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Staff information

Steven

Steven Ghan

Earth Systems Analysis & Modeling
Laboratory Fellow
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K9-24
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Steve Ghan is a climate scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The mission of the division is to understand the atmospheric processes that drive regional and global earth systems, with a primary focus on climate, aerosol and cloud physics; global and regional scale modeling; integrated assessment; and complex regional meteorology and chemistry. Dr. Ghan's work involves a combination of development, evaluation, and application of parameterizations for climate models. He has focused on parameterizations that represent cloud-aerosol interactions and the subgrid influence of orography on atmospheric and land surface processes. He has worked closely with atmospheric chemists to produce self-consistent treatments of not only the influence of aerosols on clouds, but also the influence of clouds on aerosols. During 2007-2011 he led the Aerosol Climate Initiative for PNNL.

For the last fifteen years, Dr. Ghan's second research passion has been the representation of the subgrid influence of orography on atmospheric and land surface processes. By treating land as well as atmospheric processes in a consistent framework, the scheme produces high-resolution distributions of not only temperature and precipitation but also snow water, soil moisture, and runoff. His colleague, Dr. Ruby Leung, and he first developed the scheme in 1994, using a regional climate model as a testbed. They evaluated it by comparing with station measurements in a region with complex terrain, and then used it to simulate the impact of global warming on the climate of the Pacific Northwest. He subsequently applied the scheme to a global climate model, and in 2005 used it to produce global 5-km simulations of climate change for a 125-year IPCC scenario.

Research Interests

  • Cloud-aerosol interactions
  • Cloud microphysics parameterization
  • Aerosol-climate interactions
  • Chemistry-climate interactions
  • Global and regional climate modeling
  • Subgrid orography parameterization

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • M.S., Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • B.S., in Atmospheric Science (cum laude), University of Washington

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of American Geophysical Union
  • Editor, J. Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 2007 - Present
  • Editor-in-Chief, J. Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 2012 - Present

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2005-2009: Science Steering Committee, DOE Atmospheric Science Program
  • 2006-2011: Science Steering Committee, Community Climate System Model
  • 2007-2011: Led PNNL Aerosol Climate Initiative
  • 2009-Present: Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee, DOE Atmospheric Systems Research Program
  • 2009-Present: Co-chair, ASR Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Working Group
  • 2010-2012: Member, ARM Climate Research Facility Science Board
  • 2012-Present: Co-chair, Climate & Chemistry Working Group for the Community Earth System Model
  • 2012-Present: External Advisory Panel for National Science Foundation Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

PNNL Publications

2014

  • Ovchinnikov M, A Ackerman, A Avramov, A Cheng, J Fan, A Fridlind, SJ Ghan, JY Harrington, C Hoose, A Korolev, G McFarquhar, H Morrison, M Paukert, J Savre, B Shipway, MD Shupe, A Solomon, and K Sulia. 2014. "Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(1):223-248.  doi:10.1002/2013MS000282
  • Jiao C, MG Flanner, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, N Bellouin, T Berntsen, H Bian, KS Carslaw, M Chin, N De Luca, T Diehl, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, D Koch, X Liu, GW Mann, JE Penner, G Pitari, M Schulz, O Seland, RB Skeie, SD Steenrod, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, T van Noije, Y Yun, and K Zhang. 2014. "An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14:2399-2417.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-2399-2014
  • Ma PL, PJ Rasch, JD Fast, RC Easter, Jr, WI Gustafson, Jr, X Liu, SJ Ghan, and B Singh. 2014. "Assessing the CAM5 Physics Suite in the WRF-Chem Model: Implementation, Resolution Sensitivity, and a First Evaluation for a Regional Case Study." Geoscientific Model Development 7(3):755-778.  doi:10.5194/gmd-7-755-2014
  • Mann GW, KS Carslaw, CL Reddington, KJ Pringle, M Schulz, A Asmi, DV Spracklen, DA Ridley, MT Woodhouse, LA Lee, K Zhang, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, X Liu, P Stier, YH Lee, PJ Adams, H Tost, J Lelieveld, S Bauer, K Tsigaridis, T van Noije, A Strunk, E Vignati, N Bellouin, M Dalvi, CE Johnson, T Bergman, H Kokkola, K Von Salzen, F Yu, G Luo, A Petzold, J Heintzenberg, AD Clarke, JA Ogren, J Gras, U Baltensperger, U Kaminski, SG Jennings, CD O'Dowd, RM Harrison, DC Beddows, M Kulmala, Y Viisanen, V Ulevicius, N Mihalopoulos, V Zdimal, M Fiebig, HC Hansson, E Swietlicki, and JS Henzing. 2014. "Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14(9):4679-4713.  doi:10.5194/acp-14-4679-2014
  • Wang Y, M Wang, R Zhang, SJ Ghan, Y Lin, J Hu, B Pan, M Levy, J Jiang, and MJ Molina. 2014. "Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(19):6894-6899.  doi:10.1073/pnas.1403364111

