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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Xuesong Zhang

Human-Earth Sys Sci: Devlpmnt
Earth Scientist

PNNL Publications


  • Du X., X. Zhang, R. Mukundan, L. Hoang, and E.M. Owens. 2019. "Integrating terrestrial and aquatic processes toward watershed scale modeling of dissolved organic carbon fluxes." Environmental Pollution 249. PNNL-SA-143356. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.014
  • Kim S., B.E. Dale, X. Zhang, C.D. Jones, A.D. Reddy, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2019. "The Renewable Fuel Standard May Limit Overall Greenhouse Gas Savings by Corn Stover-Based Cellulosic Biofuels in the US Midwest: Effects of the Regulatory Approach on Projected Emissions." Environmental Science & Technology 53, no. 5:2288-2294. PNNL-SA-129335. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b02808
  • Qi J., X. Zhang, and M.H. Cosh. 2019. "Modeling Soil Temperature in a Temperate Region: A Comparison between Empirical and Physically Based Methods in SWAT." Ecological Engineering 129. PNNL-SA-137086. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2019.01.017
  • Qi J., X. Zhang, and Q. Wang. 2019. "Improving Hydrological Simulation in the Upper Mississippi River Basin through Enhanced Freeze-Thaw Cycle Representation." Journal of Hydrology 571. PNNL-SA-143347. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.02.020
  • Qiu J., Q. Yang, X. Zhang, M. Huang, J.C. Adams, and K. Malek. 2019. "Implications of water management representations for watershed hydrologic modeling in the Yakima River Basin." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 23, no. 1:35-49. PNNL-SA-135306. doi:10.5194/hess-23-35-2019
  • Yang Q., X. Zhang, J.E. Almendinger, M. Huang, G. Leng, Y. Zhou, and K. Zhao, et al. 2019. "Improving the SWAT forest module for enhancing water resource projections: A case study in the St. Croix River Basin." Hydrological Processes 33, no. 5:864-875. PNNL-SA-137109. doi:10.1002/hyp.13370


  • Kim S., X. Zhang, B.E. Dale, A.D. Reddy, C.D. Jones, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2018. "EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act) compliant ethanol fuel from corn stover in a depot-based decentralized system." Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining 12, no. 5:873-881. PNNL-SA-134812. doi:10.1002/bbb.1899
  • Liu D., E. Toman, Z. Fuller, G. Chen, A. Londo, X. Zhang, and K. Zhao. 2018. "Integration of historical map and aerial imagery to characterize long-term land-use change and landscape dynamics: An object-based analysis via Random Forests." Ecological Indicators 95, no. 1:595-605. PNNL-SA-129615. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.08.004
  • Liu Y., M.I. Hejazi, H. Li, X. Zhang, and G. Leng. 2018. "A Hydrological Emulator for Global Applications - HE v1.0.0." Geoscientific Model Development 11, no. 3:1077-1092. PNNL-SA-125122. doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1077-2018
  • Qi J., X. Zhang, G.W. McCarty, A.M. Sadeghi, M.H. Cosh, X. Zeng, and F. Gao, et al. 2018. "Assessing the Performance of a Physically-Based Soil Moisture Module Integrated within the Soil and Water Assessment Tool." Environmental Modelling & Software 109. PNNL-SA-134989. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.08.024
  • Qiu J., Z. Shen, M. Huang, and X. Zhang. 2018. "Exploring Effective Best Management Practices in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China." Ecological Engineering 123. PNNL-SA-129989. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.08.020
  • Xu X., X. Zhang, H. Fang, R. Lai, Y. Zhang, L. Huang, and X. Liu. 2018. "Improving the real-time probabilistic channel flood forecasting by incorporating the uncertainty of inflow using the particle filter." Journal of Hydrodynamics 30, no. 5:828-840. PNNL-SA-124747. doi:10.1007/s42241-018-0110-x
  • Yang Q., J.E. Almendinger, X. Zhang, M. Huang, X. Chen, G. Leng, and Y. Zhou, et al. 2018. "Enhancing SWAT simulation of forest ecosystems for water resource assessment: A case study in the St. Croix River basin." Ecological Engineering 120. PNNL-SA-128496. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.06.020
  • Zhang X. 2018. "Simulating eroded soil organic carbon with the SWAT-C model." Environmental Modelling & Software 102. PNNL-SA-135494. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.01.005


