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Atmospheric Science & Global Change

Staff information

Charles Long

Charles Long

Atmospheric Measurement & Data Sciences
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352


Charles N. Long specializes in the study of clouds and their effect on the surface radiation energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. His research interests include observation, quantification, and analyses of the surface radiative energy budget, quantification of cloud macro-physical properties from surface-based measurements, and cloud forcing and feedbacks with respect to surface radiation. Additionally, he pioneered the development of techniques to infer cloud properties using surface radiometer and meteorological measurements. These techniques are applied to available surface measurements to assess climatological statistics and trend detection. Other areas of interest include the development of surface-based instrumentation and systems for measuring cloud and radiative properties, and observational field campaigns, where Dr. Long has a long history of participation and leadership.

Dr. Long is the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site Scientist for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Programs. In this role, he oversees the scientific concerns of the ARM sites located in the TWP area, represents ARM and ASR TWP science to the larger community, leads TWP science efforts, and interacts with the ARM TWP Operations and the ARM Data Quality Manager offices. Dr. Long is the Principal Investigator of two large field campaigns aimed at studying the Madden-Julian Oscillation, which were held in 2011-2012, in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Dr. Long was awarded the 2000 Professor Dr. Vilho Vaisala Award in Atmospheric Sciences by the World Meteorological Organization in recognition of a collaborative paper, “Ground-based Remote Sensor Observations during PROBE in the Tropical Western Pacific,” published in the February 1999 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society; and again in 2012 in recognition of the collaborative paper “Optimized fractional cloudiness determination from five ground-based remote sensing techniques,” published in the December 2010 issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. Dr. Long is to date the only two-time Vaisala atmospheric sciences award recipient.

Dr. Long participates in national and international committees, boards, and advisory groups. He was recently appointed to the International Radiation Commission (IRC) Global Energy Balance Working Group and is on the Editorial Advisory Boards of The Open Atmospheric Science Journal and The Open Ocean Engineering Journal. He serves as DOE's ARM representative for the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), chairing several BSRN working groups. He is an invited co-author for the WMO Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiative Flux Assessment chapter on surface observations.

Research Interests

  • Clouds and Atmospheric Radiation
  • Radiative Transfer
  • Observational Analysis

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Meteorology, Penn State University
  • B.S., Meteorology, Penn State University
  • A.A., Letters, Arts, and Sciences, Penn State University

Awards and Recognitions

  • Awarded the 2000 and 2012 Professor Dr. Vilho Vaisala Award in Atmospheric Sciences

PNNL Publications


  • Long CN. 2014. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL MeasurementsPNNL-23411, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Riihimaki LD, and CN Long. 2014. "Spatial Variability of Surface Irradiance Measurements at the Manus ARM Site." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(9):5475-5491.  doi:10.1002/2013JD021187
  • Ciesielski P, H Yu, R Johnson, K Yoneyama, M Katsumata, CN Long, J Wang, S Loehrer, K Young, S Williams, W Brown, J Braun, and T Van Hove. 2014. "Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 31(4):741-764.  doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00165.1
  • Creekmore TN, E Joseph, CN Long, and S Li. 2014. "Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(9):5464-5474.  doi:10.1002/2013JD021217
  • Dong X, BJ Zib, B Xi, R Stanfield, Y Deng, X Zhang, B Lin, and CN Long. 2014. "Critical Mechanisms for the Formation of Extreme Arctic Sea-Ice Extent in the Summers of 2007 and 1996." Climate Dynamics 43(1-2):53-70.  doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1920-8
  • Gan CM, J Pleim, R Mathur, C Hogrefe, CN Long, J Xing, S Roselle, and C Wei. 2014. "Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(3):1701-1715.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-1701-2014
  • Protat A, S Young, SA McFarlane, T L'Ecuyer, GG Mace, JM Comstock, CN Long, E Berry, and J Delanoe. 2014. "Reconciling Ground-Based and Space-Based Estimates of the Frequency of Occurrence and Radiative Effect of Clouds around Darwin, Australia." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 53(2):456-478.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-072.1
  • Wu W, Y Liu, M Jensen, T Toto, MJ Foster, and CN Long. 2014. "A Comparison of Multiscale Variations of Decade-long Cloud Fractions from Six Different Platforms over the Southern Great Plains in the United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(6):3438-3459.  doi:10.1002/2013JD019813


