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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information

Jay Grate

Materials Synthesis
Lab Fellow
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K4-13
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Grate has a distinguished career in chemically selective materials, chemical microsensors and analytical fluidics that integrates aspects of the chemical sciences, material sciences and measurement sciences into new microanalytical principles, methods, and systems. His research efforts have spanned basic research to prototype detector development. He has conducted original research in analytical chemistry and sensing with regard to chemical vapors; biological toxins and pathogens; radionuclides sensing and radiochemical analysis; and the application of nanostructured materials in analtyical chemistry and catalysis. He also has an interest in programmable automated analysis systems as they apply to deployment of sensors or analyzers at-site, and for laboratory automation.

He has published over 100 papers in peer reviewed journals, and over a dozen book chapters. He is author or coauthor on 17 patents, several of which have been licensed. His research accomplishments have been noted in scientific news articles in Chemical and Engineering News, Science, Analytical Chemistry, Physics Today, Science News, and Chemistry and Industry. His work has appeared on the covers of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Reviews, and Polymer News. He received an R&D 100 Award in 2004 and an ACS Northwest Regional Industrial Innovation Award in 2007 for his work in developing rationally designed polymers for chemical threat detection. He became a Battelle Distinguished Inventor in 2009.

Research Interests

  • Polymeric and nanoparticle sensing materials
  • Chemical interactions and selectivity
  • Array-based chemical vapor detection
  • Advanced chemometric methods
  • Flow injection and sequential injection analysis
  • Renewable surface separation and sensing
  • Automated radiochemical analysis and radionuclide sensors
  • Bioanalytical sample processing and detection
  • Pathogen and toxindetection
  • Nanostructured functional materials for analytical chemistry and catalysis

Education and Credentials

  • PhD, chemistry, University of California, San Diego, 1983
  • MS, chemistry, University of California, San Diego, 1980
  • BA, Honors in chemistry, Rollins College (summa cum laude), 1978

PNNL Publications


  • Newcomb CJ, N Qafoku, JW Grate, VL Bailey, and JJ De Yoreo. 2017. "Developing a molecular picture of soil organic matter-mineral interactions by quantifying organo-mineral binding." Nature Communications 8:Article No. 396.  doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00407-9
  • Newcomb CJ, N Qafoku, JW Grate, VL Bailey, and JJ De Yoreo. 2017. "Developing a Molecular Picture of Soil Organic Matter-Mineral Interactions by Quantifying Organo-Mineral Binding." Nature Communications 8:Article No. 396.  doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00407-9
  • Abellan P, TH Moser, IT Lucas, JW Grate, JE Evans, and ND Browning. 2017. "The Formation of Cerium (III) Hydroxide Nanoparticles by a Radiation Mediated Increase in Local pH." RSC Advances 7(7):3831-3837.  doi:10.1039/c6ra27066b
  • Ahn SH, JW Grate, and EF Darve. 2017. "Efficiently Sampling Conformations and Pathways Using the Concurrent Adaptive Sampling (CAS) Algorithm." Journal of Chemical Physics 147(7):Article No. 074115.  doi:10.1063/1.4999097
  • Arnquist IJ, EW Hoppe, M Bliss, and JW Grate. 2017. "Mass Spectrometric Determination of Uranium and Thorium in High Radiopurity Polymers using Ultra Low Background Electroformed Copper Crucibles for Dry Ashing." Analytical Chemistry 89(5):3101-3107.  doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04854
  • Grate JW, JJ Gonzalez, MJ O'Hara, CM Kellogg, SS Morrison, DW Koppenaal, GC Chan, X Mao, V Zorba, and R Russo. 2017. "Solid Matrix Transformation and Tracer Addition using Molten Ammonium Bifluoride Salt as a Sample Preparation Method for Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry." Analyst 142(18):3333-3340.  doi:10.1039/C7AN00777A
  • Hufschmid RD, CJ Newcomb, JW Grate, JJ De Yoreo, ND Browning, and N Qafoku. 2017. "Direct visualization of aggregate morphology and dynamics in a model soil organic-mineral system." Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4(5):186-191.  doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00068
  • O'Hara MJ, CM Kellogg, CM Parker, SS Morrison, JF Corbey, and JW Grate. 2017. "Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis." Chemical Geology 466:341-351.  doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.06.023


  • Grate JW, M Bliss, OT Farmer, III, LMP Thomas, and M Liezers. 2016. "LA-ICP/MS Analysis of Plastics as a Method to Support Polymer Assay in the Assessment of Materials for Low Background Detectors." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 307(3):2201-2207.  doi:10.1007/s10967-015-4600-9
  • Arnquist IJ, LMP Thomas, JW Grate, M Bliss, and EW Hoppe. 2016. "A Dry Ashing Assay Method for the Trace Determination of Th and U in Polymers Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 307(3):1883-1890.  doi:10.1007/s10967-015-4343-7
  • Grate JW, KF Mo, and MD Daily. 2016. "Triazine-based Sequence Defined Polymers with Side Chain Diversity and Backbone-Backbone Interaction Motifs." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55(12):3925-3930.  doi:10.1002/anie.201509864
  • Moore JS, SS Xantheas, JW Grate, TW Wietsma, E Gratton, and A Vasdekis. 2016. "Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography." Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics 54(1):98-103.  doi:10.1002/polb.23961


