative Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Primary Energy Demands." Energy Policy 39(5):3012 - 3024.  doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.016
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, SJ Smith, SH Kim, M Nathan, and MA Wise. 2011. "The Value of Advanced End-Use Energy Technologies in Meeting U.S. Climate Policy Goals." The Energy Journal 32(Special Issue):Article No. 5. 


  • Luckow P, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, and SH Kim. 2010. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenariosPNNL-19124, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Luckow P, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, and SH Kim. 2010. "Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 4(5):865-877.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.06.002
  • Wise MA, GP Kyle, JJ Dooley, and SH Kim. 2010. "The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage ." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 4(2):301-308.  doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.09.003


  • Calvin KV, JA Edmonds, B Bond-Lamberty, LE Clarke, SH Kim, GP Kyle, SJ Smith, AM Thomson, and MA Wise. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31(2):S107-S120. 
  • Calvin KV, JA Edmonds, LE Clarke, B Bond-Lamberty, SH Kim, MA Wise, AM Thomson, and GP Kyle. 2009. Land-use LeakagePNNL-18585, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Calvin KV, PL Patel, AA Fawcett, LE Clarke, K Fisher-Vanden, JA Edmonds, SH Kim, R Sands, and MA Wise. 2009. "The Distribution and Magnitude of Emissions Mitigation Costs in Climate Stabilization Under Less Than Perfect International Cooperation: SGM Results." Energy Economics 31(2):S187-S197 . 
  • Kyle GP, LE Clarke, G Pugh, MA Wise, KV Calvin, JA Edmonds, and SH Kim. 2009. "The Value of Advanced Technology in Meeting 2050 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the United States." Energy Economics 31(2):S254-S267. 


  • Wise MA, GP Kyle, JJ Dooley, and SH Kim. 2008. "The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology on the Demand for Coal-fired Power with CCS under a Climate Policy." In Energy Procedia: 9th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Contorol Technologies (GHGT9), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4355-4362.  Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.  doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.249


  • Kim SH, and JA Edmonds. 2007. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate ChangePNNL-17037, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Edmonds JA, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, SJ Friedman, and MA Wise. 2007. "TECHNOLOGY IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODEL: THE POTENTIAL REGIONAL DEPLOYMENT OF CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL CO2 STABILIZATION." Chapter 16 in Human-Induced Climate Change: An Interdisciplinary Assessment, ed. M Schlesinger, et al, pp. 181-197.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Edmonds JA, MA Wise, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, SJ Smith, PJ Runci, LE Clarke, EL Malone, and GM Stokes. 2007. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program.  Battetlle Memorial Institute, College Park, MD. 
  • Kyle GP, SJ Smith, LE Clarke, SH Kim, and MA Wise. 2007. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon EmissionsPNNL-17039, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Kim SH, JA Edmonds, J Lurz, SJ Smith, and MA Wise. 2006. "The ObjECTS: Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation." The Energy Journal (Special Issue No. 2 2006):63. 
  • Clarke LE, MA Wise, M Placet, RC Izaurralde, JP Lurz, SH Kim, SJ Smith, and AM Thomson. 2006. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology ScenariosPNNL-16078, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Dooley JJ, SH Kim, JA Edmonds, JS Friedman, and MA Wise. 2004. "A FIRST ORDER GLOBAL GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE POTENTIAL SUPPLY CURVE AND ITS APPLICATION IN A GLOBAL INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODEL." In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT7) , vol. 1, ed. ES Rubin, DW Keith, CF Gilboy, pp. 573-582.  Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 
  • Edmonds JA, JF Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, and SJ Smith. 2004. "Modeling Greenhouse Gas Energy Technology Responses to Climate Change." Energy 29(9-10 (Special Issue)):1529-1536 . 
  • Edmonds JA, JF Clarke, JJ Dooley, SH Kim, and SJ Smith. 2004. "Stabilization of CO2 in a B2 World: Insights on The Roles of Carbon Capture and Disposal, Hydrogen, and Transportation Technologies." Energy Economics 26(4):517-537. 
  • Geffen CA, JA Edmonds, and SH Kim. 2004. "Transportation and Climate Change: The Potential for Hydrogen Systems." In Environmental sustainability in the mobility industry : technology and business challenges, SAE World Congress, Detroit, Mich., SP (Society of Automotive Engineers) , vol. 1865, pp. 13-20.  SAE International, Warrendale, PA. 



  • Dooley JJ, SH Kim, and PJ Runci. 2001. "The Role of Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Emissions Trading in Achieving Short-Term Carbon Emissions Reductions." In Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, ed. D. Williams, pp. 1127-1132.  CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia. 


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