  • Huang L., H. Fang, X. Xu, G. He, X. Zhang, and D. Reible. 2017. "Stochastic modeling of phosphorus transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir by incorporating variability associated with the phosphorus partition coefficient." Science of the Total Environment 592. PNNL-SA-124748. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.227
  • Izaurralde R.C., W.B. Mcgill, J.R. Williams, C.D. Jones, R.P. Link, D. Manowitz, and D. Schwab, et al. 2017. "Simulating microbial denitrification with EPIC: Model description and initial testing." Ecological Modelling 359. PNNL-SA-126008. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.06.007
  • Jones C.D., X. Zhang, A.D. Reddy, G.P. Robertson, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2017. "The greenhouse gas intensity and potential biofuel production capacity of maize stover harvest in the US Midwest." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 9, no. 10:1543-1554. PNNL-SA-129759. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12473
  • LeDuc S.D., X. Zhang, C. Clark, and R.C. Izaurralde. 2017. "Cellulosic feedstock production on Conservation Reserve Program land: potential yields and environmental effects." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 9, no. 2:460-468. PNNL-SA-125553. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12352
  • Li W., Y. Zhou, K. Cetin, J. Eom, Y. Wang, G. Chen, and X. Zhang. 2017. "Modeling urban building energy use: A review of modeling approaches and procedures." Energy 141. PNNL-SA-129914. doi:10.1016/
  • Shu L., Q. Jiang, X. Zhang, and K. Zhao. 2017. "Potential and limitations of satellite laser altimetry for monitoring water surface dynamics: ICESat for US lakes." International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 10, no. 5:154-165. PNNL-SA-129158. doi:10.25165/j.ijabe.20171005.3426
  • Tan Z., L. Leung, H. Li, T.K. Tesfa, M. Vanmaercke, J. Poesen, and X. Zhang, et al. 2017. "A global data analysis for representing sediment and particulate organic carbon yield in Earth System Models." Water Resources Research 53, no. 12:10674-10700. PNNL-SA-130974. doi:10.1002/2017WR020806
  • Xu X., X. Zhang, H. Fang, R. Lai, Y. Zhang, L. Huang, and X. Liu. 2017. "A real-time probabilistic channel flood-forecasting model based on the Bayesian particle filter approach." Environmental Modelling & Software 88. PNNL-SA-125482. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.11.010
  • Yang Q., X. Zhang, X. Xu, and G.R. Asrar. 2017. "An analysis of terrestrial and aquatic environmental controls of riverine dissolved organic carbon in the conterminous United States." Water 9, no. 6:383. PNNL-SA-115239. doi:10.3390/w9060383


  • Cai X., Z. Yang, J.B. Fisher, X. Zhang, M. Barlage, and F. Chen. 2016. "Integration of nitrogen dynamics into the Noah-MP land surface model v1.1 for climate and environmental predictions." Geoscientific Model Development 9, no. 1:1-15. PNNL-SA-119139. doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1-2016
  • Gao J., A. Zhang, S. Lam, X. Zhang, A.M. Thomson, E. Lin, and K. Jiang, et al. 2016. "An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 8, no. 5:880-893. PNNL-SA-121186. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12305
  • Leng G., M. Huang, N. Voisin, X. Zhang, G.R. Asrar, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Emergence of new hydrologic regimes of surface water resources in the Conterminous United States under future warming." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 11:Article No. 114003. PNNL-SA-117644. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114003
  • Leng G., X. Zhang, M. Huang, G.R. Asrar, and L. Leung. 2016. "The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States." Scientific Reports 6. PNNL-SA-116570. doi:10.1038/srep33160
  • Leng G., X. Zhang, M. Huang, Q. Yang, R. Rafique, G.R. Asrar, and L.R. Leung. 2016. "Simulating County-Level Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States Using the Community Land Model: the Effects of Optimizing Irrigation and Fertilization." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 8, no. 4:1912-1931. PNNL-SA-116300. doi:10.1002/2016MS000645
  • Yang Q., and X. Zhang. 2016. "Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems." Science of the Total Environment. PNNL-SA-119110. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.238
  • Yang Q., H. Tian, X. Li, W. Ren, B. Zhang, X. Zhang, and J. Wolf. 2016. "Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012." Science of the Total Environment 541. PNNL-SA-115233. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.044
  • Yang Q., X. Zhang, X. Xu, G.R. Asrar, R.A. Smith, J. Shih, and S. Duan. 2016. "Spatial patterns and environmental controls of particulate organic carbon in surface waters in the conterminous United States." Science of the Total Environment 554-555. PNNL-SA-114409. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.164


