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Staff information

Phil

Phil Rasch

Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling
Laboratory Fellow
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-30
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Philip Rasch serves as the Chief Scientist for Climate Science at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a Department of Energy Office of Science research laboratory. In his advisory role, he provides leadership and direction to PNNL's Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change (ASGC) Division. The Division conducts research on the long‐term impact of human activities on climate and natural resources using a research strategy that starts with measurements and carries that information into models, with a goal of improving the nation's ability to predict climate change.

Dr. Rasch provides oversight to more than 90 researchers who lead and contribute to programs within a number of government agencies and industry. These programs focus on climate, aerosol and cloud physics; global and regional scale modeling; integrated assessment of global change; and complex regional meteorology and chemistry.

Dr. Rasch received a Bachelor Degree in Atmospheric Science and another in Chemistry from the University of Washington in 1976. He then moved to Florida State University for a Master of Science in Meteorology. He went to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado as an Advanced Study Program (ASP) Graduate Fellow to complete his PhD (which was also awarded from Florida State University). Following his PhD, Rasch remained at NCAR, first as ASP Postdoctoral Fellow, and then as a scientist where he worked in various positions. He joined PNNL in 2008. Rasch also holds an adjunct position at the University of Colorado and is an Affiliate Professor in the Department of Atmospheric Science at the University of Washington.

Dr. Rasch is internationally known for his work in general circulation, atmospheric chemistry, and climate modeling. He is particularly interested in the role of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, and has worked on the processes that describe these components of the atmosphere, the computational details that are needed to describe them in computer models, and on their impact on climate. For the last five years, he helped to lead the technical development team for the next generation of the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model Project, one of the major climate modeling activities in the United States. He also studies geoengineering, or the intentional manipulation of the atmosphere to counteract global warming.

Dr. Rasch was a chair of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program (IGAC, 2004‐2008), and participates on the steering and scientific committees of a number of international scientific bodies. He was named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, recognized for his contributions to climate modeling and connecting cloud formation, atmospheric chemistry and climate. He has contributed to scientific assessments for the World Meteorological Organization, NASA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Research Interests

  • Cloud-aerosol interactions
  • Chemistry-climate interactions
  • Cloud-climate interactions
  • Global and regional climate modeling
  • Chemical transport models
  • General circulation models

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Meteorology, Florida State University
  • M.S., Meteorology, Florida State University
  • B.S., Atmospheric Science, University of Washington
  • B.A., Chemistry, University of Washington

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Geophysical Union
  • Tellus Editorial Advisory Board
  • National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Group on NASA Science Teams
  • Chemistry Modeling Group of C4 (Co-chair)
  • IGAC (Steering Committee)
  • IGAC (American Chair)
  • VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study
  • Community Climate System Model Program (Scientific Steering Committee)
  • Atmospheric Model Working Group (Chair)
  • Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, SurfaceMeasurements andModels, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) SSC

Awards and Recognitions

  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • NASA GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres Distinguished Lecturer Series Award
  • American Meteorological Society, Editors Award, Monthly Weather Review
  • NCAR Post-Doctoral Fellow
  • NCAR Graduate Research Fellow

PNNL Publications

2014

  • Kravitz BS, D MacMartin, DT Leedal, PJ Rasch, and A Jarvis. 2014. "Explicit Feedback and the Management of Uncertainty in Meeting Climate Objectives with Solar Geoengineering." Environmental Research Letters 9(4):Article No. 044006.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/044006
  • Qian Y, H Wang, R Zhang, MG Flanner, and PJ Rasch. 2014. "A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China." Environmental Research Letters 9(6):Article No. 064001.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064001
  • Vinoj V, PJ Rasch, H Wang, JH Yoon, PL Ma, K Landu, and B Singh. 2014. "Short-term modulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall by West Asian dust." Nature Geoscience 7 :308-313.  doi:10.1038/NGEO2107
  • Huneeus N, O Boucher, K Alterskjaer, JN Cole, CL Curry, D Ji, A Jones, BS Kravitz, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, PJ Rasch, A Robock, B Singh, H Schmidt, M Schulz, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2014. "Forcings and Feedbacks in the GeoMIP Ensemble for a Reduction in Solar Irradiance and Increase in CO2." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 119(9):5226-5239.  doi:10.1002/2013JD021110
  • Ma PL, PJ Rasch, JD Fast, RC Easter, Jr, WI Gustafson, Jr, X Liu, SJ Ghan, and B Singh. 2014. "Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study." Geoscientific Model Development 7(3):755-778.  doi:10.5194/gmd-7-755-2014

