Skip to Main Content U.S. Department of Energy
Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Leon

Leon Clarke

Joint Global Change Research Institute
Engineer, Team Lead

Biography

Dr. Clarke is an expert in the cross-disciplinary analysis of issues relating to energy, technology, policy, and climate change. Dr. Clarke is currently a Senior Scientist and leads the Integrated Modeling and Energy Group at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), a collaboration between the University of Maryland and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Dr. Clarke’s current activities focus on the evolution of national and international energy and agricultural systems, energy technology deployment and technological advance, scenario analysis, international climate policy, and integrated assessment of climate impacts. Dr. Clarke has served in a range of national and international leadership roles, including coordinating lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), member of the National Academy Study on America’s Climate Choices, and coordinator of several multi-institution studies exploring energy, technology, policy, and climate change. Prior to joining PNNL, Dr. Clarke worked as a decision scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluated utility demand-side management programs at Pacific Gas & Electric Company, and worked in energy consulting. Dr. Clarke holds Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in Engineering Economic Systems and Operations Research from Stanford University and B.S. and M.S. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from U.C. Berkeley.

Research Interests

  • Integrated assessment research
  • Technology development deployment strategy
  • Scenario analysis
  • National and international climate and energy policy
  • Climate impacts

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, Stanford University
  • M.S., Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research, Stanford University
  • M.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley
  • B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Iyer G.C., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, C.A. Hartin, and H.C. McJeon, et al. 2018. "Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across nationally determined contributions." Nature Climate Change 8. PNNL-SA-121202. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0039-z
  • Srinivasan S., N. Kholod, V. Chaturvedi, P. Ghosh, R. Mathur, L.E. Clarke, and M. Evans, et al. 2018. "Water for Electricity in India: A Multi-Model Study of Future Challenges and Linkages to Climate Change Mitigation." Applied Energy 210. PNNL-SA-122615. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.04.079
  • Zhou S., Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2018. "Roles of wind and solar energy in China's power sector: Implications of intermittency constraints." Applied Energy 213. PNNL-ACT-SA-10328. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.01.025

2017

  • Calvin K.V., B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Eom, C.A. Hartin, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2017. "The SSP4: A World of Deepening Inequality." Global Environmental Change 42. PNNL-SA-115202. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.06.010
  • Dahowski R.T., C.L. Davidson, S. Yu, J.D. Horing, N. Wei, L.E. Clarke, and S.R. Bender. 2017. "The impact of CCS readiness on the evolution of China’s electric power sector." Energy Procedia 114. PNNL-SA-121580. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1817
  • Davidson C.L., R.T. Dahowski, H.C. McJeon, L.E. Clarke, G.C. Iyer, and M. Muratori. 2017. "The value of CCS under current policy scenarios: NDCs and beyond." Energy Procedia 114. PNNL-SA-121411. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1885
  • Iyer G.C., C.M. Ledna, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.C. McJeon, G.P. Kyle, and J. Williams. 2017. "Measuring Progress from Nationally Determined Contributions to Mid-Century Strategies." Nature Climate Change 7. PNNL-ACT-SA-10269. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0005-9
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, G.P. Kyle, C.M. Ledna, H.C. McJeon, and M.A. Wise. 2017. GCAM-USA Analysis of U.S. Electric Power Sector Transitions. PNNL-26174. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Luo W., M.T. Steptoe, Z. Chang, R.P. Link, L.E. Clarke, and R. Maciejewski. 2017. "Impact of Spatial Scales on the Intercomparison of Climate Scenarios." IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 37, no. 5:40-49. PNNL-SA-130120. doi:10.1109/MCG.2017.3621222
  • Muratori M., C.M. Ledna, H.C. McJeon, G.P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2017. "Cost of Power or Power of Cost: a U.S. Modeling Perspective." Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 77. PNNL-ACT-SA-10131. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.055
  • Muratori M., H. Kheshgi, B.K. Mignone, H.C. McJeon, and L.E. Clarke. 2017. "The future role of CCS in electricity and liquid fuel supply." Energy Procedia 114. PNNL-ACT-SA-10186. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1893
  • Muratori M., H. Kheshgi, B.K. Mignone, L.E. Clarke, H.C. McJeon, and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "Carbon Capture and Storage across Fuels and Sectors in Energy System Transformation Pathways." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 57. PNNL-ACT-SA-10144. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.11.026
  • Pan X., W. Chen, L.E. Clarke, L. Wang, and L. Guannan. 2017. "China's energy system transformation towards the 2 °C goal: Implications of different effort-sharing principles." Energy Policy 103. PNNL-ACT-SA-10244. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.01.020
  • Turner S., M.I. Hejazi, S.H. Kim, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2017. "Climate impacts on hydropower and consequences for global electricity supply investment needs." Energy 141. PNNL-SA-125443. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.11.089

