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Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate

Staff information


Chongxuan Liu

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
MSIN: K8-96
Richland, WA 99352


Chongxuan Liu is a chief scientist at US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. degree in environmental engineering from Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, USA. His research areas are in geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and reactive transport of metals, radionuclides, and organic compounds in subsurface porous media. His expertise is in the development of mechanism-based models to mathematically describe geochemical and biogeochemical processes, reaction kinetics, and mass transfer through iterative experimental and theoretical investigations. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles with 2500 SCI-indexed citations. He is in the editorial board for several professinal journals. In 2011, he was elected as the Fellow of Geological Society of America for his contribution in geochemical and biogeochemical kinetics and diffusive mass transfer processes.

Research Interests

  • Kinetics for microbial degradation of organic matter, CO2, CH4, and N2O production and transformation in soils and sediments containing competitive carbon sources, electron donors, acceptors under variable biomass and energy yielding conditions
  • Reactive transport of metals, radionuclides, organic contaminants, and engineered colloidal and nanoparticles in subsurface environments
  • Groundwater, soil, and sediment remediation technologies
  • Generic theories and unified multi-scale models (UMSM) for fluid flow and solute and contaminant reactive transport modeling in terrestrial and sediment systems

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., 1998, Environmental Engineering,Johns Hopkins University,USA
  • M.S., 1994, Low-Temperature Geochemistry, University of Alabama, USA
  • M.E., 1984, Hydrogeochemistry, Zhejiang University, China
  • B.S., 1982, Geology, Zhejiang University, China

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Member of Geological Society of American (GSA)
  • Member of American Geophysical Union (AGU)
  • Member of American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • Member of Geochemical Society (GS)
  • Member of International Professionals for the Advancement of Chinese Earth Sciences (IPACES)

Awards and Recognitions

  • Fellow of Geological Society of American (GSA)

PNNL Publications


  • Yan Z, C Liu, K Todd-Brown, Y Liu, B Bond-Lamberty, and VL Bailey. 2016. "Pore-scale Investigation on the Response of Heterotrophic Respiration to Moisture Conditions in Heterogeneous Soils." Biogeochemistry 131(1):121-134.  doi:10.1007/s10533-016-0270-0
  • Bond-Lamberty B, H Bolton, Jr, SJ Fansler, A Heredia-Langner, C Liu, LA McCue, JL Smith, and VL Bailey. 2016. "Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment." PLoS One 11(3):e0150599.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150599
  • Xie X, K Pi, Y Liu, C Liu, J Li, Y Zhu, C Su, T Ma, and Y Wang. 2016. "In situ arsenic remediation by aquifer iron coating: Field trial in the Datong basin, China." Journal of Hazardous Materials 302:19-26.  doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.09.055
  • Xie X, Y Liu, K Pi, C Liu, J Li, M Duan, and Y Wang. 2016. "In situ Fe-sulfide coating for arsenic removal under reducing conditions." Journal of Hydrology 534:42-49.  doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.057
  • Zachara JM, SL Brantley, JD Chorover, RP Ewing, SN Kerisit, C Liu, E Perfect, G Rother, and AG Stack. 2016. "Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction." Environmental Science & Technology 50(6):2811-2829.  doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b05015
  • Zhang X, C Liu, BX Hu, and Q Hu. 2016. " Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments." Mathematical Geosciences 48(5):511-535.  doi:10.1007/s11004-015-9620-z
  • Zhang X, C Liu, BX Hu, and Q Hu. 2016. " Grain-Size Based Additivity Models for Scaling Multi-rate Uranyl Surface Complexation in Subsurface Sediments." Mathematical Geosciences 48(5):511-535.  doi:10.1007/s11004-015-9620-z
  • Zhu W, M Shi, D Yu, C Liu, T Huang, and F Wu. 2016. "Characteristics and kinetic analysis of AQS transformation and microbial goethite reduction: Insight into “redox mediate-microbe-iron oxide” interaction process." Scientific Reports 6:Article No. 23718.  doi:10.1038/srep23718