2013

  • Kravitz BS, P Forster, A Jones, A Robock, K Alterskjaer, O Boucher, A Jenkins, H Korhonen, JE Kristjansson, HO Muri, U Niemeier, AI Partanen, PJ Rasch, H Wang, and S Watanabe. 2013. "Sea Spray Geoengineering Experiments in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP): Experimental Design and Preliminary Results." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(19):11,175-11,186.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50856
  • Smith SJ, and PJ Rasch. 2013. "The Long-Term Policy Context for Solar Radiation Management." Climatic Change 121(3):487-497.  doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0577-3
  • Wan H, PJ Rasch, K Zhang, J Kazil, and LYR Leung. 2013. "Numerical Issues Associated with Compensating and Competing Processes in Climate Models: an Example from ECHAM-HAM." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):861-874.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-861-2013
  • Baer DR, BJ Finlayson-Pitts, HC Allen, AK Bertram, VH Grassian, ST Martin, JE Penner, K Prather, PJ Rasch, R Signorell, JN Smith, B Wyslouzil, P Ziemann, D Dabdub, F Furche, S Nizkorodov, DJ Tobias, J Laskin, and A Laskin. 2013. EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air QualityPNNL-22607, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Gustafson WI, Jr, PL Ma, H Xiao, B Singh, PJ Rasch, and JD Fast. 2013. "The Separate Physics and Dynamics Experiment (SPADE) framework for determining resolution awareness: A case study of microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(16):9258-9276.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50711
  • Hurrell J, MM Holland, PR Gent, SJ Ghan, J Kay, P Kushner, JF Lamarque, WG Large, DM Lawrence, K Lindsay, W Lipscomb, M Long , N Mahowald, D Marsh, R Neale, PJ Rasch, SJ Vavrus, M Vertenstein, DC Bader, WD Collins, J Hack, JT Kiehl, and S Marshall. 2013. "The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(9):1339-1360.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121
  • Kravitz BS, K Caldeira, O Boucher, A Robock, PJ Rasch, K Alterskjaer, D Bou Karam, JN Cole, CL Curry, J Haywood, P Irvine, D Ji, A Jones, JE Kristjansson, D Lunt, J Moore, U Niemeier, H Schmidt, M Schulz, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, S Yang, and JH Yoon. 2013. "Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(15):8320-8332.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50646
  • Kravitz BS, PJ Rasch, P Forster, T Andrews, JN Cole, P Irvine, D Ji, JE Kristjansson, J Moore, HO Muri, U Niemeier, A Robock, B Singh, S Tilmes, S Watanabe, and JH Yoon. 2013. "An Energetic Perspective on Hydrologic Cycle Changes in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(23):13,087-13,102.  doi:10.1002/2013JD020502
  • Ma PL, JR Gattiker, X Liu, and PJ Rasch. 2013. "A Novel Approach for Determining Source-Receptor Relationships in Model Simulations: A Case Study of Black Carbon Transport in Northern Hemisphere Winter." Environmental Research Letters 8(2):Article No. 02042.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024042
  • Ma PL, PJ Rasch, H Wang, K Zhang, RC Easter, Jr, S Tilmes, JD Fast, X Liu, JH Yoon, and JF Lamarque. 2013. "The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(10):4657-4669.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50411
  • Myhre G, BH Samset, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, H Bian, N Bellouin, M Chin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, J Feichter, SJ Ghan, D Hauglustaine, T Iversen, S Kinne, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, MT Lund, G Luo, X Ma, T van Noije, JE Penner, PJ Rasch, A Ruiz, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, P Wang, Z Wang, L Xu, H Yu, F Yu, JH Yoon, K Zhang, H Zhang, and C Zhou. 2013. "Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(4):1853-1877.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013
  • Neale R, J Richter, S Park, PH Lauritzen, SJ Vavrus, PJ Rasch, and M Zhang. 2013. "The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments." Journal of Climate 26(14):5150-5168.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00236.1
  • Tilmes S, J Fasullo, JF Lamarque, D Marsh, M Mills, K Alterskjaer, HO Muri, JE Kristjansson, O Boucher, M Schulz, JN Cole, CL Curry, A Jones, J Haywood, P Irvine, D Ji, J Moore, D Bou Karam, BS Kravitz, PJ Rasch, B Singh, JH Yoon, U Niemeier, H Schmidt, A Robock, S Yang, and S Watanabe. 2013. "The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(19):11,036-11,058.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50868
  • Wang H, RC Easter, Jr, PJ Rasch, M Wang, X Liu, SJ Ghan, Y Qian, JH Yoon, PL Ma, and V Vinoj. 2013. "Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):765-782.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-765-2013
  • Yang B, Y Qian, G Lin, LYR Leung, PJ Rasch, GJ Zhang, SA McFarlane, C Zhao, Y Zhang, H Wang, M Wang, and X Liu. 2013. "Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning in the CAM5 Zhang-McFarlane Convection Scheme and Impact of Improved Convection on the Global Circulation and Climate." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(2):395-415.  doi:10.1029/2012JD018213
  • Zhang M, CS Bretherton, P Blossey, PA Austin, J Bacmeister, S Bony, F Brient, SK Cheedela, A Cheng, AD Del Genio, SR De Roode, S Endo , CN Franklin, JC Golaz, C Hannay, T Heus, FA Isotta, D Jean-Louis, IS Kang, H Kawai, M Koehler, VE Larson, Y Liu, A Lock, U Lohmann, M Khairoutdinov, AM Molod, R Neggers, PJ Rasch, I Sandu, R Senkbeil, AP Siebesma, C Siegenthaler-Le Drian, B Stevens, M Suarez, KM Xu, K Von Salzen, M Webb, A Wolf, and M Zhao. 2013. "CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 5(4):826-842.  doi:10.1002/2013MS000246

