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MARCH 16, 2020
Web Feature

Carving Out Quantum Space

The race toward the first practical quantum computer is in full stride. Scientists at PNNL are bridging the gap between today’s fastest computers and tomorrow’s even faster quantum computers.
DECEMBER 11, 2019
Web Feature

PNNL to Lead New Grid Modernization Projects

PNNL will lead three new grid modernization projects funded by the Department of Energy. The projects focus on scalability and usability, networked microgrids, and machine learning for a more resilient, flexible and secure power grid.
NOVEMBER 26, 2019
Web Feature

Conquering Peak Power

PNNL’s Intelligent Load Control technology manages and adjusts electricity use in buildings when there’s peak demand on the power grid.
NOVEMBER 5, 2019
Web Feature

Magnesium Takes ShAPE™

Two forms of magnesium material were processed into tubing using PNNL’s Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion™ technology. Both materials were found to have quite similar and improved properties—even though they began vastly different.

Protecting climate-sensitive soil ecosystems

Image of permafrost landscape

Review paper summarizes the effects of climate change on soil microorganisms and the ecosystem services they provide, and evaluates potential mitigation measures.

October 14, 2019
October 14, 2019
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The Science
Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reviewed the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change on soil microorganisms in different climate-sensitive soil ecosystems. They also examined the possibilities of using soil microorganisms to store carbon or inoculate plants to help mitigate the negative consequences of climate change. Based on their review, the authors recommend an integrated approach that combines beneficial properties of soil microorganisms with sustainable soil management practices to support plant production, maintain a clean water supply, sustain biodiversity, store carbon, and increase resilience in the face of a changing climate.

Research showed that microbial physiology largely determines the ability of soil ecosystems to adapt to climate change, and that some microbiomes may be suitable for mitigation measures such as carbon sequestration and plant inoculation.
Research showed that microbial physiology largely determines the ability of soil ecosystems to adapt to climate change, and that some microbiomes may be suitable for mitigation measures such as carbon sequestration and plant inoculation.

The Impact
The effects of climate change on soil microbial communities have potentially large consequences for Earth's soil ecosystems and the beneficial services that soil microbiomes provide. This review highlights the need to connect the fine-scale details arising from microbiome studies to the landscape-scale resolution of many Earth system climate models in the search for climate change mitigation measures.

Summary
On Earth’s terrestrial surface, the soil microbiome cycles nutrients to sustain plant and animal life. While this microbial community is innately connected to environmental conditions, impacts on the soil microbiome due to climate change vary depending on the ecosystem. Different aspects of climate change impact soil microbial communities and their important ecosystem functions, such as cycling of carbon and supporting plant growth. But the molecular details of soil biochemical reactions responsible for these key functions are largely unknown.

Researchers synthesized existing knowledge of climate change impacts across a range of soil environments—permafrost, forests, grassland, wetlands, and deserts—to examine how the microbiome responds. They looked at microbial changes coinciding with different climate change variables including increases in carbon dioxide levels, temperatures, drought, flooding, and fires. Their review showed that microbial physiology largely determines the ability of soil ecosystems to adapt, and that some microbiomes may be suitable for climate change mitigation measures such as carbon sequestration and promoting plant growth. The review sets the stage for future research on soil microbiomes and challenges to overcome in order to connect to larger-scale predictive models of climate change.

Contacts
Janet Jansson, Lab Fellow, janet.jansson@pnnl.gov
Kirsten Hofmockel, Earth Scientist, kirsten.hofmockel@pnnl.gov

Funding
This research was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Genomic Science Program and is a contribution of the Scientific Focus Area "Phenotypic response of the soil microbiome to environmental perturbations." PNNL is operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under Contract DE-AC05-76RLO1830. A portion of the research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE Office of Science User Facility sponsored by BER and located at PNNL.

J. Jansson and K.Hofmockel, “Soil microbiomes and climate changeNature Reviews Microbiology, 04 October 2019. [DOI: 10.1038/s41579-019-0265-7]

Nutrient-Hungry Peatland Microbes Reduce Carbon Loss Under Warmer Conditions

Image of Peatland forest

Enzyme production in peatlands reduces carbon lost to respiration under future high temperatures.

October 3, 2019
October 3, 2019
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The Science
As atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations rise, photosynthesis by plants is expected to increase, leading to more photosynthate released by roots to the soil microbial community. Researchers from Pacific Northwest Northwest National Laboratory and Iowa State University examined the response of boreal peatland soils under future high temperatures. The team found that the peatland’s soil microbial communities allocated more carbon to enzyme production in search of phosphorus as temperatures climbed. This diversion of carbon resources could reduce future carbon losses by microbial respiration from the peatland.

The Impact
As boreal peatlands face warmer and drier conditions, it is expected that more carbon will be lost from these carbon-rich soils through increased microbial activity. This study showed that enhanced respiration and concomitant loss of carbon is potentially constrained by nutrient demands of the microorganisms. This tradeoff may help the peatland ecosystem retain soil carbon as temperatures warm.

Summary
Root exudates are carbon compounds, such as sugars and organic acids, which are easily consumed by soil microorganisms. With a warming climate, science suggests that increased photosynthesis by plants could lead to more photosynthate released as root exudates to the soil microbial community. To examine this question, researchers used laboratory incubations to control both temperature and moisture and simulate belowground substrate additions under an accelerated growing season. Results showed that with a moderate increase in temperature, the addition of common root exude compounds in peatlands initially increased carbon lost through microbial respiration above those treatments receiving water only. However, when pushed to future expected high temperatures, additional exudate compounds dampened the amount of additional carbon respired as compared to treatments receiving water only. This reduction in respiration suggests the microorganisms allocated carbon compounds to enzyme production to mine for limited resources instead of respiring carbon. The data also support the idea that boreal peatland microbial communities maintain a more narrow range in function, measured as respiration, across a range in climate conditions. A wide climatic niche in addition to reallocation of carbon resources dampens the magnitude of change in carbon respiration with increasing temperatures.

Contact
Kirsten Hofmockel
Biological and Environmental Scienes Directorate
kirsten.hofmockel@pnnl.gov

Funding
This material is based upon work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES) Program, under grant ER65430 to Iowa State University.

Keiser, A.D., Smith, M., Bell, S. & Hofmockel, K.S. Peatland microbial community response to altered climate tempered by nutrient availability. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 137, 1-9, (2019).