  • Song HS, and C Liu. 2015. "Dynamic Metabolic Modeling of Denitrifying Bacterial Growth: The Cybernetic Approach." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 54(42):10221-10227.  doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.5b01615
  • Fang Y, C Liu, and LYR Leung. 2015. "Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4." Geoscientific Model Development 8(3):781-789.  doi:10.5194/gmd-8-781-2015
  • Liu C, Y Liu, SN Kerisit, and JM Zachara. 2015. "Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials." Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 80(1):191-216.  doi:10.2138/rmg.2015.80.06
  • Liu Y, C Liu, C Zhang, X Yang, and JM Zachara. 2015. "Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates ." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 163:140-155.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2015.04.039
  • Liu Y, C Liu, RK Kukkadapu, JP McKinley, JM Zachara, AE Plymale, MD Miller, T Varga, and CT Resch. 2015. "99Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments." Environmental Science & Technology 49(22):13403-13412.  doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b03273
  • Munusamy P, CM Wang, MH Engelhard, DR Baer, JN Smith, C Liu, VK Kodali, BD Thrall, S Chen, PE Alexandra, and MP Ryan. 2015. "Comparison of 20 nm silver nanoparticles synthesized with and without a gold core: Structure, dissolution in cell culture media, and biological impact on macrophages." Biointerphases 10(3):031003-1 to 031003-16.  doi:10.1116/1.4926547
  • Shan H, C Liu, Z Wang, T Ma, J Shang, and D Pan. 2015. "A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water." Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 2015:Article No. 853085.  doi:10.1155/2015/853085
  • Weng H, Z Dai, Z Ji, C Gao, and C Liu. 2015. "Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying." Journal of Hazardous Materials 296:61-67.  doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.04.037
  • Xie X, Y Wang, K Pi, C Liu, J Li, Y Liu, Z Wang, and M Duan. 2015. "In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study." Science of the Total Environment 527-528:38-46.  doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.05.002
  • Yan S, Y Liu, C Liu, L Shi, J Shang, H Shan, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, DW Kennedy, CT Resch, CJ Thompson, and SJ Fansler. 2015. "Nitrate bioreduction in redox-variable low permeability sediments." Science of the Total Environment 539:185-195.  doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.122
  • Yang X, C Liu, Y Fang, R Hinkle, H Li, VL Bailey, and B Bond-Lamberty. 2015. "Simulations of Ecosystem Hydrological Processes Using a Unified Multi-Scale Model." Ecological Modelling 296:93-101.  doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.032


  • Kerisit SN, and C Liu. 2014. "Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Uranyl and Uranyl Carbonate Adsorption at Alumino-silicate Surfaces." Environmental Science & Technology 48(7):3899-3907.  doi:10.1021/es405387c
  • Shang J, C Liu, Z Wang, and JM Zachara. 2014. "Long-term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under Advective Conditions." Water Resources Research 50(2):855-870.  doi:10.1002/2013WR013949
  • Fang Y, C Liu, M Huang, H Li, and LYR Leung. 2014. "Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 6(4):1049-1064.  doi:10.1002/2014MS000331
  • Liu C, J Shang, H Shan, and JM Zachara. 2014. "Effect of Subgrid Heterogeneity on Scaling Geochemical and Biogeochemical Reactions: A Case of U(VI) Desorption." Environmental Science & Technology 48(3):1745-1752.  doi:10.1021/es404224j
  • Ma R, C Liu, J Greskowiak, H Prommer, JM Zachara, and C Zheng. 2014. "Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 156:27-37.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.10.002
  • Ma R, C Zheng, C Liu, J Greskowiak, H Prommer, and JM Zachara. 2014. "Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions." Water Resources Research 50(2):1006-1024.  doi:10.1002/2013WR013835
  • Wang D, C Su, C Liu, and D Zhou. 2014. "Transport of fluorescently labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated granular media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants." Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 457:58-66.  doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.05.041
  • Wang Z, JM Zachara, J Shang, C Jeon, J Liu, and C Liu. 2014. "Investigation of U(VI) Adsorption in Quartz-Chlorite Mineral Mixtures." Environmental Science & Technology 48(14):7766-7773.  doi:10.1021/es500537g
  • Weng H, XW Ma, FX Fu, JJ Zhang, Z Liu, LX Tian, and C Liu. 2014. "Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights." Journal of Hazardous Materials 265:96-103.  doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.11.051
  • Xie X, Y Wang, A Ellis, C Liu, M Duan, and J Li. 2014. "Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry." Journal of Hydrology 519(D):3541-3549.  doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.10.044
  • Yan S, Y Chen, W Xiang, Z Bao, C Liu, and B Deng. 2014. "Uranium(VI) reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron in anoxic batch systems: The role of Fe(II) and Fe(III)." Chemosphere 117:625-630.  doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.087
  • Yang X, C Liu, J Shang, Y Fang, and VL Bailey. 2014. "A Unified Multi-Scale Model for Pore-Scale Flow Simulations in Soils." Soil Science Society of America Journal 78(1):108-118.  doi:10.2136/sssaj2013.05.0190
  • Zhang X, C Liu, BX Hu, and G Zhang. 2014. "Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 156:1-15.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.10.001