  • McFarlane SA, CN Long, and JE Flaherty. 2013. "A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 52(4):996-1013.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0189.1
  • Long CN, SA McFarlane, AD Del Genio, P Minnis, TP Ackerman, JH Mather, JM Comstock, GG Mace, M Jensen, and C Jakob. 2013. "ARM Research in the Equatorial Western Pacific: A Decade and Counting." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(5):695-708.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00137.1
  • Yoneyama K, C Zhang, and CN Long. 2013. "Tracking Pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(12):1871-1891.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1


  • Kishcha P, B Starobinets, CN Long, and P Alpert. 2012. "Unexpected increasing AOT trends over northwest Bay of Bengal in the early postmonsoon season." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117(D23):Article No. D23208.  doi:10.1029/2012JD018726
  • Long CN, and SA McFarlane. 2012. "Quantification of the Impact of Nauru Island on ARM Measurements ." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51(3):628-636.  doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0174.1
  • Matsui N, CN Long, JA Augustine, D Halliwell, T Uttal, D Longenecker, J Niebergale, J Wendell, and R Albee. 2012. "Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 5(2):429-438.  doi:10.5194/amt-5-429-2012
  • May PT, CN Long, and A Protat. 2012. "The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)." Journal of Climate 25(15):5309-5326.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00538.1
  • Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012. "Evaluation of cloud fraction and its radiative effect simulated by IPCC AR4 global models against ARM surface observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(4):1785-1810.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012
  • Vogelmann AM, G McFarquhar, JA Ogren, DD Turner, JM Comstock, G Feingold, CN Long, H Jonsson, A Bucholtz, DR Collins, GS Diskin, H Gerber, P Lawson, R Woods, E Andrews, HJ Yang, CJ Chiu, D Hartsock, JM Hubbe, C Lo, A Marshak, J Monroe, SA McFarlane, B Schmid, JM Tomlinson, and T Toto. 2012. "RACORO Extended-Term Aircraft Observations of Boundary-Layer Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93(6):861-878. 


  • Kassianov EI, JC Barnard, LK Berg, CJ Flynn, and CN Long. 2011. "Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 4(7):1463-1470.  doi:10.5194/amt-4-1463-2011
  • Kassianov EI, JC Barnard, LK Berg, CN Long, and CJ Flynn. 2011. "Shortwave Spectral Radiative Forcing of Cumulus Clouds from Surface Observations ." Geophysical Research Letters 38:Article No. L07801.  doi:10.1029/2010GL046282
  • McFarlane SA, KL Gaustad, EJ Mlawer, CN Long, and J Delamere. 2011. "Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 4(9):1713-1733.  doi:10.5194/amt-4-1713-2011
  • Wang Y, CN Long, JH Mather, and X Liu. 2011. "Convective Signals from Surface Measurements at ARM Tropical Western Pacific Site: Manus." Climate Dynamics 36(3-4):431-449.  doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0736-z
  • Wang Y, CN Long, JH Mather, and X Liu. 2011. "Convective signals from surface measurements at ARM Tropical Western Pacific site: Manus." Climate Dynamics 36(3-4):431-449.  doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0736-z
  • Berg LK, EI Kassianov, CN Long, and DL Mills Jr.. 2011. "Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D01202.  doi:10.1029/2010JD014593
  • de Boer G, WD Collins, S Menon, and CN Long. 2011. "Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Radiative Characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: An Example from M-PACE." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(23):11937-11949.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-11937-2011
  • Dupont JC, M Haeffelin, Y Morille, JM Comstock, CJ Flynn, CN Long, C Sivaraman, and RK Newsom. 2011. "Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site." Geophysical Research Letters 38:Article No. L08814.  doi:10.1029/2010GL046274
  • Roesch A, MF Wild, A Ohmura, EG Dutton, CN Long, and T Zhang. 2011. "Assessment of BSRN radiation records for the computation of monthly means." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 4(2):339-354.  doi:10.5194/amt-4-339-2011
  • Wulfmeyer V, A Behrendt, C Kottmeir, U Corsmeier, C Barthlott, GC Craig, M Hagen, D Althausen, F Aoshima, M Arpagaus, HS Bauer, L Bennett, A Blyth, C Brandau, C Champollion, S Crewell, G Dick, P di Girolamo, M Dorninger, Y Dufournet, R Eigenmann, R Engelmann, C Flamant, T Foken, T Gorgas, M Grzeschik, J Handwerker, C Hauck, H Holler, W Junkermann, N Kalthoff, C Kiemle, S Klink, M Konig, L Krauss, CN Long, F Madonna, S Mobbs, B Neininger, S Pal, G Peters, G Pigeon, E Richard, MW Rotach, H Russchenberg, T Schwitalla, V Smith, R Steinacker, J Trentman, DD Turner, J van Baelen, S Vogt, H Volkert, T Weckwerth, H Wernli, A Wieser, and M Wirth. 2011. "The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The Scientific Strategy, the Field Phase, and Research Highlights." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 137(S1):3-30.  doi:10.1002/qj.752