2016

  • Aldy J., W. Pizer, M. Tavoni, L. Reis, K. Akimoto, G.J. Blanford, and C. Carraro, et al. 2016. "Economic Tools to Promote Transparency and Comparability in the Paris Agreement." Nature Climate Change 6. PNNL-ACT-SA-10174. doi:10.1038/nclimate3106
  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, P. Luckow, G.P. Kyle, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2016. "Implications of uncertain future fossil energy resources on bioenergy use and terrestrial carbon emissions." Climatic Change 136, no. 1:57-68. PNWD-SA-10003. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0923-0
  • Clarke L.E., J. McFarland, C. Octaviano, B. van Ruijven, R.H. Beach, K. Daenzer, and S. Herreras Martinez, et al. 2016. "Long-Term Abatement Potential and Current Policy Trajectories in Latin American Countries." Energy Economics 56. PNNL-SA-116184. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2016.01.011
  • Gao J., A. Zhang, S. Lam, X. Zhang, A.M. Thomson, E. Lin, and K. Jiang, et al. 2016. "An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China." Global Change Biology Bioenergy 8, no. 5:880-893. PNNL-SA-121186. doi:10.1111/gcbb.12305
  • Hallegatte S., J. Rogelj, M. Allen, L.E. Clarke, O. Edenhofer, C.B. Field, and P. Friedlingstein, et al. 2016. "Mapping the climate change challenge." Nature Climate Change 6, no. 7:663-668. PNNL-ACT-SA-10142. doi:10.1038/nclimate3057
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and N. Hultman. 2016. "Do national-level policies to promote low-carbon technology deployment pay off for the investor countries?." Energy Policy 98. PNNL-ACT-SA-10178. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.08.017
  • Kim S.H., M.I. Hejazi, L. Liu, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and G.P. Kyle, et al. 2016. "Balancing Global Water Availability and Use at Basin Scale in an Integrated Assessment Model." Climatic Change 136, no. 2:217-231. PNNL-SA-112666. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1604-6
  • van der Zwaan B., K.V. Calvin, and L.E. Clarke. 2016. "Climate Mitigation in Latin America: Implications for Energy and Land Use: Preface to the Special Section on the findings of the CLIMACAP-LAMP Project." Energy Economics 56. PNNL-SA-116534. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2016.05.005
  • van der Zwaan B., T. Kober, S. Calderon, L.E. Clarke, K. Daenzer, A. Kitous, and M. Labriet, et al. 2016. "Energy technology roll-out for climate change mitigation: A multi-model study for Latin America." Energy Economics 56. PNNL-SA-117609. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2015.11.019
  • vanVuuren D., H. van Soest, K. Riahi, L.E. Clarke, V. Krey, E. Kriegler, and J. Rogelj, et al. 2016. "Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways." Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 7:Article No. 075002. PNNL-ACT-SA-10173. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/7/075002
  • Wang L., P.L. Patel, S. Yu, B. Liu, J.D. Mcleod, L.E. Clarke, and W. Chen. 2016. "Win-Win strategies to promote air pollutant control policies and non-fossil energy target regulation in China." Applied Energy 163. PNNL-SA-112613. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.189

