Soil and Groundwater Program Manager
Soil and Groundwater Program Manager

Biography

Dr. Vicky L. Freedman is the PNNL Soil and Groundwater Program Manager for the DOE Office of Environmental Management Sector. She leads the Deep Vadose Zone program, which leverages investments from basic science, applied research, and site contractors in a collaborative effort to address the complex region of the deep vadose zone at Hanford. Dr. Freedman has 20 years of experience in the numerical modeling of contaminant fate and transport in both the vadose zone and groundwater.  Dr. Freedman’s research activities have included theoretical and numerical studies of coupled hydrodynamics, contaminant transport, and geochemistry in environmental systems since joining PNNL in 2000. She has been involved in both forward prediction and inverse modeling of tank farm wastes at the Hanford Site, and has been a major contributor to the vadose zone modeling for field investigations of past leaks, as well as tank closure performance assessments (PA) investigating potential leak scenarios. She is particularly interested in solving real-world problems using high performance computation.  She has demonstrated the use of supercomputers to model subsurface discharges and evaluate potential remediation technologies in the deep vadose zone at Hanford.

Disciplines and Skills

  • Numerical modeling of flow and reactive mass transport in groundwater and the vadose zone
  • Parallel implementation of subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator
  • Vadose zone remediation and monitoring
  • Scientific and technical support for remediation decisions

Education

  • Ph.D., Environmental Sciences, Ohio State University, 2000
  • M.S., Watershed Management (Watershed Hydrology), University of Arizona, 1996
  • B.A., English Language & Literature, University of Michigan, 1985

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Geological Society of America

Publications

2019

  • Freedman V.L., M.P. Connelly, M.L. Rockhold, N. Hasan, S. Mehta, W.J. Mcmahon, and M.W. Kozak, et al. 2019. "A Multiple Lines of Evidence Approach for Identifying Geologic Heterogeneities in Conceptual Site Models for Performance Assessments." Science of the Total Environment 692. PNNL-SA-142412. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.213
  • Truex M.J., V.L. Freedman, C.I. Pearce, and J.E. Szecsody. 2019. Assessment of Technologies for I-129 Remediation in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. PNNL-29148. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Assessment of Technologies for I-129 Remediation in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit
  • Moore, R.C., C.I. Pearce, J.W. Morad, S. Chatterjee, T.G. Levitskaia, R. M. Asmussen, A.R. Lawter, J.J. Neeway, N.P. Qafoku, M.J. Rigali, S.A. Saslow, J.E. Szecsody, P.K. Thallapally, G. Wang, and V.L. Freedman.  2019. Iodine immobilization by materials through sorption and redox-driven processes: A literature review.  Science of The Total Environment.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.166.
  • Pearce, C.I. R.C. Moore, J.W. Morad, R.M. Asmussen, S. Chatterjee, A.R. Lawter, T.G. Levitskaia, J.J. Neeway, N.P. Qafoku, M.J. Rigali, S.A. Saslow, J.E. Szecsody, P.K. Thallapally, G. Wang, and V.L. Freedman.  2019.  Technetium immobilization by materials through sorption and redox-driven processes: A literature review. Science of The Total Environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.195.
  • Wang G., N.P. Qafoku, J.E. Szecsody, C.E. Strickland, C.F. Brown, and V.L. Freedman.  2019.  Time-Dependent Iodate and Iodide Adsorption to Fe Oxides.  ACS Earth and Space Chemistry. DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00145.

2018

  • Qafoku N., C.E. Bagwell, A.R. Lawter, M.J. Truex, J.E. Szecsody, O. Qafoku, and L. Kovarik, et al. 2018. Conceptual Model of Subsurface Processes for Iodine at the Hanford Site. PNNL-28053 Rev 1.0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Conceptual Model of Subsurface Processes for Iodine at the Hanford Site
  • Pearce C.I., R.J. Serne, S.A. Saslow, W. Um, R.M. Asmussen, M.D. Miller, and O. Qafoku, M.M.V. Snyder, C.T. Resch, K.C. Johnson, G. Wang, S.M. Heald, J.E. Szecsody, J.M. Zachara, N. Qafoku, A.E. Plymale, and V.L. Freedman.  2018. "Characterizing Technetium in Subsurface Sediments for Contaminant Remediation." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2, no. 11:1145-1160.   doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.8b00077.
  • Qafoku N., C.E. Bagwell, A.R. Lawter, M.J. Truex, J.E. Szecsody, O. Qafoku, and L. Kovarik, et al. 2018. Conceptual Model of Subsurface Processes for Iodine at the Hanford Site. PNNL-28053. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Conceptual Model of Subsurface Processes for Iodine at the Hanford Site
  • Rockhold M.L., J.L. Downs, S.R. Waichler, C. Yonkofski, V.L. Freedman, and M.J. Truex. 2018. Draft Technical Impracticability Evaluation for Iodine-129 in Groundwater at Hanford: 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. PNNL-28057. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Draft Technical Impracticability Evaluation for Iodine-129 in Groundwater at Hanford: 200-UP-1 Operable Unit
  • Truex M.J., G.B. Chronister, C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, G.D. Tartakovsky, M. Oostrom, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2018. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report. PNNL-26902. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