2013

  • Ghan SJ. 2013. "Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(19):9971-9974.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-9971-2013
  • Bond TC, SJ Doherty, DW Fahey, P Forster, T Berntsen, BJ DeAngelo, MG Flanner, SJ Ghan, B Karcher, D Koch, S Kinne, Y Kondo, PK Quinn, M Sarofim, M Schultz, M Schulz, C Venkataraman, H Zhang, S Zhang, N Bellouin, SK Guttikunda, PK Hopke, MZ Jacobson, JW Kaiser, Z Klimont, U Lohmann, JP Schwarz, D Shindell, T Storelvmo, SG Warren, and CS Zender. 2013. "Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(11):5380-5552.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171
  • Ghan SJ, SJ Smith, M Wang, K Zhang, KJ Pringle, KS Carslaw, J Pierce, SE Bauer, and PJ Adams. 2013. "A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(12):6688-6707.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50567
  • Hurrell J, MM Holland, PR Gent, SJ Ghan, J Kay, P Kushner, JF Lamarque, WG Large, DM Lawrence, K Lindsay, W Lipscomb, M Long , N Mahowald, D Marsh, R Neale, PJ Rasch, SJ Vavrus, M Vertenstein, DC Bader, WD Collins, J Hack, JT Kiehl, and S Marshall. 2013. "The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94(9):1339-1360.  doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121
  • Kajino M, RC Easter, Jr, and SJ Ghan. 2013. "Modal Bin Hybrid Model: A Surface Area Consistent, Triple Moment Sectional Method for Use in Process-oriented Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 118(17):10,011-10,040.  doi:10.1002/jgrd.50685
  • Kirkevag A, T Iversen, O Seland, C Hoose, JE Kristjansson, H Struthers, AM Ekman, SJ Ghan, J Griesfeller, ED Nilsson, and M Schulz. 2013. "Aerosol-climate interactions in the Norwegian Earth System Model - NorESM1-M." Geoscientific Model Development 6(1):207-244.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-207-2013
  • Lamarque JF, D Shindell, B Josse, PJ Young, I Cionni, V Eyring, D Bergmann, P Cameron-Smith, WJ Collins, R Doherty, S Dalsoren, G Faluvegi, G Folberth, SJ Ghan, L Horowitz, YH Lee, IA MacKenzie, T Nagashima, V Naik, D Plummer, M Righi, S Rumbold, M Schulz, RB Skeie, DS Stevenson, S Strode, K Sudo, S Szopa, A Voulgarakis, and G Zeng. 2013. "The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Overview and Description of Models, Simulations and Climate Diagnostics." Geoscientific Model Development 6(1):179-206.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-179-2013
  • Lamarque JF, F Dentener, JR McConnell, CU Ro, M Shaw, R Vet, D Bergmann, P Cameron-Smith, S Dalsoren, R Doherty, G Faluvegi, SJ Ghan, B Josse, YH Lee, IA MacKenzie, D Plummer, D Shindell, RB Skeie, DS Stevenson, S Strode, G Zeng, M Curran, D Dahl-Jensen, S Das, D Fritzsche, and M Nolan. 2013. "Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(16):7997-8018.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-7997-2013
  • Lee YH, JF Lamarque, MG Flanner, C Jiao, D Shindell, T Berntsen, M Bisiauxs, J Cao, WJ Collins, M Curran, R Edwards, G Faluvegi, SJ Ghan, L Horowitz, JR McConnell, J Ming, G Myhre, T Nagashima, V Naik, S Rumbold, RB Skeie, K Sudo, T Takemura, F Thevenon, B Xu, and JH Yoon. 2013. "Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(5):2607-2634.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-2607-2013
  • Long MS, WC Keene, RC Easter, Jr, R Sander, A Kergweg, D Erickson, X Liu, and SJ Ghan. 2013. "Implementation of the chemistry module MECCA (v2.5) in the modal aerosol version of the Community Atmosphere Model component (v3.6.33) of the Community Earth System Model." Geoscientific Model Development 6(1):255-262.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-255-2013
  • Myhre G, BH Samset, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, H Bian, N Bellouin, M Chin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, J Feichter, SJ Ghan, D Hauglustaine, T Iversen, S Kinne, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, MT Lund, G Luo, X Ma, T van Noije, JE Penner, PJ Rasch, A Ruiz, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, P Wang, Z Wang, L Xu, H Yu, F Yu, JH Yoon, K Zhang, H Zhang, and C Zhou. 2013. "Radiative Forcing of the Direct Aerosol Effect from AeroCom Phase II Simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(4):1853-1877.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013
  • Nabat P, S Somot, M Mallet, I Chiapello, JJ Morcrette, F Solmon, S Szopa, F Dulac, W Collins, SJ Ghan, L Horowitz, JF Lamarque, YH Lee, V Naik, T Nagashima, D Shindell, and RB Skeie. 2013. "A 4-D Climatology (1979-2009) of the Monthly Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Depth Distribution over the Mediterranean Region from a Comparative Evaluation and Blending of Remote Sensing and Model Products." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6(5):1287-1314.  doi:10.5194/amt-6-1287-2013
  • Randall D, M Branson, M Wang, SJ Ghan, C Craig, A Gettelman, and J Edwards. 2013. "A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds." Eos 94(25):221-228. 
  • Samset BH, G Myhre, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, SE Bauer, T Berntsen, H Bian, N Bellouin, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, T Iversen, S Kinne, A Kirkevag, JF Lamarque, G Lin, X Liu, JE Penner, O Seland, RB Skeie, P Stier, T Takemura, K Tsigaridis, and K Zhang. 2013. "Black Carbon Vertical Profiles Strongly Affect its Radiative Forcing Uncertainty." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(5):2423-2434.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-2423-2013
  • Shindell D, JF Lamarque, M Schulz, MG Flanner, C Jiao, M Chin, PJ Young, YH Lee, L Rotstayn, NM Mahowald, G Milly, G Faluvegi, Y Balkanski, WJ Collins, A Conley, S Dalsoren, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, L Horowitz, X Liu, G Myhre, T Nagashima, V Naik, S Rumbold, RB Skeie, K Sudo, S Szopa, T Takemura, A Voulgarakis, JH Yoon, and F Lo. 2013. "Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(6):2939-2974.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-2939-2013
  • Stier P, NA Schutgens, N Bellouin, H Bian, O Boucher, M Chin, SJ Ghan, N Huneeus, S Kinne, G Lin, X Ma, G Myhre, JE Penner, C Randles, BH Samset, M Schulz, T Takemura, F Yu, H Yu, and C Zhou. 2013. "Host Model Uncertainties in Aerosol Radiative Forcing Estimates: Results from the AeroCom Prescribed Intercomparison Study." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(6):3245-3270.  doi:10.5194/acp-13-3245-2013
  • Wang H, RC Easter, Jr, PJ Rasch, M Wang, X Liu, SJ Ghan, Y Qian, JH Yoon, PL Ma, and V Vinoj. 2013. "Sensitivity of Remote Aerosol Distributions to Representation of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in a Global Climate Model." Geoscientific Model Development 6(3):765-782.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-765-2013