  • Kassianov EI, JC Barnard, LK Berg, CJ Flynn, and CN Long. 2010. "Retrieval of Intensive Aerosol Properties from MFRSR observations: Partly Cloudy Cases." In Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XV: Proceedings of the SPIE, September 21, 2010, Toulouse, France, vol. 7827, ed. RH Picard, K Schafer, A Comeron and M van Weele, p. Paper No. 7827Q.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.865761
  • Long CN. 2010. "Correcting for Circumsolar and Near-Horizon Errors in Sky Cover Retrievals from Sky Images." Open Atmospheric Science Journal 4:45-52.  doi:10.2174/1874282301004010045
  • Boers R, MJ de Haij, WMF Wauben, HK Baltink, LH van Ulft, M Savenije, and CN Long. 2010. "Optimized fractional cloudiness determination from five ground-based remote sensing techniques." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:Article No. D24116.  doi:10.1029/2010JD014661
  • Dong X, B Xi, K Crosby, CN Long, RS Stone, and MD Shupe. 2010. "A 10 Year Climatology of Arctic Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing at Barrow, Alaska." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:Article No. D17212.  doi:10.1029/2009JD013489
  • Kanniah KD, J Beringer, NJ Tapper, and CN Long. 2010. "Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia ." Theoretical and Applied Climatology 100(3-4):423-438.  doi:10.1007/s00704-009-0192-z
  • Long CN, A Bucholtz, H Jonsson, B Schmid, AM Vogelmann, and J Wood. 2010. "A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms." Open Atmospheric Science Journal 4:78-87.  doi:10.2174/1874282301004010078
  • Xie S, R McCoy, SA Klein, RT Cederwall, WJ Wiscombe, EE Clothiaux, KL Gaustad, JC Golaz, S Hall, M Jensen, KL Johnson, Y Lin, CN Long, JH Mather, RA McCord, SA McFarlane, G Palanisamy, Y Shi, and DD Turner. 2010. "ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data product for climate modelers ." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91(1):13-20.  doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1
  • Zhang X, CN Long, WB Rossow, and EG Dutton. 2010. "Exploiting Diurnal Variations to Evaluate the ISCCP-FD Flux Calculations and Radiative-Flux-Analysis-Processed Surface Observations from BSRN, ARM and SURFRAD." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:Art. No. D15105.  doi:10.1029/2009JD012743