2015

  • Arent D., J. Logan, J. Macknick, W. Boyd, K. Medlock, F. O'Sullivan, and J.A. Edmonds, et al. 2015. "A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States." MRS Energy and Sustainability 2. PNNL-SA-111479. doi:10.1557/mre.2015.5
  • Calvin K.V., S. Rose, M.A. Wise, H.C. McJeon, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2015. "Global Climate, Energy, and Economic Implications of International Energy Offsets Programs." Climatic Change 133, no. 4:583-596. PNWD-SA-10499. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1482-3
  • Chaturvedi V., M.I. Hejazi, J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, and M.A. Wise. 2015. "Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 20, no. 3:389-407. PNNL-SA-91741. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9497-4
  • Fawcett A., G.C. Iyer, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, H.C. McJeon, and J. Rogelj, et al. 2015. "Can Paris pledges avert severe climate change?." Science 350, no. 6265:1168-1169. PNNL-ACT-SA-10111. doi:10.1126/science.aad5761
  • Iyer G.C., J.A. Edmonds, A.A. Fawcett, N. Hultman, J. Alsalam, G.R. Asrar, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C." Environmental Research Letters 10, no. 12:Article No. 125002. PNNL-SA-111720. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/125002
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, B.P. Flannery, N. Hultman, H.C. McJeon, and D. Victor. 2015. "Improved Representation of Investment Decisions in Assessments of CO2 Mitigation." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 5:436-440. PNNL-ACT-SA-10042. doi:10.1038/nclimate2553
  • Iyer G.C., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, N. Hultman, and H.C. McJeon. 2015. "Long-term payoffs of near-term low-carbon deployment policies." Energy Policy 86. PNNL-ACT-SA-10084. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.08.004
  • Iyer G.C., N. Hultman, J. Eom, H.C. McJeon, P.L. Patel, and L.E. Clarke. 2015. "Diffusion of low-carbon technologies and the feasibility of long-term climate targets." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 90, no. Part A:103-118. PNNL-SA-93434. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.08.025
  • Kraucunas I.P., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Dirks, J.E. Hathaway, M.I. Hejazi, K.A. Hibbard, and M. Huang, et al. 2015. "Investigating the Nexus of Climate, Energy, Water, and Land at Decision-Relevant Scales: The Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA)." Climatic Change 129, no. 3-4:573-588. PNNL-SA-93553. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1064-9
  • Liu B., M. Evans, L.E. Clarke, S.T. Waldhoff, and S. Yu. 2015. Decarbonizing India’s Power Sector: Preliminary Synthesis of Project Results from the U.S.-India Model Intercomparison. PNNL-24736. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Liu L., M.I. Hejazi, P.L. Patel, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, Y. Zhou, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2015. "Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water-energy nexus." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 94. PNNL-SA-100516. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2014.11.004
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 132, no. 4:739. PNNL-SA-115273. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1452-9
  • McFarland J., Y. Zhou, L.E. Clarke, P. Sullivan, J. Colman, W. Jaglom, and M. Colley, et al. 2015. "Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison." Climatic Change 131, no. 1:111-125. PNNL-SA-111360. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1380-8
  • Smith S.J., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, J. Kejun, E. Kriegler, T. Masui, and K. Riahi, et al. 2015. "Long History of IAM Comparisons." Nature Climate Change 5, no. 5:391. PNNL-SA-108156. doi:10.1038/nclimate2576
  • Yin X., W. Chen, J. Eom, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, P.L. Patel, and S. Yu, et al. 2015. "China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective." Energy Policy 82. PNNL-SA-112651. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.03.021
  • Zhou Y., M.I. Hejazi, S.J. Smith, J.A. Edmonds, H. Li, L.E. Clarke, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2015. "A Comprehensive View of Global Potential for Hydro-generated Electricity." Energy and Environmental Science 8, no. 9:2622-2633. PNNL-SA-109269. doi:10.1039/c5ee00888c