2012

  • Liu X, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, RA Zaveri, PJ Rasch, X Shi, JF Lamarque, A Gettelman, H Morrison, F Vitt, A Conley, S Park, R Neale, C Hannay, AM Ekman, P Hess, N Mahowald, WD Collins, MJ Iacono, CS Bretherton, MG Flanner, and D Mitchell. 2012. "Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Description and Evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5." Geoscientific Model Development 5(3):709-739.  doi:10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012
  • Chand D, R Wood, SJ Ghan, M Wang, M Ovchinnikov, PJ Rasch, SD Miller, B Schichtel, and T Moore. 2012. "Aerosol optical depth increase in partly cloudy conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D17207.  doi:10.1029/2012JD017894
  • de Gouw JA, SJ Ghan, S Pryor, Y Rudich, and R Zhang. 2012. "Improved Time to Publication in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres." Eos 93(27):253.  doi:10.1029/2012EO270008
  • Gantt B, J Xu, N Meskhidze, Y Zhang, A Nenes, SJ Ghan, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, and RA Zaveri. 2012. "Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(14):6555-6563.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-6555-2012
  • Ghan SJ, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, RA Zaveri, PJ Rasch, JH Yoon, and B Eaton. 2012. "Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing." Journal of Climate 25(19):6461-6476.  doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00650.1
  • Koffi B, M Schultz, FM Breon, J Griesfeller, D Winker, Y Balkanski, SE Bauer, T Berntsen, M Chin, WD Collins, F Dentener, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, P Ginoux, S Gong, L Horowitz, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, D Koch, M Krol, G Myhre, P Stier, and T Takemura. 2012. "Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117:Article No. D10201.  doi:10.1029/2011JD016858
  • Kooperman GJ, MS Pritchard, SJ Ghan, M Wang, RC Somerville, and L Russell. 2012. "Constraining the Influence of Natural Variability to Improve Estimates of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects in a Nudged Version of the Community Atmosphere Model 5." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 117(D23):Article No. D23204.  doi:10.1029/2012JD018588
  • Larson VE, D Schanen, M Wang, M Ovchinnikov, and SJ Ghan. 2012. "PDF parameterization of boundary layer clouds in models with horizontal grid spacings from 2 to 16 km." Monthly Weather Review 140(1):285-306.  doi:10.1175/MWR-D-10-05059.1
  • Wang M, SJ Ghan, X Liu, TL Ecuyer, K Zhang, H Morrison, M Ovchinnikov, RC Easter, Jr, R Marchand, D Chand, Y Qian, and JE Penner. 2012. "Constraining cloud lifetime effects of aerosols using A-Train satellite observations ." Geophysical Research Letters 39:L15709.  doi:10.1029/2012GL052204
  • Yang Q, WI Gustafson, Jr, JD Fast, H Wang, RC Easter, Jr, M Wang, SJ Ghan, LK Berg, LYR Leung, and H Morrison. 2012. "Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(18):8777-8796.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-8777-2012
  • Yu F, G Luo, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, X Ma, and SJ Ghan. 2012. "Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12(23):11451-11463.  doi:10.5194/acp-12-11451-2012