  • Grate JW, KF Mo, Y Shin, A Vasdekis, MG Warner, RT Kelly, G Orr, D Hu, KJ Dehoff, FJ Brockman, and MJ Wilkins. 2015. "Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments." Bioconjugate Chemistry 26(3):593-601.  doi:10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00048


  • Vasdekis AE, MJ Wilkins, JW Grate, RT Kelly, A Konopka, SS Xantheas, and MT Chang. 2014. "Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography." Lab on a Chip 14(12):2072-2080.  doi:10.1039/C4LC00226A


  • Grate JW, RG Ewing, and DA Atkinson. 2013. "Comment on "Tunable generation and adsorption of energetic compounds in the vapor phase at trace levels: A tool for testing and developing sensitive and selective substrates for explosive detection"." Analytical Chemistry 85(5):3013-3015.  doi:10.1021/ac303294c
  • Bandara DMUC, AM Tartakovsky, M Oostrom, BJ Palmer, JW Grate, and C Zhang. 2013. "Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics pore-scale simulations of unstable immiscible flow in porous media." Advances in Water Resources 62(Part C):356-369.  doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.09.014
  • Ewing RG, MJ Waltman, DA Atkinson, JW Grate, and P Hotchkiss. 2013. "The vapor pressures of explosives." Trends in Analytical Chemistry. TrAC 42:35-48.  doi:10.1016/j.trac.2012.09.010
  • Grate JW, C Zhang, MJ Wilkins, MG Warner, NC Anheier, Jr, JD Suter, RT Kelly, and M Oostrom. 2013. "Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration." In Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications V, April 29, 2013, Baltimore, Maryland. Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 8725, ed. T George, M Salif Islam and AK Dutta, p. Paper No. 87522.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.2018520
  • Grate JW, MG Warner, JW Pittman, KJ Dehoff, TW Wietsma, C Zhang, and M Oostrom. 2013. "Silane Modification of Glass and Silica Surfaces to Obtain Equally Oil-Wet Surfaces in Glass-Covered Silicon Micromodel Applications." Water Resources Research 49(8):4724-4729.  doi:10.1002/wrcr.20367


  • Grate JW, RG Ewing, and DA Atkinson. 2012. "Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research." Trends in Analytical Chemistry. TrAC 41:1-14.  doi:10.1016/j.trac.2012.08.007
  • Thallapally PK, JW Grate, and RK Motkuri. 2012. "Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal ." Chemical Communications 48(3):347-349.  doi:10.1039/c1cc14685h
  • Dehoff KJ, M Oostrom, C Zhang, and JW Grate. 2012. "Evaluation of two-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure relations for unstable displacements in a pore network." Vadose Zone Journal 11(4):, doi:10.2136/vzj2012.0024
  • Egorov O, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 2012. "Automated Radioanalytical System Incorporating Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation, Chemical Separation, and Online Radiometric Detection for the Monitoring of Total 99Tc in Nuclear Waste Processing Streams." Analytical Chemistry 84(7):3090-3098.  doi:10.1021/ac300418b
  • Grate JW, RT Kelly, JD Suter, and NC Anheier, Jr. 2012. "Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure ." Lab on a Chip 12(22):4796-4801.  doi:10.1039/C2LC40776K
  • Grate JW, KJ Dehoff, MG Warner, JW Pittman, TW Wietsma, C Zhang, and M Oostrom. 2012. "Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions." Langmuir 28(18):7182-7188.  doi:10.1021/la204322k


  • Zhang C, M Oostrom, JW Grate, TW Wietsma, and MG Warner. 2011. "Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore Network Micromodel." Environmental Science & Technology 45(17):7581-7588.  doi:10.1021/es201858r
  • Zhang C, M Oostrom, TW Wietsma, JW Grate, and MG Warner. 2011. "Influence of Viscous and Capillary Forces on Immiscible Fluid Displacement: Pore-Scale Experimental Study in a Water-Wet Micromodel Demonstrating Viscous and Capillary Fingering." Energy and Fuels 25(8):3493-3505.  doi:10.1021/ef101732k
  • Brown GE, A Chaka, DK Shuh, EE Roden, CJ Werth, NJ Hess, AR Felmy, KM Rosso, DR Baer, VL Bailey, ME Bowden, JW Grate, DW Hoyt, LR Kuprat, AS Lea, KT Mueller, M Oostrom, G Orr, L Pasa-Tolic, C Plata, EW Robinson, RG Teller, S Thevuthasan, H Wang, HS Wiley, and MJ Wilkins. 2011. EMSL Geochemistry, Biogeochemistry and Subsurface Science-Science Theme Advisory Panel MeetingPNNL-20601, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Grate JW, MJ O'Hara, AF Farawila, M Douglas, MM Haney, SL Peterson, TC Maiti, and CL Aardahl. 2011. "Extraction Chromatographic Methods in the Sample Preparation Sequence for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Plutonium Isotopes." Analytical Chemistry 83(23): 9086-9091.  doi:10.1021/ac202150v
  • Grate JW, MJ O'Hara, AF Farawila, RM Ozanich, and SL Owsley, Jr. 2011. "Automation of Column-based Radiochemical Separations: A Comparison of Fluidic, Robotic, and Hybrid Architectures." In Proceedings in Radiochemistry: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the Asia-Pacific Symposium on Radiochemistry (APSORC-09), November 29-December 4, 2009, Napa, California , vol. 1, pp. 13-19.  Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich, Germany. 