2017

  • Freedman V.L., M.J. Truex, M. Rockhold, D.H. Bacon, M.D. Freshley, and D.M. Wellman. 2017. "Elements of complexity in subsurface modeling, exemplified with three case studies." Hydrogeology Journal 25, no. 6:1853-1870. PNNL-SA-128996. doi:10.1007/s10040-017-1564-6
  • Szecsody J.E., B.D. Lee, A.R. Lawter, N. Qafoku, C.T. Resch, S.R. Baum, and I.I. Leavy, et al. 2017. Effect of Co-Contaminants Uranium and Nitrate on Iodine Remediation. PNNL-26955. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Effect of Co-Contaminants Uranium and Nitrate on Iodine Remediation

2016

  • Agarwal D.A., B. Faybishenko, V.L. Freedman, H. Krishnan, G. Kushner, C.S. Lansing, and E.A. Porter, et al. 2016. "A Science Data Gateway for Environmental Management." In CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE:, edited by G.C. Fox and D.W. Walker, 28, 1994-2204. Hoboken, New Jersey:John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. PNNL-SA-114049. doi:10.1002/cpe.3697
  • Freedman V.L., D.H. Bacon, and Y. Fang. 2016. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2016: ILAW Verification and Validation of the eSTOMP Simulator. PNNL-25185; RPT-IGTP-010 Rev. 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2016: ILAW Verification and Validation of the eSTOMP Simulator
  • Ryan J.V., and V.L. Freedman. 2016. A Strategy for Maintenance of the Long-Term Performance Assessment of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass. PNNL-23503 Rev. 1; RPT-IGTP-001 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A Strategy for Maintenance of the Long-Term Performance Assessment of Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass

2015

  • Freedman V.L., C.S. Lansing, E.A. Porter, K.L. Schuchardt, Z.C. Guillen, C. Sivaramakrishnan, and I. Gorton. 2015. "A Collaborative Extensible User Environment for Simulation and Knowledge Management." In International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS 2015) June 1-5, 2015, Atlanta, Georgia, 280-286. Piscataway, New Jersey:IEEE. PNNL-SA-108103. doi:10.1109/CTS.2015.7210435
  • Agarwal, D.A., V.L. Freedman, H. Krishnan, G. Kushner, C. Lansing, E. Porter, A. Romosan, A. Shoshani, H Wainwright, A. Weidmer and K. Wu. 2015. "A Science Data Gateway for Environmental Management." Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, DOI:10.1002/cpe.3697.
  • Freedman V.L., J.V. Ryan, and D.H. Bacon. 2015. Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass Release Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-24615. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Glass Release Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

2014

  • Freedman V.L., X. Chen, S.A. Finsterle, M.D. Freshley, I. Gorton, L.J. Gosink, and E. Keating, et al. 2014. "A high-performance workflow system for subsurface simulation." Environmental Modelling & Software 55. PNNL-SA-92680. doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.01.030
  • Freedman V.L., R.D. Mackley, S.R. Waichler and J.A. Horner.  2013. " Defining the Radius of Influence for Ground Source Heat Pump Well System".   Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 18(9):1170-1179, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000720
  • Neeway J.J., E.M. Pierce, V.L. Freedman, J.V. Ryan, and N. Qafoku. 2014. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford. PNNL-23503; RPT-66309-001 Rev. 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A Strategy to Conduct an Analysis of the Long-Term Performance of Low-Activity Waste Glass in a Shallow Subsurface Disposal System at Hanford