2011

  • Fan J, SJ Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, PJ Rasch, and A Korolev. 2011. "Representation of Arctic Mixed-Phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen Process in Climate Models: Perspectives from a Cloud-Resolving Study." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No. D00T07.  doi:10.1029/2010JD015375
  • Ghan SJ, H Abdul-Razzak, A Nenes, Y Ming, X Liu, M Ovchinnikov, B Shipway, N Meskhidze, J Xu, and X Shi. 2011. "Droplet Nucleation: Physically-Based Parameterization and Comparative Evaluation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 3:Article No. M10001.  doi:10.1029/2011MS000074
  • Huneeus N, M Schulz, Y Balkanski, J Griesfeller, J Prospero, S Kinne, S Bauer, O Boucher, M Chin, F Dentener, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, D Fillmore, SJ Ghan, P Ginoux, A Grini, L Horowitz, D Koch, M Krol, W Landing, X Liu, N Mahowald, R Miller, JJ Morcrette, G Myhre, J Penner, J Perlwitz, P Stier, T Takemura, and CS Zender. 2011. "Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(15):7781-7816.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-7781-2011
  • Koch D, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, RC Easter, Jr, S Ferrachat, SJ Ghan, C Hoose, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, JE Kristjansson, X Liu, U Lohmann, S Menon, J Quaas, M Schulz, O Seland, T Takemura, and N Yan. 2011. "Soot microphysical effects on liquid clouds, a multi-model investigation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(3):1051-1064.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-1051-2011
  • Liu X, S Xie, J Boyle, SA Klein, X Shi, Z Wang, W Lin, SJ Ghan, M Earle, P Liu, and A Zelenyuk. 2011. "Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 116:Article No: D00T11.  doi:10.1029/2011JD015889
  • McFarquhar G, SJ Ghan, J Verlinde, A Korolev, JW Strapp, B Schmid, JM Tomlinson, M Wolde, SD Brooks, DJ Cziczo, MK Dubey, PhD, J Fan, CJ Flynn, I Gultepe, JM Hubbe, MK Gilles, A Laskin, P Lawson, WR Leaitch, PS Liu, X Liu, D Lubin, C Mazzoleni, AM Macdonald, RC Moffet, H Morrison, M Ovchinnikov, MD Shupe, DD Turner, S Xie, A Zelenyuk, K Bae, M Freer, and A Glen. 2011. "Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds ." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 92(2):183 - 201.  doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1
  • Meskhidze N, J Xu, B Gantt, Y Zhang, A Nenes, SJ Ghan, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, and RA Zaveri. 2011. "Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(22):11689-11705.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-11689-2011
  • Wang M, SJ Ghan, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, RC Easter, Jr, EI Kassianov, Y Qian, and H Morrison. 2011. "Aerosol Indirect effects in a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(11):5431-5455.  doi:10.5194/acp-11-5431-2011
  • Wang M, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, M Ovchinnikov, X Liu, EI Kassianov, Y Qian, WI Gustafson, Jr, VE Larson, D Schanen, M Khairoutdinov, and H Morrison. 2011. "The multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF: model description and evaluation." Geoscientific Model Development 4(1):137-168.  doi:10.5194/gmd-4-137-2011

2010

  • Gettelman A, X Liu, SJ Ghan, H Morrison, S Park, A Conley, SA Klein, J Boyle, D Mitchell, and JLF Li. 2010. "Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 115:Article No. D18216.  doi:10.1029/2009JD013797

