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MARCH 31, 2020
Web Feature

Scientists Take Aim at the Coronavirus Toolkit

A PNNL scientist is studying the structures of the proteins on the surface of the novel coronavirus, using NMR spectroscopy to reveal information about the molecular toolkit that holds the keys to a vaccine or treatment.

When a pinch is problematic: Detecting pertechnetate in groundwater

pertechnetate

A PNNL researcher holds a redox sensor in the project’s lab in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory.  Andrea Starr | PNNL

PNNL develops an effective tool for measuring a tricky contaminant

March 30, 2020
March 30, 2020
Highlight

Imagine trying to detect and measure a pinch of salt in an Olympic-size swimming pool. Now pretend the tools you are using don’t work well. Some can detect the salt but can’t tell you how much is in there, and others confuse salt with chlorine.

Now swap the swimming pool for a source of groundwater and the salt for a radioactive contaminant called pertechnetate.

ACS Journal Pertechnetate
The future of groundwater contamination measurement? The large thiol claws of PNNL’s subsurface probe with custom gold tips detect and measure pertechnetate in aqueous environments. Cover illustration by Rose Perry, PNNL

Pertechnetate is a byproduct of nuclear waste. If it ends up where it is not supposed to be—like, in groundwater—it could impact human health, which is why researchers and regulators keep a close lookout for it. The environmental safety limits for pertechnetate are roughly equivalent to a pinch of salt in an Olympic pool. And there are only a few technologies to measure it, each with limitations.

PNNL research tackles this challenge with new technology to detect and accurately measure pertechnetate at super low levels in groundwater. This research, “Redox-Based Electrochemical Affinity Sensor for Detection of Aqueous Pertechnetate Anion,” was the cover article for the March 2020 edition of ACS Sensors (DOI: 10.1021/acssensors.9b01531). 

Why it matters: The Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard for pertechnetate is 0.000000052 grams per liter (that’s roughly 1/6000th the weight of a single poppy seed). While techniques exist for detection of pertechnetate in the environment, many have their drawbacks. PNNL’s technology can accurately measure low levels of pertechnetate in groundwater. Additionally, this proof of concept has the potential to be applied to other target contaminants simultaneously, increasing efficiency for environmental sensing.

Summary: The new technology acts like a coin counter, but at a microscopic level. It sorts one type of chemical from another, providing the total amount of a target chemical at the end. The tool uses custom probes with a gold electrode that only allows the target groundwater contaminants to stick while the other chemicals bounce off.

Sulfur likes to bind to gold and it also tends to react with pertechnetate, making sulfur-containing compounds an ideal intermediate in tool development. The sulfur sticks to the gold probe, then reacts with the pertechnetate, which forms a precipitate. The precipitate inhibits an electric current pulsing through the probe, providing an inverse measurement of pertechnetate concentration.

What’s Next: While this work was specifically focused on pertechnetate, there is potential to expand the technology to simultaneous multiple targets with the goal of increasing the efficiency of environmental measurements.

Sponsors: This research was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at PNNL and by the Deep Vadose Zone program under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Environmental Management. Part of this research was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national user facility at PNNL managed by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

PNNL Research Team: Sayandev Chatterjee, Meghan S. Fujimoto, Yingge Du, Gabriel B. Hall, Nabajit Lahiri, Eric D. Walter, Libor Kovarik. ACS Sensors cover illustration by Rose Perry, PNNL.

 

March 27, 2020

Solving an ergonomic problem to enable safeguards research

WSU engineering students demonstrate their detector lifting device.

WSU engineering students (from left background) Jacob Lazaro, Darin Malihi , Martin Gastelum, and Jared Oshiro demonstrate their detector lifting device for PNNL Physicist Mike Cantaloub (left front).

PNNL-WSU collaboration develops the future workforce

February 24, 2020
February 24, 2020
Highlight

Performing nuclear safeguards work safely and developing the next generation workforce are complementary goals of a longstanding program sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Nuclear Safeguards. This program pairs PNNL research staff with Washington State University engineering students to provide solutions to enable nuclear safeguards research at PNNL.

In December, a team of WSU students delivered their solution to some ergonomic issues faced by PNNL physicist Mike Cantaloub and his team in a laboratory containing sensitive high-purity germanium detectors. These detectors are arranged in a tall fixture containing lead shielding to reduce the effects of naturally occurring atmospheric radiation and enable the accurate identification of radioactive isotopes in samples. Staff members using this instrument have to remove a 25-lb. plug detector, reach down to place samples, and then replace the plug detector. These activities have the potential for ergonomic injury to staff members and damage to the detectors.

WSU students Darin Malihi, Jared Oshiro, Martin Gastelum, Jacob Lazaro, Nicholas Takehara, and Saul Ramos designed and fabricated equipment that works similar to the weight training machines found in a gym—a lifting arm with a counter weight. The team also developed a solution to place the sample, a holder that is affixed to the bottom of the plug detector. Their solutions allow researchers to remove the detector quickly and efficiently and avoid reaching down to place the sample for detection.

“The solution devised by the team makes day-to-day operations in this laboratory safer and more efficient for the nuclear safeguards research team," said PNNL mechanical engineer and advisor to the WSU team, Patrick Valdez.

WSU engineering students assemble their lifting device.
WSU engineering students (from left) Jacob Lazaro, Saul Ramos, Jared Oshiro, and Nicholas Takehara assemble their lifting device and arrange the sample holders for a demonstration to PNNL research staff.
JANUARY 21, 2020
Web Feature

Forensic Proteomics: Beyond DNA Profiling

A new book by PNNL biochemist Erick Merkley details forensic proteomics, a technique that directly analyzes proteins in unknown samples, in pursuit of making proteomics a widespread forensic method when DNA is missing or ambiguous.
JANUARY 20, 2020
News Release

Securing Radiological Sources on the Go

Radioactive materials are a critical tool in a number of industrial applications, particularly oil and gas drilling and welding. But, if they are lost or stolen, the materials could be used by terrorists to make dirty bombs.
JANUARY 10, 2020
Web Feature

Clark Recognized for Nuclear Chemistry Research

The world’s largest scientific society honored Sue B. Clark, a PNNL and WSU chemist, for contributions toward resolving our legacy of radioactive waste, advancing nuclear safeguards, and developing landmark nuclear research capabilities.

PNNL Launches Marine Renewable Energy Database

Logo of Tethys Engineering

PNNL created an online database to share information related to the marine renewable energy industry.

Tethys Engineering addresses industry’s technical and engineering challenges

November 18, 2019
November 18, 2019
Highlight

Marine renewable energy (MRE) has the potential to provide 90 gigawatts of power in the United States through waves and tidal and ocean currents.

To harness the ocean’s energy, the MRE industry needs to understand how to address technical and engineering challenges such as efficient power takeoff, device survivability, and grid integration.

PNNL developed Tethys Engineering in September 2019 to allow sharing resources around the deployment of devices in corrosive, high-energy marine environments. The recently launched Tethys Engineering online database includes collected and curated documents surrounding the technical and engineering development of MRE devices. Users can search and filter results to intuitively identify information relevant to developers, researchers, and regulators.

Tethys Engineering includes more than 3,000 journal articles, conference papers, reports, and presentations related to wave, current, salinity gradient, and ocean thermal energy conversion technologies. The database contains information from around the world.

The Tethys Engineering database was created as a companion to the already established Tethys website, which focuses on the environmental effects of the MRE industry.

November 18, 2019