  • Beach R.H., Y. Cai, A.M. Thomson, X. Zhang, R. Jones, B.A. McCarl, and A. Crimmins, et al. 2015. "Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 9:095004. PNNL-SA-114427. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/095004
  • Kyle G.P., A.M. Thomson, M.A. Wise, and X. Zhang. 2015. "Assessment of the importance of spatial scale in long-term land use modelling of the Midwestern United States." Environmental Modelling & Software 72. PNNL-SA-106492. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.06.006
  • Sinistore J.C., D.J. Reinemann, R.C. Izaurralde, K.R. Cronin, P.J. Meier, T.M. Runge, and X. Zhang. 2015. "Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts." BioEnergy Research 8, no. 3:897-909. PNNL-SA-110079. doi:10.1007/s12155-015-9611-4
  • Wolf J., T.O. West, Y. Le Page, G.P. Kyle, X. Zhang, G. Collatz, and M.L. Imhoff. 2015. "Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29, no. 10:1617-1639. PNNL-SA-108532. doi:10.1002/2015GB005119
  • Zhang X., R.C. Izaurralde, D.H. Manowitz, R. Sahajpal, T.O. West, A.M. Thomson, and M. Xu, et al. 2015. "Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data." Environmental Modelling & Software 63. PNNL-SA-107430. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.10.005
  • Zhou Y., S.J. Smith, K. Zhao, M.L. Imhoff, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, and G.R. Asrar, et al. 2015. "A global map of urban extent from nightlights." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 5:Article No. 054011. PNNL-SA-107842. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054011


  • Robertson G.P., P.R. Grace, R.C. Izaurralde, W.J. Parton, and X. Zhang. 2014. "CO2 emissions from crop residue-derived biofuels." Nature Climate Change 4, no. 11:933-934. PNNL-SA-107405. doi:10.1038/nclimate2402
  • Sahajpal R., X. Zhang, R.C. Izaurralde, I. Gelfand, and G.C. Hurtt. 2014. "Identifying representative crop rotation patterns and grassland loss in the US Western Corn Belt." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 108. PNNL-SA-107429. doi:10.1016/j.compag.2014.08.005
  • Thomson A.M., G.P. Kyle, X. Zhang, V. Bandaru, T.O. West, M.A. Wise, and R.C. Izaurralde, et al. 2014. "The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation." Global Environmental Change 24. PNNL-SA-96190. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.11.019
  • Xiong W., J. Balkovic, M. van der Velde, X. Zhang, R.C. Izaurralde, R. Skalsky, and E. Lin, et al. 2014. "A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC." Ecological Modelling 273. PNNL-SA-101951. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.10.026
  • Zhang X., R. Sahajpal, D. Manowitz, K. Zhao, S.D. LeDuc, M. Xu, and W. Xiong, et al. 2014. "Multi-scale geospatial agroecosystem modeling: a case study on the influence of soil data resolution on carbon budget estimates." Science of the Total Environment 479. PNNL-SA-101402. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.099


  • Bandaru V., R.C. Izaurralde, D.H. Manowitz, R.P. Link, X. Zhang, and W.M. Post. 2013. "Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 42, no. 6:1802-1814. PNNL-SA-93132. doi:10.2134/jeq2013.05.0171
  • Egbendewe-Mondzozo A., S. Swinton, R.C. Izaurralde, D.H. Manowitz, and X. Zhang. 2013. "Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations." Energy Policy 57. PNNL-SA-96295. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.02.021
  • Gelfand I., R. Sahajpal, X. Zhang, R.C. Izaurralde, K.L. Gross, and G.P. Robertson. 2013. "Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest." Nature 493, no. 7433:514-517. PNNL-SA-82714. doi:10.1038/nature11811
  • Zhang X., R.C. Izaurralde, J. Arnold, J.R. Williams, and R. Srinivasan. 2013. "Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation." Science of the Total Environment 463-464. PNNL-SA-95866. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.056
  • Zhao K., D. Valle, S. Popescu, X. Zhang, and B. Malick. 2013. "Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant biochemistry using Bayesian model averaging with variable and band selection." Remote Sensing of Environment 132. PNNL-SA-93571. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.12.026


  • Izaurralde R.C., X. Zhang, R. Sahajpal, and D.H. Manowitz. 2012. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands. PNNL-21283. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands
  • Izaurralde R.C., X. Zhang, R. Sahajpal, and D.H. Manowitz. 2012. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis. PNNL-21284. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis
  • Surendran Nair S., S. Kang, X. Zhang, F. Miguez, R.C. Izaurralde, W.M. Post, and M. Dietze, et al. 2012. "Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 4, no. 6:620-633. PNNL-SA-85367. doi:10.1111/j.1757-1707.2012.01166.x
  • Zhang X. 2012. "Precipitation Estimate Using NEXRAD Ground-Based Radar Images: Validation, Calibration and Spatial Analysis." In Multiscale Hydrological Remote Sensing: Perspectives and Applications, edited by NB Chang and Y Hong. 271-302. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press. PNNL-SA-78987.
  • Zhang X., and K. Zhao. 2012. "Bayesian Neural Networks for Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrologic Modeling: A Comparison of Two Schemes." Water Resources Management 26, no. 8:2365-2382. PNNL-SA-79219. doi:10.1007/s11269-012-0021-5
  • Zhang X., R.C. Izaurralde, Z. Zong, K. Zhao, and A.M. Thomson. 2012. "EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF A MULTI-CORE AWARE MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION TOOL FOR CALIBRATING THE SWAT MODEL." Transactions of the ASABE 55, no. 5:1723-1731. PNNL-SA-78804.
  • Zong Z., J. Job, X. Zhang, M. Nijim, and X. Qin. 2012. "Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 6, no. 1:Article No. 061703. PNNL-SA-91658.