2013

  • Freedman V.L., R.D. Mackley, S.R. Waichler, and J.A. Horner. 2013. "Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System." Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 18, no. 9:1170-1179. PNNL-SA-84739. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000720
  • Pierce E.M., S.N. Kerisit, E.J. Krogstad, S.D. Burton, B.N. Bjornstad, V.L. Freedman, and K.J. Cantrell, et al. 2013. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report. PNNL-21812 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report
  • Rockhold M.L., D.H. Bacon, V.L. Freedman, K.R. Parker, S.R. Waichler, and M.D. Williams. 2013. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport. PNNL-22886;RPT-DVZ-AFRI-019. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport
  • Seitz R., M.D. Freshley, P. Dixon, S.S. Hubbard, V.L. Freedman, G.P. Flach, and B. Faybishenko, et al. 2013. "ADVANCED SIMULATION CAPABILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT - CURRENT STATUS AND PHASE II DEMONSTRATION RESULTS." In Waste Management Symposia (WM2013): International Collaboration and Continuous Improvement, February 24-28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, Paper No. 13161. Tempe, Arizona:WM Symposia. PNNL-SA-92771.

2012

  • Freedman V.L., S.R. Waichler, R.D. Mackley, and J.A. Horner. 2012. "Assessing the Thermal Environmental Impacts of an Groundwater Heat Pump in Southeastern Washington State." Geothermics 42. PNNL-SA-76515. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2011.10.004
  • Johnson T.C., W.J. Greenwood, C.E. Strickland, M.J. Truex, V.L. Freedman, G.B. Chronister, and D.F. Rucker. 2012. "3D Characterization and Time-Lapse Imaging of the Desiccation Treatability Test at the Hanford BC-Cribs and Trenches Site using High Performance Electrical Resistivity Imaging." In Annual Waste Management Symposium (WM2012): Improving the Future in Waste Management, February 26 - March 1, 2012, Pheonix AZ, 2181-2189. Tucson, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-84065.
  • Oostrom M., T.W. Wietsma, C.E. Strickland, V.L. Freedman, and M.J. Truex. 2012. "Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 1:Article No. 0089. PNNL-SA-83396. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0089
  • Oostrom M., V.L. Freedman, T.W. Wietsma, J.H. Dane, and M.J. Truex. 2012. "Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-84135. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0168
  • Rockhold M.L., D.H. Bacon, V.L. Freedman, M.J. Lindberg, and R.E. Clayton. 2012. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area. PNNL-21214. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area
  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, C.E. Strickland, T.C. Johnson, V.L. Freedman, C.D. Johnson, and W.J. Greenwood, et al. 2012. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results. PNNL-21369. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results

2011

2010

  • Fayer M.J., A.L. Ward, and V.L. Freedman. 2010. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination. PNNL-18661 Final. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination
  • Freedman V.L., R.D. Mackley, S.R. Waichler, J.A. Horner, T.W. Moon, D.R. Newcomer, and D.J. DeSmet, et al. 2010. Hydrogeologic Evaluation of a Ground-Source Cooling System at the BSF/CSF on the Battelle Campus: Final Report. PNNL-18463 Final. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Hydrogeologic Evaluation of a Ground-Source Cooling System at the BSF/CSF on the Battelle Campus: Final Report
  • Guin A., R. Ramanathan, R.W. Ritzi, D.F. Dominic, I.A. Lunt, T.D. Scheibe, and V.L. Freedman. 2010. "Simulating the Heterogeneity in Braided Channel Belt Deposits: 2. Examples of Results and Comparison to Natural Deposits." Water Resources Research 46. PNNL-SA-69315.
  • Ramanathan R., A. Guin, R.W. Ritzi, D.F. Dominic, V.L. Freedman, T.D. Scheibe, and I.A. Lunt. 2010. "Simulating the Heterogeneity in Braided Channel Belt Deposits: Part 1. A Geometric-Based Methodology and Code." Water Resources Research 46. PNNL-SA-69314.
  • Schuchardt K.L., K. Agarwal, J.M. Chase, M.L. Rockhold, V.L. Freedman, T.O. Elsethagen, and T.D. Scheibe, et al. 2010. "Task parallel sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation of groundwater simulations through the SALSSA framework." In Proceedings of the 2010 Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference, July 11-15, 2010, Cattanooga, Tennessee, 233-237. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PNNL-SA-73770.