  • Fifield LS, and JW Grate. 2010. "Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups." Carbon 48(7):2085-2088.  doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2010.02.019
  • Grate JW, C Zhang, TW Wietsma, MG Warner, NC Anheier, Jr, BE Bernacki, G Orr, and M Oostrom. 2010. "A note on the visualization of wetting film structures and a nonwetting immiscible fluid in a pore network micromodel using a solvatochromic dye ." Water Resources Research 46:W11602.  doi:10.1029/2010WR009419
  • Grate JW, RM Ozanich, MG Warner, CJ Bruckner-Lea, and JD Marks. 2010. "Advances in Assays and Analytical Approaches for Botulinum Toxin Detection." Trends in Analytical Chemistry. TrAC 29(10):1137-1156.  doi:10.1016/j.trac.2010.07.005


  • Grate JW, MH Abraham, and BM Wise. 2009. "Design and Information Content of Arrays of Sorption-based Vapor Sensors using Solubility Interactions and Linear Solvation Energy Relationships." Chapter 9 in Computational Methods for Sensor Material Selection, ed. MA Ryan, AV Shevade, CJ Taylor et al , pp. 193-220.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Grate JW, MJ O'Hara, and O Egorov. 2009. "Automation of Extraction Chromatograhic and Ion Exchange Separations for Radiochemical Analysis and Monitoring." In Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances, Volume 19.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 
  • Grate JW, MJ O'Hara, O Egorov, and SR Burge. 2009. "Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring." ECS Transactions 19(6):301-304.  doi:10.1149/1.3118565
  • Devol TA, JP Clements, AF Farawila, MJ O'Hara, O Egorov, and JW Grate. 2009. "Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 282(2):623-628. 
  • Grate JW, MG Warner, RM Ozanich, KD Miller, HA Colburn, BP Dockendorff, KC Antolick, NC Anheier, Jr, MA Lind, J Lou, JD Marks, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2009. "Renewable Surface Fluorescence Sandwich Immunoassay Biosensor for Rapid Sensitive Botulinum Toxin Detection in an Automated Fluidic Format." Analyst 134(5):987 - 996.  doi:10.1039/B900794F
  • Kim BC, D Lopez-Ferrer, S Lee, H Ahn, S Nair, S Kim, BS Kim, K Petritis, DG Camp, II, JW Grate, RD Smith, Y Koo, MB Gu, and J Kim. 2009. "Highly stable trypsin-aggregate coatings on polymer nanofibers for repeated protein digestion." Proteomics 9(7):1893-900. 
  • Kim BC, D Lopez-Ferrer, S Lee, H Ahn, S Nair, SH Kim, BS Kim, K Petritis, DG Camp, II, JW Grate, RD Smith, Y Koo, MB Gu, and J Kim. 2009. "Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion." Proteomics 9(7):1893-1900. 
  • Lee J, HB Na, BC Kim, JH Lee, B Lee, JH Kwak, Y Hwang, JG Park, MB Gu, J Kim, J Joo, CH Shin, JW Grate, T Hyeon, and J Kim. 2009. "Magnetically-Separable and Highly-Stable Enzyme System Based on Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates Shipped in Magnetite-Coated Mesoporous Silica ." Journal of Materials Chemistry 19(42):7864-7870 . 
  • O'Hara MJ, AF Farawila, and JW Grate. 2009. "AUTOMATED RADIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY: APPLICATIONS FOR THE LABORATORY AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESS MONITORING." In 2nd JAPAN-IAEA Workshop on Advanced Safeguards Technology for the Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle, November 10-13, 2009, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, Japan.  International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. 
  • O'Hara MJ, SR Burge, and JW Grate. 2009. "Automated radioanalytical system for the determination of Sr-90 in environmental water samples by Y-90 Cherenkov radiation counting." Analytical Chemistry 81(3):1228-1237. 
  • O'Hara MJ, SR Burge, and JW Grate. 2009. "Quantification of Technetium-99 in Complex Groundwater Matrixes using a Radiometric Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensor in an Equilibration-based Sensing Approach." Analytical Chemistry 81(3):1068-1078. 
  • Ozanich RM, CJ Bruckner-Lea, MG Warner, KD Miller, KC Antolick, JD Marks, J Lou, and JW Grate. 2009. "Rapid Multiplexed Flow Cytometric Assay for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Using an Automated Fluidic Microbead-Trapping Flow Cell for Enhanced Sensitivity." Analytical Chemistry 81(14):5783-5793. 
  • Ozanich RM, KC Antolick, CJ Bruckner-Lea, KJ Bunch, BP Dockendorff, JW Grate, MA Nash, and AJ Tyler. 2009. "Bead-Based Assays for Biodetection: From Flow-Cytometry to Microfluidics." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Optics and Photonics in Global Homeland Security V and Biometric Technology for Human Identification VI , vol. 7306, ed. CS Halvorson, et al, p. Art. No. 730601.  SPIE, Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.819951
  • Warner CL, CJ Bruckner-Lea, JW Grate, TM Straub, GJ Posakony, NB Valentine, RM Ozanich, LJ Bond, MM Matzke, BP Dockendorff, CO Valdez, PLJ Valdez, and SL Owsley, Jr. 2009. "A Flow-Through Ultrasonic Lysis System for the Disruption of Bacterial Spores." JALA. Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation 14(5):277-284. 
  • Warner MG, JW Grate, AJ Tyler, RM Ozanich, KD Miller, J Lou, JD Marks, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2009. "Quantum dot immunoassays in renewable surface column and 96-well plate formats for the fluorescence detection of Botulinum neurotoxin using high-affinity antibodies." Biosensors and Bioelectronics 25(1):179-184. 