2009

  • Fast JD, SJ Ghan, and SE Schwartz. 2009. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Sciences ProgramPNNL-18752, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Qian Y, SJ Ghan, and LR Leung. 2009. "Downscaling hydroclimatic changes over the Western U.S. Based on CAM subgrid scheme and WRF regional climate simulations." International Journal of Climatology 30(5):675-693.  doi:10.1002/joc.1928
  • Qian Y, WI Gustafson, Jr, LYR Leung, and SJ Ghan. 2009. "Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114:D03108.  doi:10.1029/2008JD011039
  • Chapman EG, WI Gustafson, Jr, RC Easter, Jr, JC Barnard, SJ Ghan, MS Pekour, and JD Fast. 2009. "Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(3):945-964. 
  • Fan J, T Yuan, JM Comstock, SJ Ghan, A Khain, LYR Leung, Z Li, VJ Martins, and M Ovchinnikov. 2009. "Dominant Role by Vertical Wind Shear in Regulating Aerosol Effects on Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D22206):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012352
  • Han X, M Zhang, X Liu, SJ Ghan, JY Xin, and LL Wang. 2009. "Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia." Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 2(6):368 - 375. 
  • Khain A, LYR Leung, BH Lynn, and SJ Ghan. 2009. "Effects of aerosols on the dynamics and microphysics of squall lines simulated by WRF with spectral bin and bulk parameterization schemes." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D22203):, doi:10.1029/2009JD011902
  • Koch D, M Schulz, S Kinne, CS McNaughton, JR Spackman, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, TC Bond, O Boucher, M Chin, AD Clarke, N De Luca, F Dentener, T Diehl, O Dubovik, RC Easter, Jr, DW Fahey, J Feichter, D Fillmore, S Freitag, SJ Ghan, P Ginoux, S Gong, L Horowitz, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, Z Klimont, Y Kondo, M Krol, X Liu, R Miller, V Montanaro, N Moteki, G Myhre, J Penner, J Perlwitz, G Pitari, S Reddy, L Sahu, H Sakamoto, G Schuster, JP Schwarz, O Seland, P Stier, N Takegawa, T Takemura, C Textor, J van Aardenne, and Y Zhao. 2009. "Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9:9001-9026. 
  • Quaas J, Y Ming, S Menon, T Takemura, M Wang, JE Penner, A Gettelman, U Lohmann, N Bellouin, O Boucher, AM Sayer, GE Thomas, A McComiskey, G Feingold, C Hoose, JE Kristjansson, X Liu, Y Balkanski, LJ Donner, P Ginoux, P Stier, B Grandey, J Feichter, I Sednev, SE Bauer, D Koch, RG Grainger, A Kirkevag, T Iversen, O Seland, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, PJ Rasch, H Morrison, JF Lamarque, MJ Iacono, S Kinne, and M Schulz. 2009. "Aerosol indirect effects - general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9(22):8697-8717 . 
  • Wang Y, CN Long, LYR Leung, J Dudhia, SA McFarlane, JH Mather, SJ Ghan, and X Liu. 2009. "Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 114(D21203):, doi:10.1029/2009JD012729

2008

  • Gustafson WI, Jr, LK Berg, RC Easter, Jr, and SJ Ghan. 2008. "The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant Hybrid Approach for Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in Multiscale Modelling Framework Models: Tracer Transport Results." Environmental Research Letters 3(2):Art. No. 025005.  doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/025005
  • Gettelman A, H Morrison, and SJ Ghan. 2008. "A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results." Journal of Climate 21(15):3660-3679.  doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2116.1
  • Xie S, J Boyle, SA Klein, X Liu, and SJ Ghan. 2008. "Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 113:Art. No. D04211.  doi:10.1029/2007JD009225

2007

  • Ghan SJ, and RC Easter, Jr. 2007. "Corrigendum to "Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4163-4174, 2006 ." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7:293-294. 
  • Ghan SJ, and SE Schwartz. 2007. "Aerosol Properties and Processes: A Path from Field and Laboratory Measurements to Global Climate Models." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(7):1059-1083. 
  • Gustafson WI, Jr, EG Chapman, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, and JD Fast. 2007. "Impact on Modeled Cloud Characteristics Due to Simplified Treatment of Uniform Cloud Condensation Nuclei During NEAQS 2004." Geophysical Research Letters 34(19):L19809.  doi:10.1029/2007GL030021
  • Liu X, JE Penner, SJ Ghan, and M Wang. 2007. "Inclusion of Ice Microphysics in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 (CAM3)." Journal of Climate 20(18):4526-4547.  doi:10.1175/JCLI4264.1
  • Liu X, S Xie, and SJ Ghan. 2007. "Evaluation of a New Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterization with CAM3 Single-Column Model and M-PACE Observations." Geophysical Research Letters 34:Art. no. L23712.  doi:10.1029/2007GL031446
  • Ghan SJ, and RA Zaveri. 2007. "Parameterization of Optical Properties for Hydrated Internally Mixed Aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 112(D10):D10201.  doi:10.1029/2006JD007927