2009

2008

2007

2006

  • Freedman V.L., Y. Chen, A. Gilca, C.R. Cole, and S.K. Gupta. 2006. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 User's Guide. PNNL-15915 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 User's Guide
  • Saripalli K.P., V.L. Freedman, B.P. McGrail, and P.D. Meyer. 2006. "Characterization of the specific solid-water interfacial area-water saturation relationship and its import to reactive transport." Vadose Zone Journal 5, no. 2:777-783. PNNL-SA-50716. doi:10.2136/vzj2005.0145
  • Thorne P.D., M.P. Bergeron, M.D. Williams, and V.L. Freedman. 2006. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments. PNNL-14753 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments
  • Ward A.L., M.E. Conrad, W.D. Daily, J.B. Fink, V.L. Freedman, G.W. Gee, and G.M. Hoversten, et al. 2006. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report. PNNL-15443. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

2005

  • Freedman V.L., K.P. Saripalli, D.H. Bacon, and P.D. Meyer. 2005. "Implementation of Biofilm Permeability Models for Mineral Reactions in Saturated Porous Media." Computers & Geosciences 31, no. 8:968-977. PNNL-SA-35919.
  • Freedman V.L., S.R. Waichler, C.R. Cole, V.R. Vermeul, and M.P. Bergeron. 2005. "Identifying the Potential Loss of Monitoring Wells Using an Uncertainty Analysis." Ground Water 43, no. 6:916-925. PNNL-SA-41218. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.00047.x
  • Freedman V.L., Y. Chen, and S.K. Gupta. 2005. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 Theory Guide. PNNL-15452 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 Theory Guide
  • Freedman V.L., Z.F. Zhang, S.R. Waichler, and S.K. Wurstner. 2005. 2005 Closure Assessments for WMA-C Tank Farms: Numerical Simulations. PNNL-15377. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2005 Closure Assessments for WMA-C Tank Farms: Numerical Simulations

2004

  • Freedman V.L., P. Saripalli, D.H. Bacon, and P.D. Meyer. 2004. "A Film Depositional Model of Permeability for Mineral Reactions in Unsaturated Media." Vadose Zone Journal. PNNL-SA-35801.
  • Meyer P.D., P. Saripalli, and V.L. Freedman. 2004. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility 2005 Performance Assessment. PNNL-14700. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility 2005 Performance Assessment
  • Um W., R.J. Serne, S.B. Yabusaki, V.L. Freedman, S.D. Samson, and K.L. Nagy. 2004. "The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site." In Proceedings of the eleventh international symposium Water-Rock Interaction, WRI-11, edited by RB Wanty and RR Seal, 1, 715-718. Leiden, New York:AA Balkema. PNNL-SA-48216.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, and S.R. Waichler. 2004. 2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14838. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, S.R. Waichler, and M.D. White. 2004. 2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14604. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations

2003

  • Freedman V.L., and M. Ibaraki. 2003. "Coupled reactive mass transport and fluid flow: Issues in model verification." Advances in Water Resources 26, no. 2003:117-127. PNWD-SA-5831.
  • Freedman V.L., K.P. Saripalli, and P.D. Meyer. 2003. "Influence of Mineral Precipitation and Dissolution on Hydrologic Properties of Porous Media in Static and Dynamic Systems." Applied Geochemistry 18, no. 2003:589-606. PNNL-SA-31744.
  • Zhang Z.F., V.L. Freedman, and M.D. White. 2003. 2003 Initial Assessments of Closure for the C Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR):Numerical Simulations. PNNL-14334. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2003 Initial Assessments of Closure for the C Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR):Numerical Simulations

2002

  • Bacon D.H., B.P. McGrail, V.L. Freedman, G. Ventura, P.N. Risoluti, and K.M. Krupka. 2002. "Performance Assessment of Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Using Coupled Unsaturated Flow and Reactive Transport Simulators." In Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XXV : symposium held November 26-29, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts; Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, edited by McGrail, B. P.; Cragnolino, G. A., 713, 267-274. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-35913.
  • Freedman V.L., and M. Ibaraki. 2002. "Effects of chemical reactions on density-dependent fluid flow: On the numerical formulation and the development of instabilities." Advances in Water Resources 25, no. 4:439-453. PNWD-SA-5733.
  • Freedman V.L., M.D. Williams, C.R. Cole, M.D. White, and M.P. Bergeron. 2002. 2002 Initial Assessments for B-BX-BY Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations. PNNL-13949. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2002 Initial Assessments for B-BX-BY Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations

2001

  • Saripalli K.P., P.D. Meyer, D.H. Bacon, and V.L. Freedman. 2001. "Changes in hydrologic properties of aquifer media due to chemical reactions: A review." Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 31, no. 4:311-349. PNNL-SA-31684.

1998

•  Freedman, V.L., V. L. Lopes and M. Hernandez. 1998. Parameter identifiability for catchment-scale erosion modeling: a comparison of optimization algorithms.  Journal of Hydrology, 207:83-97.