  • Grate JW, OB Egorov, MJ O'Hara, and TA Devol. 2008. "Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow Injection Solid-Phase Absorptiometry to Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors with Radiometric Detection." Chemical Reviews 108(2):543-562.  doi:10.1021/cr068115u
  • Grate JW, RM Ozanich, JS Hartman, MJ O'Hara, and O Egorov. 2008. "Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Environmental Monitoring." In IEEE Sensors 2007: 6th IEEE Conference on Sensors, pp. 1357-1360.  IEEE , New York, NY.  doi:10.1109/ICSENS.2007.4388663
  • Grate JW. 2008. "Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing." Chemical Reviews 108(2):726-745.  doi:10.1021/cr068109y
  • Kim J, JW Grate, and P Wang. 2008. "Nanobiocatalysis and Its Potential Applications." Trends in Biotechnology 26(11):639-646.  doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.07.009
  • O'Hara MJ, PC Durst, JW Grate, O Egorov, and TA Devol. 2008. "RAPID AUTOMATED RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER FOR DETERMINATION OF TARGETED RADIONUCLIDES IN NUCLEAR PROCESS STREAMS." In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Facility Operations-Safeguards Interface, March 30-April 4, 2008, Portland, Oregon, p. Paper No. 88.  American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL. 
  • O'Hara MJ, PC Durst, JW Grate, TA Devol, O Egorov, and JP Clements. 2008. "AUTOMATED PROCESS MONITORING: APPLYING PROVEN AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES TO INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS NEEDS." In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Institue of Nuclear Materials Management , p. Paper No. 351.  Institue of Nuclear Materials Management, Northbrook, IL. 
  • Paxton WF, MJ O'Hara, SM Peper, SL Petersen, and JW Grate. 2008. "Accelerated Analyte Uptake on Single Beads in Microliter-scale Batch Separations using Acoustic Streaming: Plutonium Uptake by Anion Exchange for Analysis by Mass Spectrometry ." Analytical Chemistry 80(11):4070-4077.  doi:10.1021/ac800160n
  • Smith LE, A Dougan, S Tobin, B Cipiti, MH Ehinger, AJ Bakel, R Bean, JW Grate, P Santi, S Bryan, MT Kinlaw, JM Schwantes, T Burr, SA Lehn, K Tolk, D Chichester, H Menlove, D Vo, DC Duckworth, P Merkle, TF Wang, F Duran, L Nakae, GA Warren, S Friedrich, and M Rabin. 2008. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development RoadmapPNNL-18099, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Kim MI, J Kim, J Lee, H Jia, HB Na, J Youn, JH Kwak, A Dohnalkova, JW Grate, P Wang, T Hyeon, HG Park, and HN Chang. 2007. "Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates in Hierarchically-Ordered Mesoporous Silica: A Simple and Effective Method for Enzyme Stabilization." Biotechnology and Bioenegineering 96(2):210-218.  doi:10.1002/bit.21107
  • Ozanich RM, KC Antolick, CJ Bruckner-Lea, BP Dockendorff, AN Easterday, HC Edberg, JW Grate, S Iyer, LH Johnson, TM Straub, CO Valdez, and MG Warner. 2007. "Use of a Novel Fluidics Microbead Trap/Flow-cell Enhances Speed and Sensitivity of Bead-Based Bioassays." JALA. Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation 12(5):303-310.  doi:10.1016/j.jala.2007.05.002


  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 2006. "Equilibration-Based Preconcentrating Minicolumn Sensors for Trace Level Monitoring of Radionuclides and Metal Ions in Water without Consumable Reagents." Analytical Chemistry 78(15):5480-5490. 
  • Kim J, JW Grate, and P Wang. 2006. "Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization." Chemical Engineering Science 61(3):1017-1026. 
  • Kim J, H Jia, CW Lee, S Chung, JH Kwak, Y Shin, A Dohnalkova, BG Kim, P Wang, and JW Grate. 2006. "Single Enzyme Nanoparticles in Nanoporous Silica: A Heirachical Approach to Enzyme Stabilization and Immobilization." Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39:474-480. 
  • Varnum SM, MG Warner, BP Dockendorff, NC Anheier, Jr, J Lou, JD Marks, LA Smith, MJ Feldhaus, JW Grate, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2006. "Enzyme-amplified protein micorarray and a fluidic renewable surface fluorescence immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin detection using high-affinity recombinant antibodies." Analytica Chimica Acta 570(2):137-143. 
  • Zheng F, DL Baldwin, LS Fifield, NC Anheier, Jr, CL Aardahl, and JW Grate. 2006. "Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Paper as a Sorbent for Organic Vapor Preconcentration." Analytical Chemistry 78(7):2442-2446. 