  • Nichols J.A., S. Kang, W.M. Post, D. Wang, V. Bandaru, D.H. Manowitz, and X. Zhang, et al. 2011. "HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 79, no. 2:112-115. PNNL-SA-80620. doi:10.1016/j.compag.2011.08.012
  • Shi P., C. Chen, R. Srinivasan, X. Zhang, T. Cai, X. Fang, and S. Qu, et al. 2011. "Evaluating the SWAT Model for Hydrological Modeling in the Xixian Watershed and A Comparison with the XAJ Model." Water Resources Management 25, no. 10:2595-2612. PNNL-SA-79417. doi:10.1007/s11269-011-9828-8
  • Standart G.D., K.R. Stulken, X. Zhang, and Z. Zong. 2011. "Geospatial Visualization of Global Satellite Images with Vis-EROS." Environmental Modelling & Software 26, no. 7:980-982. PNNL-SA-78899. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.02.012
  • Xie H., X. Zhang, B. Yu, and H. Sharif. 2011. "Performance evaluation of interpolation methods for incorporating rain gauge measurements into NEXRAD precipitation data: A case study in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin." Hydrological Processes 25, no. 24:3711-3720. PNNL-SA-78718. doi:10.1002/hyp.8096
  • Zhang X., F. Liang, B. Yu, and Z. Zong. 2011. "Explicitly integrating parameter, input, and structure uncertainties into Bayesian Neural Networks for probabilistic hydrologic forecasting." Journal of Hydrology 409, no. 3-4:696-709. PNNL-SA-79220. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.002
  • Zhang X., R. Srinivasan, J.G. Arnold, R.C. Izaurralde, and D. Bosch. 2011. "Simultaneous calibration of surface flow and baseflow simulations: a revisit of the SWAT model calibration framework." Hydrological Processes 25, no. 14:2313-2320. PNNL-SA-78749. doi:10.1002/hyp.8058
  • Zhang X., R.C. Izaurralde, J.G. Arnold, N.B. Sammons, D.H. Manowitz, A.M. Thomson, and J. Williams. 2011. "Comment on “Modeling Miscanthus in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Simulate Its Water Quality Effects As a Bioenergy Crop”." Environmental Science & Technology 45, no. 14:6211-6212. PNNL-SA-80385.


  • Sexton A.M., A.M. Sadeghi, X. Zhang, R. Srinivasan, and A. Shirmohammadi. 2010. "USING NEXRAD AND RAIN GAUGE PRECIPITATION DATA FOR HYDROLOGIC CALIBRATION OF SWAT IN A NORTHEASTERN WATERSHED." Transactions of the ASABE 53, no. 3:1501-1510. PNNL-SA-72621.
  • Srinivasan R., X. Zhang, and J.G. Arnold. 2010. "SWAT UNGAUGED: HYDROLOGICAL BUDGET AND CROP YIELD PREDICTIONS IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN." Transactions of the ASABE 53, no. 5:1533-1546. PNNL-SA-79588.
  • Zhang X., and R. Srinivasan. 2010. "GIS based Spatial Precipitation Estimation using Next Generation Radar and Raingauge Data." Environmental Modelling & Software 25, no. 12:1781-1788. PNNL-SA-73030.
  • Zhang X., R. Srinivasan, and M. Van Liew. 2010. "On the use of multi-algorithm, genetically adaptive multi-objective method for multi-site calibration of the SWAT model." Hydrological Processes 24, no. 8:955-969. PNNL-SA-72492.
  • Zhang X., R.C. Izaurralde, D.H. Manowitz, T.O. West, W.M. Post, A.M. Thomson, and V.P. Bandaru, et al. 2010. "An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 2, no. 5:258-277. PNNL-SA-72150. doi:10.1111/j.1757-1707.2010.01046.x


  • Zhang X., S. Raghavan, and D. Bosch. 2009. "Calibration and uncertainty analysis of the SWAT model using Genetic Algorithms and Bayesian Model Averaging." Journal of Hydrology 374, no. 3-4:307-317. PNNL-SA-67367. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.06.023

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