2014

  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, G.P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, L.E. Clarke, and J.A. Edmonds. 2014. "Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:691-704. PNNL-SA-91566. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0897-y
  • Chaturvedi V., J. Eom, L.E. Clarke, and P.R. Shukla. 2014. "Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework." Energy Policy. PNWD-SA-9694. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.021
  • Chaturvedi V., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, K.V. Calvin, and G.P. Kyle. 2014. "Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales." Energy Economics 46. PNNL-SA-94964. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.09.008
  • Clarke L.E., A. Fawcett, J. Weyant, J. McFarland, V. Chaturvedi, and Y. Zhou. 2014. "Technology and U.S. Emissions Reductions Goals: Results of the EMF 24 Modeling Exercise." The Energy Journal 35, no. Special Issue:Article No. 2. PNNL-SA-95218. doi:10.5547/01956574.35.SI1.2
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90338. doi:10.5194/hessd-10-3383-2013
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-90339. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18, no. 8:2859-2883. PNNL-SA-103668. doi:10.5194/hess-18-2859-2014
  • Hejazi M.I., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, V. Chaturvedi, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2014. "LONG-TERM GLOBAL WATER USE PROJECTIONS USING SIX SOCIOECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELING FRAMEWORK." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 81. PNNL-SA-89288. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2013.05.006
  • Krey V., G. Luderer, L.E. Clarke, and E. Kriegler. 2014. "Getting from here to there - energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:369-382. PNNL-SA-95431. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0947-5
  • Kriegler E., J. Weyant, G.J. Blanford, V. Krey, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and A.A. Fawcett, et al. 2014. "The Role of Technology for Achieving Climate Policy Objectives: Overview of the EMF 27 Study on Technology Strategies and Climate Policy Scenarios." Climatic Change 123, no. 3-4:353-367. PNNL-SA-93355. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0953-7
  • McJeon H.C., J.A. Edmonds, N. Bauer, L.E. Clarke, B. Fisher, B.P. Flannery, and J. Hilaire, et al. 2014. "Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas." Nature 514, no. 7523:482-485. PNNL-ACT-SA-10016. doi:10.1038/nature13837
  • Scott M.J., D.S. Daly, Y. Zhou, J.S. Rice, P.L. Patel, H.C. McJeon, and G.P. Kyle, et al. 2014. "Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model." Energy Economics 43, no. 2014:22-33. PNNL-SA-92108. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.012
  • Wise M.A., H.C. McJeon, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, and G.P. Kyle. 2014. "Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade." The Energy Journal 35, no. Special Issue. PNNL-SA-92917. doi:10.5547/01956574.35.si1.9
  • Yu S., J. Eom, M. Evans, and L.E. Clarke. 2014. "A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China." Energy Policy 67. PNNL-SA-99677. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.11.009
  • Yu S., J. Eom, Y. Zhou, M. Evans, and L.E. Clarke. 2014. "Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation." Energy 67. PNNL-SA-99762. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2013.12.072
  • Zhou Y., L.E. Clarke, J. Eom, G.P. Kyle, P.L. Patel, S.H. Kim, and J.A. Dirks, et al. 2014. "Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework." Applied Energy 113. PNNL-SA-94232. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.034

2013

  • Calvin K.V., M.A. Wise, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, G.P. Kyle, P.W. Luckow, and A.M. Thomson. 2013. "Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM." Climatic Change 117, no. 3:545-560. PNNL-SA-83453. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0650-y
  • Chaturvedi V., M.I. Hejazi, J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, E. Davies, and M.A. Wise, et al. 2013. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand. PNNL-22356. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Chaturvedi V., S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, Y. Zhou, G.P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel. 2013. "Model Evaluation and Hindcasting: An Experiment with an Integrated Assessment Model." Energy 61. PNNL-SA-94641. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2013.08.061
  • Edmonds J.A., P.W. Luckow, K.V. Calvin, M.A. Wise, J.J. Dooley, G.P. Kyle, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2013. "Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm-2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?." Climatic Change 118, no. 1:29-43. PNNL-SA-85858. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0678-z
  • Eom J., R.H. Moss, J.A. Edmonds, K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.J. Dooley, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2013. "Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing." In Engineering Response to Climate Change, 2nd Ed., edited by RG Watts. 81-138. Boca Raton, Florida:CRC Press Inc. PNNL-SA-89563.
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Corrigendum to "Influence of climate change mitigation technology on global demands of water for electricity generation"." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 17. PNNL-SA-94269. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.017
  • Kyle G.P., E. Davies, J.J. Dooley, S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, and M.I. Hejazi. 2013. "Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 13. PNNL-SA-90205. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.006
  • Le Page Y., G. Hurtt, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, P.L. Patel, M.A. Wise, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2013. "Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 015018. PNNL-SA-93321. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015018
  • Le Page Y., G. Hurtt, A.M. Thomson, B. Bond-Lamberty, P.L. Patel, M.A. Wise, and K.V. Calvin, et al. 2013. "Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances." Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1:Article No. 015018. PNWD-SA-9809. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015018
  • Zhou S., G.P. Kyle, S. Yu, L.E. Clarke, J. Eom, P.W. Luckow, and V. Chaturvedi, et al. 2013. "Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective." Energy Policy 58. PNNL-SA-91359. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.03.014
  • Zhou Y., J. Eom, and L.E. Clarke. 2013. "The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China." Climatic Change 119, no. 3-4:979-992. PNNL-SA-85863. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0772-x

