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National Security Training

PNNL experts develop training to strengthen our national security partners’ capacity to fulfill job functions and meet international norms.

National security training

National security training

Training in the 21st century has become as wide-ranging and sophisticated as the work environment itself. Equally diverse are the driving forces behind training programs—whether keeping current on the latest technologies or staying abreast of emerging regulations. PNNL designs, delivers, and manages training programs that enable partners worldwide to understand their individual or organizational roles and responsibilities, fulfill a job function, or strengthen a particular skill set.

Through our national security training partnerships and programs, we deliver

  • systematic approaches to training – providing effective, efficient, and sustainable learning opportunities using instructional design and system approaches to training
  • foundations in science and technology – leveraging leading-edge technology to strengthen and magnify the impact of training events
  • access to legacy and operating facilities – creating realistic training environments at the Hanford Site and in operating facilities
  • comprehensive training solutions – offering diverse training programs that advance national security missions.
National security training mission

PNNL’s training team includes professional instructional designers, instructors, course managers, and subject matter experts who work together to deliver high-quality training for our clients. Our training specialties are as diverse as the participants we train. Together, we draw upon a strong base of security knowledge, scientific innovation, and technology development to deliver training programs in the following subjects:

  • Border Security
  • Chemical and Biological Security
  • Critical Infrastructure Protection
  • Cyber, Information, and Computer Security Training
  • Emergency Response
  • Explosives Detection and Explosives Breaching
  • Fixed Site Nuclear Security
  • Security Instructor Training
  • International Safeguards
  • Nonproliferation and Arms Control
  • Security Personnel and Protective Force Training
  • Transportation Security Training
  • Strategic Trade Management.

Join our Team

Our multidisciplinary training development team is home to instructional designers, course developers, and technical and policy experts with experience spanning the global security realm, including:

  • Emergency and Crisis Response
  • Radiological Detection and Identification
  • International Nuclear Safety
  • Border Enforcement and Protection
  • Military Readiness
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation
  • Materials Protection and Control
  • Public Health
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Export Control
  • Special Operations
  • Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene
  • Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive

We’re hiring! Apply today to join our team in delivering customized curriculum, training, and field exercise programs to partners around the world.

To learn more, contact



Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases

STOMP is a suite of numerical simulators for solving problems involving coupled flow and transport processes in the subsurface. STOMP is based on mathematical equations that describe our understanding of hydrologic, thermal, thermodynamic, geochemical, and geomechanical processes. STOMP solves these equations by parsing a subsurface volume into computational blocks and then solving algebraic forms of the equations collectively for the blocks. The suite of STOMP simulators is distinguished by application areas and solved mathematical equations.

Stomp logo


PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases Simulator (STOMP) is an analytical tool for investigating coupled processes involving multifluid flow, heat transport, geochemistry, and geomechanics in the subsurface. The simulator was initially developed to assess nuclear waste repository performance but greatly expanded its application domains over its nearly three-decade development life. The simulator is now being applied to support laboratory and field investigations in a number of domains, such as environmental remediation/stewardship, geothermal resources, production of natural gas hydrates, subsurface permanent storage of carbon dioxide, and oil and gas recovery using conventional and unconventional technologies.

Some of the unique applications and features of the simulator for environmental work are the ability to model vegetated surface barriers, flow and transport in deep vadose zones under thermally altered states, and innovative technologies such as soil desiccation, soil vapor extraction, reactive barriers, and freeze walls.

For geothermal resource modeling, the simulator is fully capable of modeling hydrothermal systems, including geochemical reactions, such as those occurring through mineral dissolution or carbonate precipitation with carbon dioxide re-injection. It can also be applied to model enhanced/engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in hot dry rock, where fracturing is necessary to achieve permeability. For EGS, STOMP models fracture and borehole flow and transport via an embedded modeling approach.