2012

  • Liu X, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, RA Zaveri, PJ Rasch, X Shi, JF Lamarque, A Gettelman, H Morrison, F Vitt, A Conley, S Park, R Neale, C Hannay, AM Ekman, P Hess, N Mahowald, WD Collins, MJ Iacono, CS Bretherton, MG Flanner, and D Mitchell. 2012. "Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Description and Evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5." Geoscientific Model Development 5(3):709-739.  doi:10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012
  • Chand D, R Wood, SJ Ghan, M Wang, M Ovchinnikov, PJ Rasch, SD Miller, B Schichtel, and T Moore. 2012. "Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D17207.  doi:10.1029/2012JD017894
  • Chen CC, and PJ Rasch. 2012. "Climate Simulations with an Isentropic Finite Volume Dynamical Core." Journal of Climate 25(8):2843-2861.  doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4184.1
  • Ganguly D, PJ Rasch, H Wang, and JH Yoon. 2012. "Climate response of the South Asian monsoon system to anthropogenic aerosols." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D13209.  doi:10.1029/2012JD017508
  • Ganguly D, PJ Rasch, H Wang, and JH Yoon. 2012. "Fast and Slow Responses of the South Asian Monsoon System to Anthropogenic Aerosols." Geophysical Research Letters 39:Article No. L18804.  doi:10.1029/2012GL053043
  • Ghan SJ, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, RA Zaveri, PJ Rasch, JH Yoon, and B Eaton. 2012. "Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing." Journal of Climate 25(19):6461-6476.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00650.1
  • Lamarque JF, L Emmons, P Hess, DE Kinnison, S Tilmes, F Vitt, CL Heald, EA Holland, PH Lauritzen, J Neu, JJ Orlando, PJ Rasch, and GS Tyndall. 2012. "CAM-chem: description and evaluation of interactive atmospheric chemistry in the Community Earth System Model ." Geoscientific Model Development 5(2):369-411.  doi:10.5194/gmd-5-369-2012
  • Latham J, K Bower, T Choularton, H Coe, P Connolly, G Cooper, T Craft, J Foster, A Gadian, L Galbraith, H Iacovides, D Johnston, B Launder, B Leslie, J Meyer, A Neukermans, B Ormond, B Parkes, PJ Rasch, J Rush, S Salter, T Stevenson, H Wang, Q Wang, and R Wood. 2012. "Marine Cloud Brightening." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 370(10.1098/rsta.2012.0086):4217-4262.  doi:10.1098/rsta.2012.0086
  • Rosenfeld D, H Wang, and PJ Rasch. 2012. "The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus." Geophysical Research Letters 39:Article No. L13801.  doi:10.1029/2012GL052028
  • Russell LM, PJ Rasch, G Mace, RB Jackson, J Shepherd, P Liss, M Leinen, D Schimel, NE Vaughan, AC Janetos, PW Boyd, RJ Norby, K Caldeira, J Merikanto, P Artaxo, J Melillo, and MG Morgan. 2012. "ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF GEOENGINEERING: A Review for Developing a Science Plan." Ambio 41(4):350-369.  doi:10.1007/s13280-012-0258-5

2011

  • Wang H, PJ Rasch, and G Feingold. 2011. "Manipulating marine stratocumulus cloud amount and albedo: a process-modeling study of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in response to injection of cloud condensation nuclei." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(9):4237-4249.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-4237-2011
  • Fan J, SJ Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, PJ Rasch, and A Korolev. 2011. "Representation of Arctic Mixed-Phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process in Climate Models: Perspectives from a Cloud-Resolving Study." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D00T07.  doi:10.1029/2010JD015375
  • Gent PR, G Danabasoglu, LJ Donner, MM Holland, EC Hunke, SR Jayne, DM Lawrence, R Neale, PJ Rasch, M Vertenstein, P Worley, ZL Yang, and M Zhang. 2011. "The Community Climate System Model Version 4." Journal of Climate 24(19):4973-4991.  doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1
  • Sakaeda N, R Wood, and PJ Rasch. 2011. "Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D12205.  doi:10.1029/2010JD015540
  • Teixeira J, S Cardoso, M Bonazzola, JN Cole, AD DelGenio, C DeMott, A Franklin, C Hannay, C Jakob, Y Jiao, J Karlsson, H Kitagawa, M Koehler, A Kuwano-Yoshida, C LeDrian, A Lock, M Miller, P Marquet, J Martins, CR Mechoso, EV Meijgaard, I Meinke, P Miranda, D Mironov, R Neggers, HL Pan, DA Randall, PJ Rasch, B Rockel, WB Rossow, B Ritter, AP Siebesma, P Soares, FJ Turk, P Vaillancourt, A Von Engeln, and M Zhao. 2011. "Tropical and subtropical cloud transitions in weather and climate prediction models: the GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI)." Journal of Climate 24(20):5223-5256.  doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3672.1

2010

  • Rasch PJ, S Tilmes, RP Turco, A Robock, L Oman, CC Chen, G Stenchikov, and RR Garcia. 2010. "An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols." Chapter 12 in Geo-Engineering Climate Change: Environmental Necessity or Pandora's Box?, ed. Brian Launder and J. Michael T. Thompson, pp. 250-285  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 
  • Rasch PJ. 2010. "Technical fixes and Climate Change: Optimizing for Risks and Consequences ." Environmental Research Letters 5(3):Article No. 031001.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/3/031001
  • Tosca MG, J Randerson, CS Zender, MG Flanner, and PJ Rasch. 2010. "Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nio? ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10(8):3515-3528.  doi:10.5194/acp-10-3515-2010