  • Grate JW, DA Nelson, and RL Skaggs. 2005. "Sorptive Properties of Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films for Chemical Vapor Sensors and Arrays." Chapter 19 in ACS Symposium Series 890, Nanotechnology and the Environment: Applications and Implications, vol. 890, ed. B. Karn, T. Masciangioli, W. Zhang, V. Colvin, P. Alivisat, pp. 157-162.  American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.. 
  • Grate JW, NC Anheier, Jr, and DL Baldwin. 2005. "Progressive Thermal Desorption of Vapor Mixtures from a Preconcentrator with a Porous Metal Foam Internal Architecture and Variable Thermal Ramp Rates." Analytical Chemistry 77(6):1867-1875.  doi:10.1021/ac049142s
  • Grate JW, OB Egorov, and MJ O'Hara. 2005. "Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides." Chapter 14 in Subsurface Contamination Remediation: Accomplishments of the Environmental Management Science Program Symposium, ACS Symposium Series, vol. 904, ed. Edgar Berkey and Tiffany Zachry, pp. 322-341.  American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 
  • Addleman RS, MJ O'Hara, JW Grate, and OB Egorov. 2005. "Chemically Enhanced Alpha-Energy Spectroscopy in Liquids." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 263(2):291-294. 
  • Addleman RS, MJ O'Hara, TD Marks, JW Grate, and OB Egorov. 2005. "Direct Actinide Assay with Surface Passivated Silicon Diodes." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 263(2):295-300. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, JW Grate, MA Knopf, G Anderson, and JS Hartman. 2005. "Radiochemical Sensor System for the Analysis of Tc-99 (VII) in Groundwater ." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 264(2):495-500. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 2005. "Automated Radiochemical Analysis of Total 99TC in Aged Nuclear Waste Processing Streams." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 263(3):629-633. 
  • Egorov OB, RS Addleman, MJ O'Hara, TD Marks, and JW Grate. 2005. "Direct Measurement of Alpha Emitters in Liquids using Passivated Ion Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) Diode Detectors." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 537(3):600-609. 
  • Herricks TE, SH Kim, J Kim, D Li, JH Kwak, JW Grate, SH Kim, and Y Xia. 2005. "Direct Fabrication of Enzyme-Carrying Polymer Nanofibers by Electrospinning." Journal of Materials Chemistry 15(31):3241-3245. 
  • Kim BC, S Nair, J Kim, JH Kwak, JW Grate, SH Kim, and MB Gu. 2005. "Preparation of biocatalytic nanofibers with high activity and stability via enzyme aggregate coating on polymer nanofibers." Nanotechnology 16(7):S382-S388.  doi:10.1088/0957-4484/16/7/011
  • Kim J, and JW Grate. 2005. "Nano-Biotechnology in Using Enzymes for Environmental Remediation: Single-Enzyme Nanoparticles ." In ACS Symposium Series, Nanotechnology and the Environment: Applications and Implications, vol. 890, ed. B. Karn, T. Masciangioli, W. Zhang, V. Colvin, P. Alivisatos, pp. 220-225.  American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 
  • Kim J, J Lee, HB Na, BC Kim, J Youn, JH Kwak, K Moon, E Lee, J Kim, J Park, A Dohnalkova, HG Park, MB Gu, HN Chang, JW Grate, and T Hyeon. 2005. "A Magnetically Separable, Highly Stable Enzyme System Based on Nanocomposites of Enzymes and Magnetic Nanoparticles Shipped in Hierarchically Ordered, Mesocellular, Mesoporous Silica." Small 1(12):1203-1207.  doi:10.1022/smll.200500245
  • Lee D, J Lee, J Kim, J Kim, HB Na, B Kim, CH Shin, JH Kwak, A Dohnalkova, JW Grate, T Hyeon, and HS Kim. 2005. "Simple Fabrication of a Highly Sensitive and Fast Glucose Biosensor using Enzyme Immobilized in Mesocellular Carbon Foam." Advanced Materials 17(23):2828-2833. 
  • Lee J, J Kim, J Kim, H Jia, MI Kim, JH Kwak, S Jin, A Dohnalkova, HG Park, HN Chang, P Wang, JW Grate, and T Hyeon. 2005. "Simple Synthesis of Hierarchically Ordered Mesocellular Mesoporous Silica Materials Hosting Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates." Small 1(7):744-753. 
  • Straub TM, BP Dockendorff, MD Quinonez-Diaz, CO Valdez, JI Shutthanandan, BJ Tarasevich, JW Grate, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2005. "Automated Methods for Multiplexed Pathogen Detection ." Journal of Microbiological Methods 62(3):303-316. 