  • Riihimaki LD, F Vignola, and CN Long. 2009. "Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:D00D02.  doi:10.1029/2008JD010970
  • Berg LK, EI Kassianov, CN Long, and D Mills, Jr.. 2009. "Three-dimensional Effects and Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Associated with Shallow Cumuli Over Central North America." In Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XIV: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 7475, ed. RH Picard, K Schafer, A Comeron, EI Kassianov and CJ Mertens, p. Article No. 747504.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.832327
  • Kishcha P, B Starobinets, O Kalashnikova, CN Long, and P Alpert. 2009. "VARIATIONS OF MERIDIONAL AEROSOL DISTRIBUTION AND SOLAR DIMMING ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D00D14):, doi:10.1029/2008JD010975
  • Long CN, EG Dutton, JA Augustine, WJ Wiscombe, MF Wild, SA McFarlane, and CJ Flynn. 2009. "Significant Decadal Brightening of Downwelling Shortwave in the Continental United States." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:Art. No. D00D06.  doi:10.1029/2008JD011263
  • Riihimaki LD, F Vignola, and CN Long. 2009. "Analyzing the contribution of aerosols to an observed increase in direct normal irradiance in Oregon." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:Art. No. D00D02.  doi:10.1029/2008JD010970
  • Vignola F, CN Long, and I Reda. 2009. "Testing a model of IR radiative losses." In Optical Modeling and Measurements for Solar Energy Systems III, August 2, 2009, San Diego, CA. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 7410, ed. BK Tsai, p. Paper No. 741003.  S.P.I.E., Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.826325
  • Wang Y, CN Long, LYR Leung, J Dudhia, SA McFarlane, JH Mather, SJ Ghan, and X Liu. 2009. "Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D21203):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012729
  • Wild MF, B Trussel, A Ohmura, CN Long, G Konig-Langlo, EG Dutton, and AV Tsvetkov. 2009. "Global Dimming and brightening: an update beyond 2000." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D00D13):, doi:10.1029/2008JD011382


  • Long CN, and DD Turner. 2008. "A Method for Continuous Estimation of Clear-Sky Downwelling Longwave Radiative Flux Developed Using ARM Surface Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113:D18206.  doi:10.1029/2008JD009936
  • Barnard JC, CN Long, EI Kassianov, SA McFarlane, JM Comstock, M Freer, and G McFarquhar. 2008. "Development and Evaluation of a Simple Algorithm to Find Cloud Optical Depth with Emphasis on Thin Ice Clouds." Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2:46-55.  doi:10.2174/1874282300802010046
  • Dupont JC, M Haeffelin, and CN Long. 2008. "Evaluation of cloudless-sky periods detected by shortwave and longwave algorithms using lidar measurements ." Geophysical Research Letters 35(10):Art. No. L10815.  doi:10.1029/2008GL033658
  • Long CN, and Y Shi. 2008. "An Automated Quality Assessment and Control Algorithm for Surface Radiation Measurements." Open Atmospheric Science Journal Volume 2 :23-37.  doi:10.2174/1874282300802010023
  • Min Q, T Wang, CN Long, and M Daun. 2008. "Estimating fractional sky cover from spectral measurements ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113(D20):D20208.  doi:10.1029/2008JD010278
  • Nowak D, L Vuilleumier, CN Long, and A Ohmura. 2008. "Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113(D14):Article no.: D14206.  doi:10.1029/2007JD009441
  • Shupe MD, JS Daniel, GIJS DeBoer, EW Eloranta, P Kollias, CN Long, E Luke, DD Turner, and J Verlinde. 2008. "A Focus on Mixed-Phase Clouds: The Status of Ground-Based Observational Methods ." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89(10):1549-1562.  doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2378.1
  • Vignola F, CN Long, and I Reda. 2008. "Modeling IR Radiative Loss from Eppley PSP Pyranometers." In Proceedings of SPIE: Optical Modeling and Measurements for Solar Energy, August 13, 2008, San Diego, California Systems II, vol. 7046, ed. BK Tsai, p. Art. No.70460E.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.796457