STOMP is unique in the natural gas hydrate domain with its capabilities for modeling ternary gas systems, allowing for the investigation of production technologies involving depressurization, thermal stimulation, inhibitor injection, and hydrate forming gas injection.

Its fully coupled well models, geochemical module ECKEChem, and geomechanical model GeoMech, give the simulator fully coupled THMC capabilities for investigations of carbon sequestration in deep saline formations or utilization in enhanced oil recovery.

Beyond those capabilities of STOMP that are described here, PNNL has additionally developed capabilities for modeling unusual subsurface systems, such as the pyrolysis of oil shales using down-hole fuel cells. Whereas STOMP is routinely used for environmental assessments at U.S. DOE sites, its code structure and active development team allow it to be extended to new research and application domains.

stomp overview image

Modular Design




  • variably saturated flow and transport in water systems
  • aqueous geochemistry
  • environmental restoration and stewardship
  • vadose zone and groundwater interactions





  • multifluid gas-brine systems with heat transport and geochemistry
  • sequentially coupled poro-thermo-elastic geomechanics
  • hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems
  • embedded fractures and boreholes
  • vegetated surface barriers






  • multifluid CO2-brine systems with heat transport and geochemistry
  • sequentially coupled poro-thermo-elastic geomechanics
  • carbon sequestration in deep saline formations
  • carbonate mineralization in on- and off-shore basalts






  • three-phase compositional systems with heat transport and geochemistry
  • sequentially coupled poro-thermo-elastic geomechanics
  • embedded faults
  • oil and gas reservoirs
  • enhanced oil production
  • black-oil module





  • ternary gas hydrate systems
  • sequentially coupled poro-thermo-elastic geomechanics
  • natural gas hydrate reservoirs
  • depressurization, thermal stimulation, inhibitor injection technologies
  • guest molecule swapping





  • nonvolatile and volatile single component NAPL
  • multifluid wells
  • organic surface spills and disposals
  • vadose zone residual NAPL formation
  • soil-vapor extraction

Electron Microscopy

PNNL is a leader in the integration of aberration-corrected electron microscopy, in-situ techniques, and atom probe tomography to address national challenges in nuclear materials, environmental remediation, energy storage, and national security.

A science as art image by Steve Spurgeon

This colorized atomic-scale electron microscope image shows how different materials can be combined for advanced computing technologies.

PNNL is home to an array of electron microscopes that play a critical role in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s energy resiliency and national security missions. Each instrument is stewarded by skilled electron microscopists whose wide research backgrounds cover materials science, biology, chemistry, and physics.

Located in various facilities across the PNNL campus, the microscopy community collectively applies a rich set of capabilities and expertise tailored to the diverse needs of clients, sponsors, and project managers.

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) are flagship instruments that comprise PNNL’s main microscopy investment. These powerful instruments have revolutionized the study of materials, providing unparalleled access to atomic-resolution probes with the analytical power to resolve structure and chemistry from the micron scale, down to individual atoms.

PNNL scientists use these tools to examine microstructure, composition, and chemical states through a variety of imaging and analytical modes, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and 4D-STEM. These microscopy investments are supported by a comprehensive analysis pipeline of theory-based image, diffraction, and spectroscopy simulations.

PNNL also hosts a range of scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe analyzers, and focused ion beam (FIB) microscopes to serve additional research needs. These instruments provide access to information at length scales up to centimeters, using surface analytical modes to strongly complement transmission electron microscopy. In addition, extensive investments in FIB instruments enable the extraction of site-specific samples for study in the STEM, 3D atom probe tomography, and other techniques, such as nano-secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

All of the electron microscopes listed are available for use by PNNL staff and are thus available to outside research projects collaborating with our scientists. Please contact the individual stewards with questions.

In addition, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) user facility, operated by PNNL for the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, hosts various electron microscopes that are accessible through user facility proposals. We advise interested parties to visit the EMSL website to pursue opportunities for collaborative research.

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