2009

  • Rasch PJ, J Latham, and CC Chen. 2009. "Geoengineering by cloud seeding: influence on sea ice and climate system ." Environmental Research Letters 4(4):Article number: 045112.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045112
  • Doherty SJ, PJ Rasch, and AR Ravishankara. 2009. "Initiative to improve process representation in chemistry-climate models." Eos 90(24):206-207.  doi:10.1029/2009EO240002
  • Quaas J, Y Ming, S Menon, T Takemura, M Wang, JE Penner, A Gettelman, U Lohmann, N Bellouin, O Boucher, AM Sayer, GE Thomas, A McComiskey, G Feingold, C Hoose, JE Kristjansson, X Liu, Y Balkanski, LJ Donner, P Ginoux, P Stier, B Grandey, J Feichter, I Sednev, SE Bauer, D Koch, RG Grainger, A Kirkevag, T Iversen, O Seland, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, PJ Rasch, H Morrison, JF Lamarque, MJ Iacono, S Kinne, and M Schulz. 2009. "Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(22):8697-8717 . 
  • Tilmes S, RR Garcia, DE Kinnison, A Gettelman, and PJ Rasch. 2009. "Impact of geoengineered aerosols on the troposphere and stratosphere." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:Article No. D12305.  doi:10.1029/2008JD011420
  • Wang C, D Kim, A Ekman, M Barth, and PJ Rasch. 2009. "Impact of anthropogenic aerosols on Indian summer monsoon." Geophysical Research Letters 36:Article No. L21704.  doi:10.1029/2009GL040114
  • Zhang T, DZ Sun, R Neale, and PJ Rasch. 2009. "An Evaluation of ENSO Asymmetry in the Community Climate System Models: A View from the Subsurface." Journal of Climate 22(22):5933-5961.  doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2933.1

Selected Publications

2008

  • Rasch PJ, PJ Crutzen, and DB Coleman.  2008.  "Exploring the Geoengineering of Climate Using Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols: The Role of Particle Size." Geophysical Research Letters 35: Art. No. L02809.
  • Pfister GG, PG Hess, LK Emmons, PJ Rasch, and FM Vitt.  2008.  "Impact of the Summer 2004 Alaska Fires on Top of the Atmosphere Clear-Sky Radiation Fluxes."  Journal of Geophysical Research 113: Art. No. D02204, doi:10.1029/2007JD008797.

2007

  • Flanner MG, CS Zender, JT Randerson, and PJ Rasch.  2007.  "Present-day Climate Forcing and Response from lack Carbon in Snow."  Journal of Geophysical Research 112(D11): Art. No. D11202.

2006

  • Rasch JP, MJ Stevens, L Ricciardulli, A Dai, R Wood, BA Boville, B Eaton, and JJ Hack.  2006.  "A Characterization of Tropical Transient Activity in the CAM3 Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle." Journal of Climate 19:2222-2242.
  • Rasch PJ, DB Coleman, N Mahowald, DL WIlliamson, S-J Lin, BA Boville, and P Hess.  2006.  "Characteristics of Transport Using Three Formulations of Atmospheric Dynamics in a Single GCM Framework." Journal of Climate 19:2243-2266.
  • Rasch PJ, DB Coleman, N Mahowald, DL WIlliamson, S-J Lin, BA Boville, and P Hess.  2006.  "Characteristics of Transport Using Three Formulations of Atmospheric Dynamics in a Single GCM Framework." Journal of Climate 19:2243-2266.
  • Rasch PJ, PJ Crutzen, and DB Coleman.  2006.  "Geo-Engineering Climate Change with Sulfate."  Geophysical Research Letters 35:L02809.1-L02809.6
  • Boville BA, PJ Rasch, JJ Hack, and JR McCaa.  2006.  "Representation of Clouds and Precipitation Processes in the Community Atmosphere Model 3 (CAM3)."  Journal of Climate 19(11):2184-2198.
  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, BA Boville, JJ Hack, JR McCaa, DL Williamson, B Briegleb, CM Bitz, S-J Lin, and M Zhang.  2006.  "The Formulation and Atmospheric Simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model: CAM3."  Journal of Climate 19:2144-2161.
  • Lin JL, GN. Kiladis, BE Mapes, KM Weickmann, KR Sperber, W Lin, M Wheeler, SD Schubert, AD Genio, LJ Donner, S Emori, J-F Gueremy, F Hourdin, PJ Rasch, E Roeckner, and JF Scinocca.  2006.  Tropical Intraseasonal Variability in 14 IPCC AR4 Climate Models Part I: Convective Signals."  Journal of Climate 19:2665-2690, doi:10.1175/JCLI3735.1.
  • Mahowald NM, DR Muhs, S Levis, PJ Rasch, M Yoshioka, CS Zender, and C Luo.  2006.  "Change in Atmospheric Mineral Aerosols in Response to Climate: Last Glacial Period, Preindustrial, Modern, and Doubled Carbon Dioxide Climates."  Journal of Geophysical Research 111: Art. No. D10202, doi:10.1029/ 2005JD006653.

2005

  • Boville BA, PJ Rasch, JJ Hack, and JR McCaa.  2005.  "Representation of Clouds and Precipitation Processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3)."  Journal of Climate.
  • Hack JJ, J Caron, SG Yeager, KW Oleson, MM Holland, JE Truesdale, and PJ Rasch.  2005.  "Simulation of the Global Hydrological Cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3): Mean Features."  Journal of Climate 19(11):2199-2221.

