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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information


Johannes Mülmenstädt

Global Atmospheric Modeling
Earth Scientist


Johannes Mülmenstädt's main research interest is the realism of the representation of cloud-scale physical processes, which climate models have to parameterize on the basis of their much coarser grid spacing. In his current projects, he aims to use observations of process variables, rather than state variables, to evaluate and eventually improve general-circulation and cloud-resolving global climate models.

Research Interests

  • Global climate change
  • Cloud feedbacks
  • Anthropogenic aerosol forcing
  • Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions
  • Hydrological cycle
  • Improvement of climate models using observational constraints

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D. in Physics, University of California, Berkeley
  • M.A. in Physics, University of California, Berkeley
  • B.S. in Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PNNL Publications


  • Feingold G., V.P. Ghate, L. Russell, P.N. Blossey, W. Cantrell, M. Christensen, and M.S. Diamond, et al. 2024. "Physical science research needed to evaluate the viability and risks of marine cloud brightening." Science Advances 10, no. 12:Art. No. eadi8594. PNNL-SA-189954. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adi8594


  • Christensen M., P. Ma, P. Wu, A.C. Varble, J.H. Muelmenstaedt, and J.D. Fast. 2023. "EVALUATION OF AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS IN E3SM USING A LAGRANGIAN FRAMEWORK." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 23, no. 4:2789-2812. PNNL-SA-177501. doi:10.5194/acp-23-2789-2023
  • Saliba G., D.M. Bell, K.J. Suski, J.D. Fast, D. Imre, D. Imre, and G. Kulkarni, et al. 2023. "Aircraft Measurements of Single Particle Size and Composition Reveal Aerosol Size and Mixing State Dictate their Activation into Cloud Droplets." Environmental Science: Atmospheres 3, no. 9:1352-1364. PNNL-SA-164904. doi:10.1039/D3EA00052D
  • Stanford M.W., A.M. Fridlind, I. Silber, A. Ackerman, G. Cesana, J.H. Muelmenstaedt, and A. Protat, et al. 2023. "Earth-system-model evaluation of cloud and precipitation occurrence for supercooled and warm clouds over the Southern Ocean's Macquarie Island." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 23, no. 16:9037-9069. PNNL-SA-195960. doi:10.5194/acp-23-9037-2023
  • Varble A.C., P. Ma, M. Christensen, J.H. Muelmenstaedt, S. Tang, and J.D. Fast. 2023. "Evaluation of Liquid Cloud Albedo Susceptibility in E3SM Using Coupled Eastern North Atlantic Surface and Satellite Retrievals." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 23, no. 20:13523-13553. PNNL-SA-185187. doi:10.5194/acp-23-13523-2023
  • Xiao H., M. Ovchinnikov, L.K. Berg, and J.H. Muelmenstaedt. 2023. "Evaluating shallow convection parameterization assumptions with a qt-w quadrant analysis." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 15, no. 8:e2022MS003526. PNNL-SA-179838. doi:10.1029/2022MS003526


  • Christensen M., A. Gettelman, J. Cermak, G. Dagan, M. Diamond, A. Douglas, and G. Feingold, et al. 2022. "Opportunistic Experiments to Constrain Aerosol Effective Radiative Forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22, no. 1:641-674. PNNL-SA-163887. doi:10.5194/acp-22-641-2022
  • Ma P., B.E. Harrop, V.E. Larson, R. Neale, R. Neale, A. Gettelman, and H. Morrison, et al. 2022. "Better calibration of cloud parameterizations and subgrid effects increases the fidelity of E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1." Geoscientific Model Development 15, no. 7:2881-2916. PNNL-SA-166161. doi:10.5194/gmd-15-2881-2022
  • McCoy D., P. Field, M.E. Frazer, M. Zelinka, G. Elsaesser, J.H. Muelmenstaedt, and I. Tan, et al. 2022. "Extratropical shortwave cloud feedbacks in the context of the global circulation and hydrological cycle." Geophysical Research Letters 49, no. 8:Art. No. e2021GL097154. PNNL-SA-171829. doi:10.1029/2021GL097154
  • Salzmann M., S. Ferrachat, C. Tully, S. Muench, D. Watson-Parris, D. Neubauer, and C. Siegenthaler-Le Drian, et al. 2022. "The global atmosphere-aerosol model ICON-A-HAM2.3 - Initial model evaluation and effects of radiation balance tuning on aerosol optical thickness." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14, no. 4:e2021MS002699. PNNL-SA-170604. doi:10.1029/2021MS002699


  • Muelmenstaedt J.H., and L.J. Wilcox. 2021. "The fall and rise of the global climate model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 13, no. 9:e2021MS002781. PNNL-SA-166167. doi:10.1029/2021MS002781
  • Muelmenstaedt J.H., M. Salzmann, J. Kay, M. Zelinka, P. Ma, C. Nam, and J. Kretzschmar, et al. 2021. "An underestimated negative cloud feedback from cloud lifetime changes." Nature Climate Change 11, no. 6:508-513. PNNL-SA-149922. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01038-1


  • Muelmenstaedt J.H., C. Nam, M. Salzmann, J. Kretzschmar, T. L'Ecuyer, U. Lohmann, and P. Ma, et al. 2020. "Reducing the aerosol forcing uncertainty using observational constraints on warm rain processes." Science Advances 6, no. 22:Article. No.eaaz6433. PNNL-SA-152083. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaz6433
  • Quaas J., A. Arola, B. Cairns, M. Christensen, H. Deneke, A.M. Ekman, and G. Feingold, et al. 2020. "Constraining the Twomey effect from satellite observations: issues and perspectives." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 23:15079-15099. PNNL-SA-158861. doi:10.5194/acp-20-15079-2020
  • Wood T., A. Maycock, P. Forster, T.B. Richardson, T. Andrews, O. Boucher, and G. Myhre, et al. 2020. "The Southern hemisphere midlatitude circulation response to rapid adjustments and sea surface temperature driven feedbacks." Journal of Climate 33, no. 22:9673-9690. PNNL-SA-155651. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-19-1015.1

Selected Publications


  • Gryspeerdt E., J. Muelmenstadt, A. Gettelman, F. Malavelle, H. Morrison, D. Neubauer, and D. Partridge, et al. 2020. "Surprising similarities in model and observational aerosol radiative forcing estimates." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20, no. 1:613-623. PNNL-SA-143590. doi:10.5194/acp-20-613-2020


  • Muelmenstadt J., E. Gryspeerdt, M. Salzmann, P. Ma, D. Sudhakar, and J. Quaas. 2019. "Separating radiative forcing by aerosol-cloud interactions and rapid cloud adjustments in the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model using the method of partial radiative perturbations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, no. 24:15415-15429. PNNL-SA-140892. doi:10.5194/acp-19-15415-2019

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