2006

  • Ghan SJ, and RC Easter, Jr. 2006. "Impact of Cloud-Borne Aerosol Representation on Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6:4163-4174. 
  • Ghan SJ, and TR Shippert. 2006. "Physically-Based Global Downscaling: Climate Change Projections for a Full Century." Journal of Climate 19(9):1589-1604.  doi:10.1175/JCL13701.1
  • Ghan SJ, TR Shippert, and J Fox. 2006. "Physically Based Global Downscaling: Regional Evaluation." Journal of Climate 19(3):429-445. 
  • Ferrare R, G Feingold, SJ Ghan, JA Ogren, B Schmid, SE Schwartz, and P Sheridan. 2006. "Preface to Special Section: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D5):D05S01, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006908. 
  • Ghan SJ, TA Rissman, R Elleman, R Ferrare, DD Turner, CJ Flynn, J Wang, JA Ogren, J Hudson, H Jonsson, T VanReken, RC Flagan, and JH Seinfeld. 2006. "Use of in situ cloud condensation nuclei, extinction, and aerosol size distribution Measurements to test a method for retrieving cloud condensation nuclei profiles from surface measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D05S10):, doi:10.1029/2004JD005752
  • Ghan SJ, TA Rissman, R Elleman, R Ferrare, DD Turner, CJ Flynn, J Wang, JA Ogren, J Hudson, H Jonsson, T VanReken, RC Flagan, and JH Seinfeld. 2006. "Use of In Situ Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Extinction, and Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements to Test a Method for Retrieving Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profiles from Surface Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D5):D05S10, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005752. 
  • Kinne S, M Schulz, C Textor, S Guibert, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, T Berglen, O Boucher, M Chin, W Collins, F Dentener, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, H Feichter, D Fillmore, SJ Ghan, P Ginoux, S Gong, A Grini, J Hendricks, M Herzog, L Horrowitz, I Isaksen, T Iversen, A Kirkevag, S Kloster, D Koch, JE Kristjansson, M Krol, A Lauer, JF Lamarque, G Lesins, X Liu, U Lohmann, V Montanaro, G Myhre, JE Penner, G Pitari, S Reddy, O Seland, P Stier, T Takemura, and X Tie. 2006. "An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(7):1815-1834. 
  • Storelvmo T, JE Kristjansson, SJ Ghan, A Kirkevag, O Seland, and T Iversen. 2006. "Predicting Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)-Oslo." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 111(D24):D24208.  doi:10.1029/2005JD006300
  • Textor C, M Schulz, S Guibert, S Kinne, Y Balkanski, S Bauer, T Berntsen, T Berglen, O Boucher, M Chin, F Dentener, T Diehl, RC Easter, Jr, H Feichter, D Fillmore, SJ Ghan, P Ginoux, S Gong, A Grini, J Hendricks, L Horrowitz, P Huang, I Isaksen, T Iversen, S Kloster, D Koch, A Kirkevag, JE Kristjansson, M Krol, A Lauer, JF Lamarque, X Liu, V Montanaro, G Myhre, JE Penner, G Pitari, S Reddy, O Seland, P Stier, T Takemura, and X Tie. 2006. "Analysis and Quantification of the Diversities of Aerosol Life Cycles within AeroCom." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6(7):1777-1813. 

2005

  • Ghan SJ, and TR Shippert. 2005. "Load Balancing and Scalability of a Subgrid Orography Scheme in a Global Climate Model." International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 19(3):237-245. 
  • Ghan SJ, and TR Shippert. 2005. "Physically-Based Global Downscaling Climate Change Projections for a Full Century." Journal of Physics: Conference Series 16:343-347.  doi:10.1088/1742-6596/16/1/047
  • Gustafson WI, Jr, JD Fast, RC Easter, Jr, and SJ Ghan. 2005. "Triumphs and Tribulations of WRF-Chem Development and Use." In 2005 Joint WRF/MM5 User's Workshop, June 27-30, 2005, Boulder, Colorado, p. Paper No. 8.4.  National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. 
  • Ovtchinnikov M, and SJ Ghan. 2005. "Parallel Simulations of Aerosol Influence on Clouds Using Cloud-Resolving and Single-Column Models." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 110(D15):D15S10.  doi:10.1029/2004JD005088
  • Abdul-Razzak H, and SJ Ghan. 2005. "Influence of Slightly Soluble Organics on Aerosol Activation." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 110:D06206 -1-6.  doi:10.1029/2004JD005324
  • Xie S, M Zhang, M Branson, RT Cederwall, AD Del Genio, ZA Eitzen, SJ Ghan, SF Iacobellis, KL Johnson, M Khairoutdinov, SA Klein, SK Krueger, W Lin, U Lohmann, MA Miller, DA Randall, RC Somerville, YC Sud, GK Walker, A Wolf, X Wu, KM Xu, JJ Yio, GJ Zhang, and J Zhang. 2005. "Simulations of Midlatitude Frontal Clouds by Single-Column and Cloud-Resolving Models during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement March 2000 Cloud Intensive Operational Period." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 110(D15):D15S03 - 1-25.  doi:10.1029/2004JD005119
  • Xu KM, M Zhang, ZA Eitzen, SJ Ghan, SA Klein, X Wu, S Xie, M Branson, AD Del Genio, SF Iacobellis, M Khairoutdinov, W Lin, U Lohmann, DA Randall, RC Somerville, YC Sud, GK Walker, A Wolf, JJ Yio, and J Zhang. 2005. "Modeling Springtime Shallow Frontal Clouds with Cloud-Resolving and Single-Column Models." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 110(D15):Article No. D15S04.  doi:10.1029/2004JD005153