  • Grate JW, and J Kim. 2004. "Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles." In Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, ed. James A. Schwarz, Cristian I. Contescu, and Karol Putyera, pp. 235-239.  Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 
  • Grate JW, DA Nelson, RL Skaggs, RE Synovec, and GM Gross. 2004. "Metal Nanoparticles Protected with Monolayers: Applications for Chemical Vapor Sensing and Gas Chromatography." In Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 3, ed. James A. Schwarz, Cristian I. Contescu, and Karol Putyera, pp. 1859-1867.  Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 
  • Warner MG, BP Dockendorff, MJ Feldhaus, NC Anheier, Jr, JD Marks, JW Grate, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2004. "Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Botulinum Toxin on a Flexible Microfluidics Platform." In Chemical Sensors VI: Chemical and Biological Sensors and Analytical Methods, vol. 2004-08, ed. C. Bruckner-Lea, P. Vanysek, G. Hunter, et al., pp. 376-380.  Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 2004. "Microwave-Assisted Sample Treatment in a Fully Automated Flow-Based Instrument: Oxidation of Reduced Technetium Species in the Analysis of Total Technetium-99 in Caustic Aged Nuclear Waste Samples." Analytical Chemistry 76(14):3869-3877. 
  • Gross GM, JW Grate, and RE Synovec. 2004. "Development and Evaluation of Gold-Centered Monolayer Protected Nanoparticle Stationary Phases for Gas Chromatography." Journal of Chromatography A 1060(1-2):225-236. 
  • Gross GM, JW Grate, and RE Synovec. 2004. "Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticles as an Efficient Stationary Phase for Open Tubular Gas Chromatography using a Square Capillary Model for Chip-Based Gas Chromatography in Square Cornered Microfabricated Channels ." Journal of Chromatography A 1029(1-2):185-192. 
  • Gross GM, BJ Prazen, JW Grate, and RE Synovec. 2004. "High-Speed Gas Chromatography using Synchronized Dual-Valve Injection." Analytical Chemistry 76(13):3517-3524. 
  • Saraf LV, JS Young, AS Lea, S Thevuthasan, GC Dunham, JW Grate, and DR Baer. 2004. "Lateral Ordering of Microfabricated SiO2 Nanotips." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 7(1):C7-C9. 


  • Fulton JL, GS Deverman, CR Yonker, JW Grate, J Deyoung, and JB Mcclain. 2003. "Thin Fluoropolymer Films and Nanoparticle Coatings from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solutions with Electrostatic Collection." Polymer 44(13):3627 -3632. 
  • Grate JW, and DA Nelson. 2003. "Sorptive Polymeric Materials and Photopatterned Films for Gas Phase Chemical Microsensors." Proceedings of the IEEE 91(6):881-889. 
  • Grate JW, and OB Egorov. 2003. "Automated Radiochemical Separation, Analysis, and Sensing." Chapter 14 in Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis, 2nd Edition, ed. Michael F. L'Annunziata, pp. 1129-1164.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 
  • Grate JW, and OB Egorov. 2003. "Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides." In Extended Abstracts of the 225 ACS National Meeting, p. ENVR 252.  American Chemical Society, New Orleans, LA. 
  • Grate JW, BM Wise, and NB Gallagher. 2003. Classical Least Squares Transformations of Sensor Array Pattern Vectors into Vapor DescriptorsPNNL-14169, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Grate JW, BM Wise, and NB Gallagher. 2003. "Classical Least Squares Transformations of Sensor Array Pattern Vectors into Vapor Descriptors. Simulation of Arrays of Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors with Mass-Plus-Volume Transduction Mechanisms." Analytica Chimica Acta 490(1-2):169-184. 
  • Grate JW, CJ Bruckner-Lea, AE Jarrell, and DP Chandler. 2003. "Automated Sample Preparation method for suspension arrays using renewable surface separations with multiplexed flow cytometry fluorescence detection ." Analytica Chimica Acta 478(1):85-98. 
  • Grate JW, CJ Bruckner-Lea, AE Jarrell, and DP Chandler. 2003. "Erratum to: Automated Sample Preparation Method for Suspension Arrays using Renewable Surface Separations with Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Fluorescence Detection." Analytica Chimica Acta 482(1):147. 
  • Grate JW, DA Nelson, and RL Skaggs. 2003. "Sorptive Behavior of Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films: Implications for Chemical Vapor Sensing ." Analytical Chemistry 75(8):1868-1879. 
  • Grate JW. 2003. "Sorptive Behavior of Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticle Films Containing Alkanethiols and Alkanedithiols." Analytical Chemistry 75(23):6759. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, RS Addleman, and JW Grate. 2003. "Automation of Radiochemical Analysis: From Groundwater Monitoring to Nuclear Waste Analysis." In ACS Symposium Series: Radioanalytical Methods in Interdisciplinary Research. , vol. 868, ed. Carola A. Laue and Kenneth L. Nash, pp. 246-270.  American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.. 
  • Gross GM, DA Nelson, JW Grate, and RE Synovec. 2003. "Monolayer-Protected Gold Nanoparticles as a Stationary Phase for Open Tubular Gas Chromatography." Analytical Chemistry 75(17):4558-4564. 
  • Hope JL, KJ Johnson, MA Cavelti, BJ Prazen, JW Grate, and RE Synovec. 2003. "High-Speed Gas Chromatographic Separations with Diaphragm Valve-Based Injection and Chemometric Analysis as a Gas Chromatographic "Sensor"." Analytica Chimica Acta 490:223-230. 
  • Kim J, and JW Grate. 2003. "Single-Enzyme Nanoparticles Armored by a Nanometer-Scale Organic/Inorganic Network." Nano Letters 3(9):1219-1222. 
  • Wise BM, NB Gallagher, and JW Grate. 2003. "Analysis of Combined Mass- and Volume- Transducing Sensor Arrays." Journal of Chemometrics 17(8-9):463-469. 