2004

  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, BA Boville, JJ Hack, JR McCaa, DL Williamson, JT Kiehl, BP Briegleb, CM Bitz, S-J Lin, MH Zhang, and Y Dai.  2004.  Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model: CAM3.0. Technical Report NCAR/TN-464+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, accessed October 1, 2008 at http://http/www.ccsm.ucar.edu/models/atm-cam.
  • Hines KM, DH Bromwich, PJ Rasch, and MJ Iacono.  2004.  "Antarctic Clouds and Radiation within the NCAR Climate Models."  Journal of Climate 17(6):1198-1212.

2003

  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, B Eaton, DW Fillmore, J Kiehl, TC Beck, and C Zender.  2003.  "Simulation of Aerosol Distributions and Radiative Forcing for INDOEX: Regional Climate Impacts."  Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D19):8028, doi:10.1029/2000JD000032.
  • Von Kuhlmann R, MG Lawrence, PJ Crutzen, and PJ Rasch.  2003.  "A Model for Studies of Tropospheric Ozone and Non-methane Hydrocarbons: Model Description and Ozone Results."  Journal of Geophysics Research (108), doi: 10.1029/2002JD002893.
  • Zhang M, W Lin, CS Bretherton, JJ Hack, and PJ Rasch.  2003.  "A Modified Formulation of Fractional Stratiform Condensation Rate in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM2)." Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D1): Art. No. 4035, doi:10.1029/ 2002JD002523.

2002

  • Bergman JW and PJ Rasch.  2002.  "Parameterizing Vertically-Coherent Cloud Distributions."  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 59(14):2165-2182 Art. No. 255TSKL30.
  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, BE Eaton, DW Fillmore, JT Kiehl, TC Beck, and CS Zender.  2002.  "Simulation of Aerosol Distributions and Radiative Forcing for INDOEX: Regional Climate Impacts."  Journal of Geophysical Research 107: Art. No. 8028, doi:10.1029/2001JD001365.

2001

  • Rasch PJ, WD Collins, and BE Eaton.  2001.  "Understanding the Indian Ocean Experiment INDOEX Aerosol Distributions with an Aerosol Assimilation."  Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D7):7337-7335.
  • Boville BA, JT Kiehl, PJ Rasch, and FO Bryan.  2001.  "Improvements to the NCAR CSM-1 for Transient Climate Simulation."  Journal of Climate 14:164-179.
  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, BE Eaton, B Khattatov, J-F Lamarque, and CS Zender.  2001.  "Simulating Aerosols Using a Chemical Transport Model with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX."  Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D7):7313-7336.
  • Ramanathan V, PJ Crutzen, J Lelieveld, AP Mitra, D Althausen, J Anderson, MO Andreae,W Cantrell, GR Cass, CE Chung, AD Clarke, WD Collins, WC Conant, JA Coakley, F Dulac, J Heintzenberg, AJ Heymsfield, B Holben, S Howell, J Hudson, A Jayaraman, JT Kiehl, TN Krishnamurti, D Lubin, G McFarquhar, T Novakov, JA Ogren, IA Podgorny, K Prather, K Priestley, JM Prospero, PK Quinn, K Rajeev, PJ Rasch, S Rupert, R Sadourney, SK Satheesh, GE Shaw, P Sheridan, and FPJ Valero.  2001.  "The Indian Ocean Experiment: An Integrated Assessment of the Climate Forcing and Effects of the Great Indo-Asian Haze."  Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D22):28,371-28,398.

2000

  • Rasch PJ, J Feichter, K Law, N Mahowald, J Penner, C Benkovitz, C Genthon, C Giannakopoulos, P Kasibhatla, D Koch, H Levy, T Maki, M Prather, DL Roberts, G-J Roelofs, D Stevenson, Z Stockwell, S Taguchi, M Kritz, M Chipperfield, D Baldocchi, P McMurry, L Barrie, Y Balkanski, R Chatfield, E Kjellstrom, M Lawrence, HN Lee, J Lelieveld, KJ Noone, J Seinfeld, G Stenchikov, S Schwartz, C Walcek, and D Williamson.  2000.  "A Comparison of Scavenging and Deposition Processes in Global Models."  Results from the World Climate Research Programme Cambridge Workshop of 1995.  Tellus 52B:1025-1056.
  • Rasch PJ, MC Barth, JT Kiehl, SE Schwartz, and CM Benkovitz.  2000.  "A Description of the Global Sulfur Cycle and Its Controlling Processes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3."  Journal of Geophysical Research 105:1367-1385.
  • Barth M, PJ Rasch, JT Kiehl, CM Benkovitz, and SE Schwartz.  2000.  "Sulfur Chemistry in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: Description, Evaluation, Features and Sensitivity to Aqueous Chemistry."  Journal of Geophysics Research 105(D1):1387-1415.
  • Boville BA, PJ Rasch, JJ Hack, and JR McCaa.  2000.  "Representation of Clouds and Precipitation Processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3)."  Journal of Climate 19(11):2184-2198.
  • Clarke A, WC Collins, PJ Rasch, V Kapustin, K Moore, and S Howell.  2000.  "Dust and Pollution Transport on Global Scales: Aerosol Measurement and Model Predictions."  Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D23):32555-32569.
  • Kiehl JT, TL Schneider, PJ Rasch, MC Barth, and J Wong.  2000.  "Radiative Forcing due to Sulfate Aerosols from Simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 3." Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D1):1441-1457.
  • Zhang Y and PJ Rasch.  2000.  "The Application of a Gas-Aerosol Evolution Model in the NCAR CCM." Journal of Geophysical Research, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.