2004

  • Ghan SJ, and DR Collins. 2004. "Use of In Situ Data to Test a Raman Lidar-Based Cloud Condensation Nuclei Remote Sensing Method." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 21(2):387-394. 
  • Abdul-Razzak H, and SJ Ghan. 2004. "Parameterization of the Influence of Organic Surfactants on Aerosol Activation." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109(D3):D03205.  doi:10.1029/2003JD004043
  • Easter RC, Jr, SJ Ghan, Y Zhang, RD Saylor, EG Chapman, NS Laulainen, H Abdul-Razzak, LR Leung, X Bian, and RA Zaveri. 2004. "MIRAGE: Model Description and Evaluation of Aerosols and Trace Gases." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 109(D20):D20210.  doi:10.1029/2004JD004571
  • Fox JB, and SJ Ghan. 2004. "Combining Weather Data for a Dataset Sufficient for Generating High-Resolution Weather Prediction Models." Journal of Young Investigators 10(3):na. 
  • Ghan SJ, X Bian, EG Chapman, RC Easter, Jr, GI Fann, SC Kothari, RA Zaveri, and Y Zhang. 2004. Simulation of Climate Forcing by AerosolsPNNL-14634, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Henning S, S Bojinski, K Diehl, SJ Ghan, S Nyeki, E Weingartner, S Wurzler, and U Baltensperger. 2004. "Aerosol Partitioning in Natural Mixed-Phase Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters 31(6):L06101.  doi:10.1029/2003GL019025

2003

  • Qian Y, LR Leung, SJ Ghan, and F Giorgi. 2003. "Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 55(4):914-934. 
  • Kinne S, U Lohmann, J Feichter, M Schulz, C Timmreck, SJ Ghan, RC Easter, Jr, M Chin, P Ginoux, T Takemura, I Tegen, D Koch, M Herzog, J Penner, G Pitari, BN Holben, T Eck, A Smirnov, O Dubovik, I Slutsker, D Tanre, O Torres, M Mishchenko, I Geogdzhayev, DA Chu, and YJ Kaufman. 2003. "Monthly Averages of Aerosol Properties: A Global Comparison Among Models, Satellite Data, and AERONET Ground Data." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 108(D20):4634.  doi:10.1029/2001JD001253
  • Menon S, JL Brenguier, O Boucher, P Davison, AD Del Genio, J Feichter, SJ Ghan, S Guibert, X Liu, U Lohmann, H Pawlowska, JE Penner, J Quaas, DL Roberts, L Schuller, and J Snider. 2003. "Evaluating Aerosol/Cloud/Radiation Process Parameterizations with Single- Column Models and Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) Cloudy Column Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 108(D24):Art. no. 4762. 

2002

  • Chapman EG, WJ Shaw, RC Easter, Jr, X Bian, and SJ Ghan. 2002. "The Influence of Wind Speed Averaging on Estimates of Dimethylsulfide Emission Fluxes." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 107(D23: art. no.4672):, doi:10.1029/2001JD001564
  • Ghan SJ, X Bian, AG Hunt, and AM Coleman. 2002. "The Thermodynamic Influence of Subgrid Orography in a Global Climate Model." Climate Dynamics 20(1):31-44. 
  • Thomson AM, RA Brown, SJ Ghan, RCC Izaurralde, NJ Rosenberg, and LR Leung. 2002. "Elevation dependence of winter wheat production in eastern Washington state with climate change: A methodological study." Climatic Change 54:141-164. 
  • Abdul-Razzak H, and SJ Ghan. 2002. "A Parameterization of Aerosol Activation. Part 3: Sectional Representation." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 107(D3):AAC 1-1 - 1-6. 
  • Remer LA, YJ Kaufman, Z Levin, and SJ Ghan. 2002. "Model Assessment of the Ability of MODIS to Measure Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Forcing from Smoke Aerosols." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 59(3, Part 2):657-667. 
  • Xie S, KM Xu, RT Cederwall, P Bechtold, AD Del Genio, SA Klein, DG Cripe, SJ Ghan, D Gregory, SF Iacobellis, SK Krueger, U Lohmann, JC Petch, DA Randall, LD Rotstayn, RC Somerville, YC Sud, K Von Salzen, GK Walker, A Wolf, JJ Yio, GJ Zhang, and M Zhang. 2002. "Intercomparison and Evaluation of Cumulus Parameterizations under Summertime Midlatitude Continental Conditions." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 128(582 Pt. B):1095-1136. 
  • Zhang Y, RC Easter, Jr, SJ Ghan, and H Abdul-Razzak. 2002. "Impact of Aerosol Size Representation on Modeling Aerosol-Cloud Interactions." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 107(D21 art.no.4558):, doi:10.1029/2001JD001549