  • Grate JW, and DA Nelson. 2002. Sorptive Polymers and Photopatterned Films for Gas Phase Chemical Microsensors and ArraysPNNL-14124, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Grate JW, LK Moore, DE Janzen, DJ Veltkamp, SN Kaganove, SM Drew, and KR Mann. 2002. "Step-like Response Behavior of a New Vapochromic Platinum Complex Observed with Simultaneous Acoustic Wave Sensor and Optical Reflectance Measurements." Chemistry of Materials 14(3):1058-1066. 
  • Black J, RM White, and JW Grate. 2002. "Microsphere Capture and Perfusion in Microchannels Using Flexural Plate Wave Structures." In Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, vol. 1, pp. 475-479.  Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Piscataway, NJ. 
  • Bredt PR, CC Ainsworth, FJ Brockman, DM Camaioni, OB Egorov, AR Felmy, YA Gorby, JW Grate, MS Greenwood, BP Hay, NJ Hess, TL Hubler, JP Icenhower, SV Mattigod, BP McGrail, PD Meyer, CJ Murray, PD Panetta, DM Pfund, D Rai, Y Su, SK Sundaram, WJ Weber, and JM Zachara. 2002. Science to Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program Awards -- Fiscal Year 2002 Mid-Year Progress ReportPNNL-13928, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, DP Chandler, and JW Grate. 2002. "Renewable Surface Biosensors." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ultramicrochemical Process Systems - High Throughput Screening and Process-on-chip, February 25 - 26, 2002, Seoul, Korea, p. 10 pages.  Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea, Republic Of. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 2002. "Radionuclide Selective Sensors for Water Monitoring: 99Tc(VII) Detection in Hanford Groundwater." In Spectrum 2002: Exploring Science-Based Solutions and Technologies, 9th Bienniel International Conference on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management , vol. (CD-ROM), American Nuclear Society, La Grange, IL. 
  • Harvey SD, DA Nelson, BW Wright, and JW Grate. 2002. "Selective Stationary Phase for Solid-Phase Microextraction Analysis of Sarin (GB)." Journal of Chromatography A 954(1-2):217-225. 
  • Stenkamp VS, LJ Bond, WE TeGrotenhuis, JW Grate, and M Flake. 2002. "Standing Ultrasonic Wave Separator." In IEEE-NANO 2002. Proceedings of the 2002 2nd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, 2002. August 26-28, 2002 , pp. 453-455.  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ.  doi:10.1109/NANO.2002.1032287
  • Stenkamp VS, LJ Bond, WE TeGrotenhuis, JW Grate, and M Flake. 2002. "Standing Ultrasonic Wave Separator." In Proceedings of the 2002 2nd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology , pp. 453-455.  IEEE, Piscataway, NJ. 


  • Grate JW, and BM Wise. 2001. Chemometric Classification of Unknown Vapors by Conversion of Sensor Array Pattern Vectors to Vapor Descriptors: Extension from Mass-Transducing Sensors To Volume-Transducing SensorsPNNL-13529, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Grate JW, and BM Wise. 2001. "A Method for Chemometric Classification of Unknown Vapors from the Responses of an Array of Volume-Transducing Sensors." Analytical Chemistry 73(10):2239-2244. 
  • Grate JW, SJ Patrash, SN Kaganove, MH Abraham, BM Wise, and NB Gallagher. 2001. "Inverse Least Squares Modeling of Vapor Descriptors using Polymer-coated Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Array Responses." Analytical Chemistry 73(21):5247-5259. 
  • Grate JW, SN Kaganove, and DA Nelson. 2001. Polymers for Chemical Sensors Using Hydrosilylation ChemistryPNNL-13556, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Grate JW. 2001. Interfacial Chemistry and Engineering Annual Report 2000PNNL-13504, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bredt PR, FJ Brockman, DM Camaioni, AR Felmy, JW Grate, BP Hay, NJ Hess, PD Meyer, CJ Murray, DM Pfund, Y Su, EC Thornton, WJ Weber, and JM Zachara. 2001. Science To Support DOE Site Cleanup: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Environmental Management Science Program AwardsPNNL-13564, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, EJ Ackerman, BP Dockendorff, DA Holman, and JW Grate. 2001. "Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection ." In Electrochemical Society Symposium Proceedings: Chemical and Biological Sensors and Analytical Methods II, ed. MA Butler, P Vanysek and N Yamazoe, pp. 157-164.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, EJ Ackerman, BP Dockendorff, DA Holman, and JW Grate. 2001. "Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection." In Joint International Meeting - the 200th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Inc. and the 52nd Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, September 2-7, 2001, San Francisco, California.  The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ. 
  • Chandler DP, JD Brown, DR Call, SC Wunschel, JW Grate, DA Holman, LG Olson, MS Stottlemyer, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 2001. "Automated Immunomagnetic Separation and Microarray Detection of E. coli O157:H7 from Poultry Carcass Rinse." International Journal of Food Microbiology 70(1-2):143-154. 
  • Devol TA, OB Egorov, JE Roane, A Paulenova, and JW Grate. 2001. "Extractive Scintillating Resin for 99Tc Quantification in Aqueous Solutions." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 249(1):181-189. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, OT Farmer, III, and JW Grate. 2001. "Extraction Chromatographic Separations and Analysis of Actinides Using Sequential Injection Techniques with On-line Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS) Detection." Analyst 126(9):1594-1601. 
  • Levitsky I, SG Krivoshlykov, and JW Grate. 2001. "Rational Design of a Nile Red/Polymer Composite Film for Fluorescence Sensing of Organophosphonate Vapors using Hydrogen Bond Acidic Polymers." Analytical Chemistry 73(14):3441-3448. 
  • Levitsky I, SG Krivoshlykov, and JW Grate. 2001. "Signal Amplification in Multichromophore Luminescence-Based Sensors." Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105(35):8468-8473. 