2012

  • Calvin K.V., L.E. Clarke, V. Krey, G.J. Blanford, K. Jiang, M. Kainuma, and E. Kriegler, et al. 2012. "The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34, no. Supplement 3:S251-S260. PNNL-SA-88519. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.09.003
  • Chaturvedi V., S. Waldhoff, L.E. Clarke, and S. Fujimori. 2012. "What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34, no. Supplement 3:S261-S271. PNNL-SA-88324. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.05.004
  • Clarke L.E., V. Krey, J. Weyant, and V. Chaturvedi. 2012. "Regional energy system variations in global models: Results from the Asian Modeling Exercise." Energy Economics 34, no. Supplement 3:S293-S305. PNWD-SA-9869. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.07.018
  • Edmonds J.A., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, A.C. Janetos, S.H. Kim, M.A. Wise, and H.C. McJeon. 2012. "Integrated Assessment Modeling." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, edited by RA Meyers. 5398-5428. New York, New York:Springer. PNNL-SA-81383.
  • Edmonds J.A., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, and M.A. Wise. 2012. "Energy and technology lessons since Rio." Energy Economics 34, no. Supplement 1:S7-S14. PNNL-SA-86516. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.08.037
  • Eom J., K.V. Calvin, L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, S.H. Kim, R. Kopp, and G.P. Kyle, et al. 2012. "Exploring the Future Role of Asia Utilizing A Scenario Matrix Architecture and Shared Socio-Ecosystem Pathways." Energy Economics 34, no. Supplement 3:S325-S338. PNNL-SA-83863. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2012.03.012
  • Eom J., L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel. 2012. "China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment." Energy 46, no. 1:405-419. PNNL-SA-83864. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2012.08.009
  • Eom J., L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and P.L. Patel. 2012. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment. PNNL-21073. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Zhou Y., P. Luckow, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2012. "Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs." Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 14:7857-7864. PNNL-SA-84749. doi:10.1021/es204706m

2011

  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, S.J. Smith, S.H. Kim, M. Nathan, and M.A. Wise. 2011. "The Value of Advanced End-Use Energy Technologies in Meeting U.S. Climate Policy Goals." The Energy Journal 32, no. Special Issue:Article No. 5. PNWD-SA-9019.
  • McJeon H.C., L.E. Clarke, G.P. Kyle, M.A. Wise, A. Hackbarth, B. Bryant, and R. Lempert. 2011. "Technology Interactions among Low Carbon Energy Technologies: What Can We Learn from a Large Number of Scenarios?." Energy Economics 33, no. 4:619-631. PNNL-SA-69801. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2010.10.007
  • Pugh G., L.E. Clarke, R. Marlay, G.P. Kyle, M.A. Wise, H.C. McJeon, and G. Chan. 2011. "Energy R&D portfolio analysis based on climate change mitigation." Energy Economics 33, no. 4:634-643. PNNL-SA-84909. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2010.11.007
  • Thomson A.M., K.V. Calvin, S.J. Smith, G.P. Kyle, A.C. Volke, P.L. Patel, and S. Delgado Arias, et al. 2011. "RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100." Climatic Change 109, no. 1-2:77-94. PNNL-SA-75003. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0151-4

2010

  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, F. Rong, and S.J. Smith. 2010. "Climate Policy and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector." The Energy Journal Vol. 31, no. 2:145-172. PNNL-SA-68696.

2009

  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, B. Bond-Lamberty, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, G.P. Kyle, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "2.6: Limiting Climate Change to 450 ppm CO2 Equivalent in the 21st Century." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S107-S120. PNNL-SA-66911.
  • Calvin K.V., J.A. Edmonds, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, S.H. Kim, M.A. Wise, and A.M. Thomson, et al. 2009. Land-use Leakage. PNNL-18585. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Calvin K.V., P.L. Patel, A.A. Fawcett, L.E. Clarke, K. Fisher-Vanden, J.A. Edmonds, and S.H. Kim, et al. 2009. "The Distribution and Magnitude of Emissions Mitigation Costs in Climate Stabilization Under Less Than Perfect International Cooperation: SGM Results." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S187-S197. PNNL-SA-67079.
  • Clarke L.E., and J. Weyant. 2009. "Introduction to the EMF 22 special issue on climate change control scenarios." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:63. PNWD-SA-8777.
  • Clarke L.E., J.A. Edmonds, V. Krey, R.G. Richels, S. Rose, and M. Tavoni. 2009. "International Climate Policy Architectures: Overview of the EMF 22 International Scenarios." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S64-S81. PNWD-SA-8776.
  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, G. Pugh, M.A. Wise, K.V. Calvin, J.A. Edmonds, and S.H. Kim. 2009. "The Value of Advanced Technology in Meeting 2050 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets in the United States." Energy Economics 31, no. 2:S254-S267. PNNL-SA-68592.
  • Wigley T.M., L.E. Clarke, J.A. Edmonds, H.D. Jacoby, H.D. Jacoby, S. Paltsev, and H.M. Pitcher, et al. 2009. "Uncertainties in climate stabilization." Journal of Climate 97, no. 1-2:85-121. PNNL-SA-55498.
  • Wise M.A., K.V. Calvin, A.M. Thomson, L.E. Clarke, B. Bond-Lamberty, R.D. Sands, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2009. "Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy." Science 324, no. 5931:1183-1186. PNNL-SA-63505.