  • Matthews S, JM Hacker, JN Cole, J Hare, CN Long, and RM Reynolds. 2007. "Modification of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer by a Small Island: Observations from Nauru." Monthly Weather Review 135(3):891-905.  doi:10.1175/MWR3319.1
  • Prenni AJ, JY Harrington, M Tjernstrom, PJ DeMott, A Avramov, CN Long, SM Kreidenweis, PQ Olsson, and J Verlinde. 2007. "Can Ice-Nucleating Aerosols Affect Arctic Seasonal Climate?" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(4):541-550. 
  • Turner DD, AM Vogelmann, RT Austin, JC Barnard, K Cady-Pereira, C Chiu, SA Clough, CJ Flynn, MM Khaiyer, JC Liljegren, KL Johnson, B Lin, CN Long, A Marshak, SY Matrosov, SA McFarlane, MA Miller, Q Min, P Minnis, W O'Hirok, Z Wang, and WJ Wiscombe. 2007. "Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(2):177-190. 
  • Vignola F, CN Long, and I Reda. 2007. "Evaluation of Methods to Correct for IR Loss in Eppley PSP Diffuse Measurements." In Proceedings of SPIE, Optical Modeling and Measurements for Solar Energy Systems, vol. 6652, p. Art. No. 66520A.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.734474


  • Long CN, JM Sabburg, J Calbo, and D Pages. 2006. "Retrieving Cloud Characteristics from Ground-Based Daytime Color All-Sky Images." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 23(5):633-652. 
  • Berg LK, EI Kassianov, CN Long, and WI Gustafson, Jr. 2006. "A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability." In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, March 27-31, 2006, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  US Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 
  • Long CN, TP Ackerman, KL Gaustad, and JN Cole. 2006. "Estimation of Fractional Sky Cover from Broadband Shortwave Radiometer Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D11):D11204, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006475. 
  • Mace GG, SM Benson, KL Sonntag, S Kato, Q Min, P Minnis, CH Twohy, M Poellot, X Dong, CN Long, Q Zhang, and DR Doelling. 2006. "Cloud Radiative Forcing at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility: I. Technique, Validation, and Comparison to Satellite-Derived Diagnostic Quantities." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D11):D11S90, doi: 10.1029/2005JD005921. 
  • Wild MF, CN Long, and A Ohmura. 2006. "Evaluation of Clear-Sky Solar Fluxes in GCMs Participating in AMIP and IPCC-AR4 from a Surface Perspective." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D1):D01104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006118. 
  • Xie S, SA Klein, JJ Yio, A Beljaars, CN Long, and M Zhang. 2006. "An Assessment of ECMWF Analyses and Model Forecasts over the North Slope of Alaska Using Observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D5):D05107, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006509. 


  • Shi Y, and CN Long. 2005. "Examples of Detecting Measurement Errors with the QCRad VAP." In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, Florida, March 14-18, 2005, p. 7 pages.  U.S. Department of Energy - DOE, Washington, DC. 
  • Hinkelman LM, PW Stackhouse, Jr., DF Young, CN Long, and D Rutan. 2005. "Using ARM Data to Evaluate Satellite Surface Solar Flux Retrievals." In Proceedings of the Fifteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, March 14-18, 2005, Daytona Beach, FL.  US Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN. 
  • Kassianov EI, CN Long, and JE Christy. 2005. "Cloud-Base-Height Estimation from Paired Ground-Based Hemispherical Observations." Journal of Applied Meteorology 44(8):1221-1233. 
  • Kassianov EI, CN Long, and M Ovtchinnikov. 2005. "Cloud Sky Cover Versus Cloud Fraction: Whole-Sky Simulations and Observations." Journal of Applied Meteorology 44(1):86-98. 
  • McFarlane SA, CN Long, and DM Flynn. 2005. "Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data." Journal of Applied Meteorology 44(7):1045-1065. 
  • Michalsky JJ, R Dolce, EG Dutton, M Haeffelin, WQ Jeffries, T Stoffel, JR Hickey, A Los, D Mathias, LJB McArthur, DW Nelson, JR Philipona, I Reda, K Rutledge, G Zerlaut, BW Forgan, P Kiedron, CN Long, and C Gueymard. 2005. "Toward the Development of a Diffuse Horizontal Shortwave Irradiance Working Standard." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 110(D6):D06107, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005265. 
  • Reda I, JR Hickey, CN Long, D Myers, T Stoffel, S Wilcox, JJ Michalsky, EG Dutton, and DW Nelson. 2005. "Using a Blackbody to Calculate Net-longwave Responsivity of Shortwave Solar Pyranometers to Correct for Their Thermal Offset Error During Outdoor Calibration Using the Component Sum Method." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22(10):1531-1540.  doi:doi: 10.1175/JTECH1782.1
  • Wild MF, H Gilgen, A Roesch, A Ohmura, CN Long, EG Dutton, BW Forgan, A Kallis, V Russak, and A Tsvetkov. 2005. "From Dimming to Brightening: Decadal Changes in Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface." Science 308(5723):847-850.  doi:10.1126/science.1103215