1999

  • Rasch PJ, J Feichter, K Law, N Mahowald, J Penner, C Benkovitz, C Genthon, C Giannakopoulos, P Kasibhatla, D Koch, H Levy, T Maki, M Prather, DL Roberts, G-J Roelofs, D Stevenson, Z Stockwell, S Taguchi, M Kritz, M Chipperfield, D Baldocchi, P McMurry, L Barrie, T Balkanski, R Chatfield, E Kjellstrom, M Lawrence, HN Lee, J Lelieveld, KJ Noone, J Seinfeld, G Stenchikov, S Schwarz, C Walcek, and D Williamson.  1999.  Technical Report 29, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), WMO/TD-950, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Rasch PJ, J Feichter, K Law, N Mahowald, J Penner, C Benkovitz, C Genthon, C Giannakopoulos, P Kasibhatla, D Koch, H Levy, T Maki, M Prather, DL Roberts, G-J Roelofs, D Stevenson, Z Stockwell, S Taguchi, M Kritz, M Chipperfield, D Baldocchi, P McMurry, L Barrie, T Balkanski, R Chatfield, E Kjellstrom, M Lawrence, HN Lee, J Lelieveld, KJ Noone, J Seinfeld, G Stenchikov, S Schwarz, C Walcek, and D Williamson.  1999.  Technical Report 29, WMO/TD-No. 950, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Rasch PJ, WD Collins, and BE Eaton.  1999.  "Forecasting Aerosols Using a CTM with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals 2. A 4D Aerosol Analysis for INDOEX." EOS 80(17):S32.
  • Rasch PJ, WD Collins, and BE Eaton.  1999.  "Forecasting Aerosols Using a CTM with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals 2. A 4D Aerosol Analysis for INDOEX." EOS 80(17):S32.
  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, and BE Eaton.  1999.  Forecasting Aerosols Using a CTM with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals 1. Methology for INDOEX."  EOS 80(17):S31-S32.
  • Collins WD, PJ Rasch, and BE Eaton.  1999.  Forecasting Aerosols Using a CTM with Assimilation of Satellite Aerosol Retrievals 1. Methology for INDOEX."  EOS 80(17):S31-S32.
  • Lawrence MG, PJ Crutzen, and PJ Rasch.  1999.  "Analysis of the CEPEX Ozone Data Using a 3D Chemistry-Meteorology Model."  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125:2987-3009.
  • Lawrence MG, PJ Crutzen, and PJ Rasch.  1999.  "Analysis of the CEPEX Ozone Data Using a 3D Chemistry-Meteorology Model."  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125:2987-3009.
  • Lawrence MJ, PJ Crutzen, PJ Rasch, BE Eaton, and NM Mahowald.  1999.  "A Model for Studies of Tropospheric Photochemistry: Description, Global Simulation Characteristics, and Evaluation." Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D21):26,245-26,278.
  • Lawrence MJ, PJ Crutzen, PJ Rasch, BE Eaton, and NM Mahowald.  1999.  "A Model for Studies of Tropospheric Photochemistry: Description, Global Simulation Characteristics, and Evaluation." Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D21):26245-26278.
  • Lohmann U, W Leaitch, K Law, L Barrie, Y Yi, D Bergmann, C Bridgeman, M Chin, J Christensen, R Easter, J Feichter, A Jeuken, E Kjellstrom, D Koch, C Land, PJ Rasch, and G-J Roelofs.  1999.  "Vertical Distributions of Sulfur Species Simulated by Large-Scale Atmospheric Models in COSAM: Comparison with Observations."  Tellus Series B 53(5):673-694.
  • Lohmann U, W Leaitch, K Law, L Barrie, Y Yi, D Bergmann, C Bridgeman, M Chin, J Christensen, R Easter, J Feichter, A Jeuken, E Kjellstrom, D Koch, C Land, PJ Rasch, and G-J Roelofs.  1999.  "Vertical Distributions of Sulfur Species Simulated by Large-Scale Atmospheric Models in COSAM: Comparison with Observations."  Tellus Series B 53(5):673-694.
  • Mahowald NM, PJ Rasch, and RG Prinn.  1999.  "Cumulus Parameterizations in Chemical Transport Models."  Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16173-26189.
  • Mahowald NM, PJ Rasch, and RG Prinn.  1999.  "Cumulus Parameterizations in Chemical Transport Models."  Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16173-26189.