2001

  • Ghan SJ, RC Easter, Jr, JD Hudson, and F Breon. 2001. "Evaluation of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106(D6):5317-5334. 
  • Ghan SJ, NS Laulainen, RC Easter, Jr, R Wagener, S Nemesure, EG Chapman, Y Zhang, and LR Leung. 2001. "Evaluation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing in MIRAGE." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106(D6):5295-5316. 
  • Ghan SJ, RC Easter, Jr, EG Chapman, H Abdul-Razzak, Y Zhang, LR Leung, NS Laulainen, RD Saylor, and RA Zaveri. 2001. "A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 106(D6):5279-5293. 
  • Nenes A, SJ Ghan, H Abdul-Razzak, P Chuang, and J Seinfeld. 2001. "Kinetic Limitations on Droplet Formation." Tellus Series B, Chemical and Physical Meteorology 53:133-149. 
  • Ramaswamy V, O Boucher, J Haigh, D Hauglustaine, J Haywood, G Myhre, T Nakajima, G Shi, S Solomon, RE Betts, R Charlson, CC Chuang, JS Daniel, AD Del Genio, J Feichter, J Fuglestvedt, PM Forster, SJ Ghan, A Jones, JT Kiehl, D Koch, C Land, J Lean, U Lohmann, K Minschwaner, JE Penner, DL Roberts, H Rodhe, GJ Roelofs, LD Rotstayn, TL Schneider, U Schumann, SE Schwartz, MD Schwartzkopf, KP Shine, SJ Smith, DS Stevenson, F Stordal, I Tegen, R van Dorland, Y Zhang, J Srinivasan, and F Joos. 2001. "Radiative Forcing of Climate Change ." Chapter 6 in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, ed. Houghton, J. T. et al.  Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 

2000

  • Ghan SJ, D Randall, KM Xu, R Cederwall, D Cripe, J Hack, S Iacobellis, S Klein, S Krueger, U Lohmann, J Pedretti, A Robock, L Rotstayn, R Somerville, G Stenchikov, Y Sud, G Walker, S Xie, J Yio, and M Zhang. 2000. "A Comparison of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude Continental Convection ." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 105(D2):2091-2124. 
  • Ghan SJ, DA Randall, KM Xu, R Cederwall, D Cripe, J Hack, S Iacobellis, S Klein, S Krueger, U Lohmann, J Pedretti, A Robock, L Rotstayn, R Somerville, G Stenchikov, Y Sud, G Walker, S Xie, J Yio, and M Zhang. 2000. "A Comparison of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude Continental Convection." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 105(D2):2091-2124.  doi:10.1029/1999JD900971
  • Abdul-Razzak H, and SJ Ghan. 2000. "A Parameterization of Aerosol Activation. Part 2: Multiple Aerosol Types." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 105:6,837-6,844. 

1999

  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part I: Control Simulations." Journal of Climate 12(7):2010-2030. 
  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1999. "Pacific Northwest Sensitivity Simulated by a Regional Climate Model Driven by a GCM. Part II: 2XCO2 Simulations." Journal of Climate 12(7):2031-2053. 
  • Leung LR, SJ Ghan, Z Zhao, Y Luo, WC Wang, and HL Wei. 1999. "Intercomparison of Regional Climate Simulations of the 1991 Summer Monsoon in Eastern Asia." Journal of Geophysical Research. D. (Atmospheres) 104:6425-6454. 
  • Ghan SJ, LR Leung, and J McCaa. 1999. "A Comparison of Three Different Modeling Strategies for Evaluating Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations." Monthly Weather Review 127(9):1967-1984. 

1998

  • Leung LR, and SJ Ghan. 1998. "Parameterizing Subgrid Orographic Precipitation and Surface Cover in Climate Models." Monthly Weather Review 126(12):3271-3291. 

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