  • Shi Y, and CN Long. 2004. "Techniques and Methods used to determine the Best Estimate of Total Downwelling Shotwave Radiation." In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 22-26, 2004, p. 9 pages.  U.S. Department of Energy - DOE, Washington, DC. 
  • Barnard JC, and CN Long. 2004. "A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness Using Shortwave Broadband Measurements." Journal of Applied Meteorology 43(7):1057-1066. 
  • Dutton EG, A Farhadi, RS Stone, CN Long, and DW Nelson. 2004. "Long-Term Variations in the Occurrence and Effective Solar Transmission of Clouds as Determined from Surface-Based Total Irradiance Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109(D3):D03204.  doi:10.1029/2003JD003568
  • Genkova IS, CN Long, T Besnard, and D Gillotay. 2004. "Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Cloud Infrared Radiometer CIR-7." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Remote Sensing of Clouds and Atmosphere IX, September 13-15, 2004, Maspalomas, Spain, vol. 5571, ed. A Comeron, MR Carleer, RH Picard, NI Sifakis.  S.P.I.E., Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.564234
  • Sabburg JM, and CN Long. 2004. "Improving Sky Imaging for Studies of Enhanced UV Irradiance." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4:2543-2552. 


  • Augustine JA, CR Cornwall, GB Hodges, CN Long, CI Medina, and JJ DeLuisi. 2003. "An Automated Method of MFRSR Calibration for Aerosol Optical Depth Analysis with Application to an Asian Dust Outbreak Over the United States." Journal of Applied Meteorology 42(2):266-278. 
  • Pfister G, RL McKenzie, JB Liley, A Thomas, BW Forgan, and CN Long. 2003. "Cloud Coverage Based on All-Sky Imaging and Its Impact on Surface Solar Irradiance." Journal of Applied Meteorology 42(10):1421-1434. 
  • Westwater ER, BB Stankov, D Cimini, Y Han, JA Shaw, BM Lesht, and CN Long. 2003. "Radiosonde Humidity Soundings and Microwave Radiometers during Nauru99." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 20(7):953-971. 


  • Shi Y, and CN Long. 2002. "Techniques and Methods used to determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility." In Proceedings of the Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, St. Petersburg, Florida, April 8-12, 2002, p. 12 pages.  U.S. Department of Energy - DOE, Washington, DC. 
  • Long CN, TP Ackerman, and JE Christy. 2002. "Variability Across the ARM SGP Area by Temporal and Spatial Scale." In Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Applications in Climate, Proceedings- SPIE The International Society of Optical Engineering, vol. 4815, ed. Shaw, J.A., pp. 51-57.  SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 


  • Barnard JC, JC Doran, S Zhong, and CN Long. 2001. "A Comparison of Cloud Properties at Barrow and SHEBA During the Summer of 1998." In Sixth Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 14-18 May 2001, San Diego, California, pp. 232-235.  American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA. 

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