1998

  • Rasch PJ and JE Kristjansson.  1998.  "A Comparison of the CCM3 Model Climate Using Diagnosed and Predicted Condensate Parameterizations."  Journal of Climate 11:1587-1614.
  • Brasseur GP, D Hauglustaine, S Walters, PJ Rasch, J-F Mller, C Granier, and X Tie.  1998.  "MOZART, a Global Chemical Transport Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers: 1, Model Description."  Journal of Geophysical Research 103:28265-28289.
  • Douglass AR, MP Prather, T Hall, SE Strahan, PJ Rasch, LC Sparling, L Coy, and J Rodriquez.  1998.  "Choosing Meteorological Input for the Global Modeling Initiative Assessment of High-Speed Aircraft."  Journal of Geophysical Research 104(D22):27545-27564.
  • Hauglustaine DA, GP Brasseur, S Walters, PJ Rasch, JF Müller, LK Emmons, and MA Carroll.  1998.  "MOZART: A Global Chemical Transport Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, Part 2. Model Results and Evaluation."  Journal of Geophysical Research 103(D21):28,291-28,335.
  • Kiehl JT, JJ Hack, GB Bonan, BB Boville, DL Williamson, and PJ Rasch. 1998.  "The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3."  Journal of Climate 11:1131-1149.
  • Zhang GJ, JT Kiehl, and PJ Rasch.  1998.  "Response of Climate Simulations to a New Convective Parameterization in the National Center for Atmospheric Research.  Journal of Climate 11(8):2097-2115.

1997

  • Rasch PJ, NM Mahowald, and BE Eaton.  1997.  "Representations of Transport, Convection, and the Hydrologic Cycle in Chemical Transport Models: Implications for the Modeling of Short-Lived and Soluble Species."  Journal of Geophysical Research 102:28127-28138.
  • Brasseur GP, XX Tie, PJ Rasch, and F Lefevre.  1997.  "A Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Antarctic Ozone Hole: Impact of Anthropogenic Chlorine on the Lower Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere."  Journal of Geophysical Research 102:8909-8930.
  • Jacob DJ, MJ Prather, BA Boville, PJ Rasch, R-L Shia, YJ Balkanski, SR Beagley, DJ Bergman, WT Blackshear, M Brown, M Chiba, MP Chipperfield, J de Grandpré, JE Dignon, J Feichter, C Genthon, WL Grose, PS Kasibhatla, I Köhler, MA Kritz, K Law, JE Penner, M Ramonet, CE Reeves, DA Rotman, DZ Stockwell, PFJ Van Velthoven, G Verver, O Wild, H Yang, and P Zimmerman.  1997.  "Evaluation and Intercomparison of Global Atmospheric Transport Models Using 222Rn and Other Short-Lived Tracers."  Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D5):5953-5970.
  • Krishnamurti TN, B Jha, PJ Rasch, and V Ramanathan.  1997: A High-Resolution Global Reanalysis Highlighting the Winter Monsoon.  Part ii, Transients and Passive Tracer Transports."  Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (64):151-171.
  • Krishnamurti TN, B Jha, PJ Rasch, and V Ramanathan.  1997.  "A High-Resolution Global Reanalysis Highlighting the Winter Monsoon.  part i, Reanalysis Fields."  Meteorological and Atmospheric Physics (64):123-150.
  • Krishnamurti TN, B Jha, PJ Rasch, and V Ramanathan.  1997.  A High-Resolution Global Reanalysis Highlighting the Winter Monsoon. C4 Publication 181, La Jolla, California.
  • Mahowald N, PJ Rasch, B Eaton, SWhittleston, and R Prinn.  1997.  "Transport of 222radon to the Remote Troposphere Using Match and Assimilated Winds from ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR."  Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D23):28139-28151.
  • Mahowald NM, RG Prinn, and PJ Rasch.  1997.  "Deducing CCl3F Emissions Using an Onverse Method and Chemical Transport Models with Assimilated Winds."  Journal of Geophysical Research 102(D23):28,153-28,168.
  • Waugh DW, TM Hall, WJ Randel, PJ Rasch, BA Boville, KA Boering, SC Wofsy, DC Daube, JW Elkins, DW Fahey, GS Dutton, CM Volk, and PF Vohralik.  1997.  "Three-Dimensional Simulations of Long-Lived Tracers Using Winds from MACCM2."   Journal of Geophysical Research 102:21493-21513.
  • Wuebbles DJ, PJ Rasch, D Jacob, DH Rind, J Logan, J-F M¨uller, JM Rodriguez, CJ Walcek, and YWang.  1997.  "Chapter 4: Modeling the Global Effects of Aircraft Emissions."  In: The Atmospheric Effects of Subsonic Aircraft: Interim Assessment Report of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, RR Friedl, Editor, Reference Publication 1400, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), NASA, Washington, D.C., p. 168.

1996

  • Erickson DJ, PJ Rasch, PP Tans, P Friedlingstein, P Ciais, E Maier-Reimer, K Six, CA Fischer, and S Walters.  1996.  "The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric CO2: A Study Based on the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2) Journal of Geophysical Research 101(D10):15079-15097.
  • Kiehl JT, J Hack, G Bonan, B Boville, B Briegleb, D Williamson, and PJ Rasch.  1996a.  Description of the NCAR Community ClimateModel (CCM3). Technical Report NCAR/TN-420+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
  • Ramanathan V, JA Coakley, A Clarke, WD Collins, J Crutzen, R Dickerson, D Fahey, B Gandrud, A Heymsfield, JT Kiehl, T Krishnamurti, J Kuettner, D Lubin, H Maring, J Ogren, J Prospero, PJ Rasch, D Savoie, G Shaw, A Tuck, FPJ Valero, EL Woodbridge, and G Zhang.  1996.  Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), A Multi-Agency Proposal for a Field Experiment in the Indian Ocean. Technical Report, Center for Clouds, Chemistry, and Climate (C4), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.  Accessed November 4, 2008, at URL = http://borneo.ucsd.edu/publications/proposal.