2008

  • Baker E.D., L.E. Clarke, and E. Shittu. 2008. "Technical Change and the Marginal Cost of Abatement." Energy Economics 30, no. 6:2799-2816. PNNL-SA-62948. doi:10.1016/j.eneco.2008.01.004
  • Clarke L.E., J. Weyant, and J.A. Edmonds. 2008. "On the sources of technological change: What do the models assume." Energy Economics 30, no. 2:409-424. PNNL-SA-62947.
  • Edmonds J.A., L.E. Clarke, J.P. Lurz, and M.A. Wise. 2008. "Stabilizing CO2 Concentrations with Incomplete International Cooperation." Climate Policy 8, no. 4:355-376. PNNL-SA-57554.
  • Edmonds J.A., L.E. Clarke, M.A. Wise, H.M. Pitcher, and S.J. Smith. 2008. "Implications for the USA of stabilization of radiative forcing at 3.4 W/m2." Climate Policy 8. PNNL-SA-57662.
  • Kyle G.P., L.E. Clarke, and S.J. Smith. 2008. "The Value of Advanced Technologies in the U.S. Buildings Sector in Climate Change Mitigation." In Scaling Up: Building Tomorrow's Solutions : Proceedings from the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 267. Washington Dc:ACEEE. PNNL-SA-59585.
  • Thomson A.M., R. Izaurralde, S.J. Smith, and L.E. Clarke. 2008. "Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration." Global Environmental Change. Part A, Human and Policy Dimensions 18, no. 1:192-203. PNNL-SA-53033.

2007

  • Edmonds J.A., and L.E. Clarke. 2007. "Forum." Issues in Science and Technology 23, no. 2:16-17. PNNL-SA-52455.
  • Edmonds J.A., L.E. Clarke, M.A. Wise, and J.P. Lurz. 2007. International CO2 Stabilization Scenarios with Less-Than-Perfect “Where” and “When” Flexibility. PNNL-16932. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Edmonds J.A., M.A. Wise, J.J. Dooley, S.H. Kim, S.J. Smith, P.J. Runci, and L.E. Clarke, et al. 2007. Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program. College Park, Maryland:Battetlle Memorial Institute. PNNL-SA-51712.
  • Kyle G.P., S.J. Smith, L.E. Clarke, S.H. Kim, and M.A. Wise. 2007. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions. PNNL-17039. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Richels R.G., T. Rutherford, G.J. Blanford, and L. Clarke. 2007. "Managing the transition to climate stabilization." Climate Policy 7, no. 5:409-428. PNWD-SA-8377.
  • Rong F., L.E. Clarke, and S.J. Smith. 2007. Climate Change and the Long-Term Evolution of the U.S. Buildings Sector. PNNL-16869. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2006

  • Baker E.D., L.E. Clarke, and J. Weyant. 2006. "Optimal Technology R&D in the Face of Climate Uncertainty." Climatic Change 78, no. 1:157-179. PNNL-SA-45911.
  • Clarke L.E., J. Weyant, and A. Birky. 2006. "On the Sources of Technological Advance: Assessing the Evidence." Energy Economics 28, no. 5-6:579-595. PNNL-SA-45832.
  • Clarke L.E., M.A. Wise, M. Placet, R. Izaurralde, J.P. Lurz, S.H. Kim, and S.J. Smith, et al. 2006. Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Advanced Technology Scenarios. PNNL-16078. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Runci P.J., L.E. Clarke, and J.J. Dooley. 2006. "Energy Research (Letter)." Issues in Science and Technology XXII, no. 3:10-11. PNNL-SA-47701.

Science at PNNL

Core Research Areas

User Facilities

Centers & Institutes

Research Highlights

View All Research Highlights & Staff Accomplishments

RSS Feed

Contacts