  • Grate JW, and ET Zellers. 2000. "The Fractional Free Volume of the Sorbed Vapor in Modeling the Viscoelastic Contribution to Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Vapor Sensor Responses." Analytical Chemistry 72 (13):2861-2868. 
  • Grate JW, SN Kaganove, and DA Nelson. 2000. "Carbosiloxane Polymers for Chemical Sensors." Chemical Innovation 30 (11) (November 2000):29-37. 
  • Grate JW. 2000. "Acoustic Wave Microsensor Arrays for Vapor Sensing." Chemical Society Reviews 100 (7):2627-2647. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, L Brown, DA Holman, L Olson, and JW Grate. 2000. "Biomolecular Interaction Assay." In Meeting Abstracts. The 198th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Hyatt Regency Phoenix, October 22-27, 2000, vol. 2002-2, p. 1180.  The Electrochemical Society, Phoenix , AZ. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, MR Stottlemyre, DA Holman, JW Grate, FJ Brockman, and DP Chandler. 2000. "Rotating Rod Renewable Microcolums for Sutomated, Solid-Phase DNA Hybridization." Analytical Chemistry 72(17):4135-4141. 
  • Bruckner-Lea CJ, NC Anheier, Jr, DA Holman, T Tsukuda, MT Kingsley, FJ Brockman, JM Price, JW Grate, and DP Chandler. 2000. "Integrated Systems for DNA Sample Preparation and Detection in Environmental Samples." In Biochemical and Biomolecular Sensing, SPIE Proceedings, 6-7 November 2000, Boston, USA, vol. 4200, ed. Robert A. Lieberman, pp. 74-81.  International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 


  • Grate JW, and BM Wise. 1999. "Chemical Information from Polymer-Coated Acoustic Wave Sensor Arrays." In Chemical Microsensors and Applications II; Proceedings SPIE , vol. 3857, pp. 170-173.  SPIE--International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, AL. 
  • Grate JW, and SN Kaganove. 1999. "Hydrosilylation: A Versatile Reaction for Polymer Synthesis." Polymer News 24(5):149-155. 
  • Grate JW, BM Wise , and MH Abraham. 1999. "Method for Unknown Vapor Characterization and Classification Using a Multivariate Sorption Detector. Initial Derivation and Modeling Based on Polymer-coated Acoustic Wave Sensor Arrays and Linear Solvation Energy Relationships." Analytical Chemistry 71(20):4544-4553. 
  • Grate JW, OB Egorov, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 1999. "Sequential Injection Separation and Sensing." In Chemical Microsensors and Applications II, Proceedings of SPIE , vol. 3857, ed. S. Buttgenbach, pp. 70-75.  SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 
  • Grate JW, OB Egorov, and SK Fiskum. 1999. "Automated Extraction Chromatographic Separations of Actinides using Separation-Optimized Sequential Injection Techniques ." Analyst 124(8):1143-1150. 
  • Grate JW, SJ Patrash, SN Kaganove, and BM Wise. 1999. "Hydrogen Bond Acidic Polymer* for Surface Acou*tic Wave Vapor Sen*or* and Array*." Analytical Chemistry 71(5):1033-1040. 
  • Grate JW, SK Fiskum, and OB Egorov. 1999. "Separation-Optimized Sequential Injection Method for Rapid Automated Analytical Separation of Sr-90 in Nuclear Waste." Analyst 124(2):203-210. 
  • Chandler DP, DA Holman, FJ Brockman, JW Grate, and CJ Bruckner-Lea. 1999. "Renewable microcolumns for solid-phase nucleic acid separations and analysis from environmental samples." Trends in Analytical Chemistry. TrAC 19(5):314-321. 
  • Egorov OB, MJ O'Hara, JW Grate, and J Ruzicka. 1999. "Sequential Injection Renewable Separation Column Instrument for Automated Sorbent Extraction Separations of Radionuclides." Analytical Chemistry 71(2):345-352. 
  • Egorov OB, SK Fiskum, MJ O'Hara, and JW Grate. 1999. "Radionuclide Sensors based on Chemically Selective Scintillating Microspheres: Renewable Column Sensor for Analysis of 99Tc in Water ." Analytical Chemistry 71(23):5420-5429. 
  • Isaka Y, T Nakamoto, T Moriizumi, and JW Grate. 1999. "Odor Sensing System Using Preconcentrator with Variable Temperature." In Solid-state sensors and actuators; Transducers '99, vol. 2, pp. 1642-1645.  Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, , UNITED STATES. 


  • Grate JW, and OB Egorov. 1998. "Automating Analytical Separations in Radiochemistry." Analytical Chemistry 70(*3):**9A-*88A. 

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