1995

  • Rasch PJ, BA Boville, and GP Brasseur.  1995.  "A Three-Dimensional General Circulation Model with Coupled Chemistry for the Middle Atmosphere."  Journal of Geophysical Research 100:9041-9071.
  • Rasch PJ, H Feichter, K Law, and J Penner.  1995.  Modeling of Trace Constituents by Global Models.  Technical Report, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Mahowald NM, PJ Rasch, and RG Prinn.  1995.  "Cumulus Parameterizations in Chemical Transport Models."  Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16173-26189.

1994

  • Rasch PJ, X Tie, BA Boville, and DL Williamson.  1994.  "A Three-Dimensional Transport Model for the Middle Atmosphere."  Journal of Geophysical Research 99(D1):16,445-16,490.
  • Rasch PJ, X Tie, BA Boville, and DL Williamson.  1994.  "A Three-Dimensional Transport Model for the Middle Atmosphere."  Journal of Geophysical Research 99:999-1017.
  • Rasch PJ.  1994.  "Conservative Shape-Preserving 2-Dimensional Transport on a Spherical Reduced Grid."  Monthly Weather Review 122(6):1337-1350.
  • Hack JJ, BA Boville, JT Kiehl, and PJ Rasch.  1994.  "Climate Statistics from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2)."  Journal of Geophysical Research 99:20785-20813.
  • Hartley D, D Williamson, PJ Rasch, and R Prinn.  1994.  "Examination of Tracer Transport in the NCAR CCM2 by Comparison of CFCl3 Simulations with ALE/GAGE Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research 99:12,855-12,896.
  • Tie XX, GP Brasseur, P Friedlingstein, C Granier, and PJ Rasch.  1994.  "The Impact of High-Altitude Aircraft on the Ozone Layer in the Stratosphere."  Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 18:103-128.
  • Williamson DL and PJ Rasch.  1994.  "Water Vapor Transport in the NCAR CCM2." Tellus 46A:34-51.

1993

  • Hack JJ, BA Boville, BP Briegleb, JT Kiehl, PJ Rasch, and DL Williamson.  1993a.  Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). Technical Report NCAR/TN-382+STR, NTIS PB93-221802, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
  • Hack JJ, BA Boville, BP Briegleb, JT Kiehl, PJ Rasch, and DL Williamson.  1993b.  Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Technical Notes, NCAR/TN-382+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
  • Hack JJ, BA Boville, BP Briegleb, JT Kiehl, PJ Rasch, and DL Williamson.  1993c.  Description of the NCAR Community ClimateModel (CCM2). Technical Report NCAR/TN-382+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

1991

  • Rasch PJ and DL Williamson.  1991.  "Sensitivity of a General Circulation Model Climate to the Moisture Transport Formulation."  Journal of Geophysical Research 96:13,123-13,137.
  • Smolarkiewicz PK and PJ Rasch.  1991.  "Monotone Advection on the Sphere: An Eulerian versus Semi-Lagrangian Approach."  Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 48:793-810.

1990

  • Rasch PJ and DL Williamson.  1990.  "On Shape-Preserving Interpolation and Semi-Lagrangian Transport."  SIAM Journal of Scientific and Statistical Computing 11(4):656-687.
  • Rasch PJ and DL Williamson.  1990.  "Computational Aspects of Moisture Transport in Global Models of the Atmosphere."  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 116:1071-1090.
  • Williamson DL, PJ Rasch, and DE Hartley.  1990.  "The WCRP CFCL3 Experiment."  In: Report of a Scientific Symposium, J Pyle and M Prather, Editors, No. 24 in World Meteorological Organization (WMO), WMO/TD-770, p. 186. WMO, Geneva, Switzerland.

1989

  • Rasch PJ and DL Williamson.  1989.  A Comparison of Shape-Preserving Interpolators.  NCAR Technical Note, NTIS PB89-226336/AS. NCAR/TN-339+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
  • Donner LJ and PJ Rasch.  1989.  "Cumulus Initialization in a Global Model for Numerical Weather Prediction."  Monthly Weather Review 117:2654-2671.
  • Williamson DL and PJ Rasch.  1989.  "Two-Dimensional Semi-Lagrangian Transport with Shape-Preserving Interpolation."  Monthly Weather Review 117:102-129.

1988

  • Errico RM and PJ Rasch.  1988.  "A Comparison of Various Normal-Mode Initialization Schemes and the Inclusion of Diabatic Processes."  Tellus 40A:1-25.

1986

  • Rasch PJ.  1986.  "Toward Atmospheres without Tops: Absorbing Upper Boundary Conditions for Numerical Models."  Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 112:1195-1218.

1985

  • Rasch PJ.  1985.  "Developments in Normal Mode Initialization.  Part I: A Simple Interpretation for Normal Mode Initialization."  Monthly Weather Review 113:1746-1753.
  • Rasch PJ.  1985.  "Developments in Normal Mode Initialization.  Part II: A New Method and its Comparison with Currently Used Schemes."  Monthly Weather Review 113:1753-1770.

1983

  • Rasch PJ, JT Kiehl and WT Wyman.  1983.  Translation of "The Mechanism of Meteorological Noise" by K. Hinkelmann (1951, Tellus) from the German.  NCAR Technical Note TN-203+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.  NTIS PB24:1483-1489.

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