  • Kerisit SN, and C Liu. 2013. "Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation." Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117(30):6421-6432.  doi:10.1021/jp404594p
  • Shang J, C Liu, and Z Wang. 2013. "Transport and Retention of Engineered Nanoporous Particles in Porous Media: Effects of Concentration and Flow Dynamics." Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 417:89-98.  doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.10.030
  • Zhang C, C Liu, and Z Shi. 2013. "Micromodel Investigation of Transport Effect on the Kinetics of Reductive Dissolution of Hematite." Environmental Science & Technology 47(9):4131-4139.  doi:10.1021/es304006w
  • Fang Y, M Huang, C Liu, H Li, and LYR Leung. 2013. "A Generic Biogeochemical Module for Earth System Models: Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module (NGBGC), Version 1.0." Geoscientific Model Development 6(6):1977–1988.  doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1977-2013
  • Liu C, J Shang, SN Kerisit, JM Zachara, and W Zhu. 2013. "Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 105:326-341.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2012.12.003
  • Liu J, CI Pearce, C Liu, Z Wang, L Shi, E Arenholz, and KM Rosso. 2013. "Fe3-xTixO4 Nanoparticles as Tunable Probes of Microbial Metal Oxidation." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(24):8896-8907.  doi:10.1021/ja4015343
  • Stoliker DL, C Liu, DB Kent, and JM Zachara. 2013. "Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments." Water Resources Research 49(2):1163-1177.  doi:10.1002/wrcr.20104
  • Zachara JM, ES Ilton, and C Liu. 2013. "Reactive Transport of the Uranyl Ion in Soils, Sediments, and Groundwater Systems." Chapter 8 in Uranium - Cradle to Grave. Short Course Series, vol. 43, ed. PC Burns and GE Sigmon, pp. 255-299.  Mineralogical Association of Canada, Quebec, PQ, Canada. 
  • Zachara JM, PE Long, J Bargar, JA Davis, PM Fox, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, A Konopka, C Liu, JP McKinley, ML Rockhold, KH Williams, and SB Yabusaki. 2013. "Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 147:45-72.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.02.001


  • Kerisit SN, and C Liu. 2012. "Diffusion and Adsorption of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Nanosized Mineral Fractures." Environmental Science & Technology 46(3):1632-1640.  doi:10.1021/es2027696
  • Liu C, and Y Fang. 2012. "Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes." Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology 3(6):Article No. e109. 
  • Ewing RG, C Liu, and Q Hu. 2012. "Modeling Intragranular Diffusion in Low-Connectivity Granular Media." Water Resources Research 48:Article No. W03518.  doi:10.1029/2011WR011407
  • Li J, K Zhu, J Shang, D Wang, Z Nie, R Guo, C Liu, Z Wang, X Li, and J Liu. 2012. "Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction." Separation Science and Technology 47(10):1507-1513. 
  • Liu J, Z Wang, SM Belchik, M Edwards, C Liu, DW Kennedy, ED Merkley, MS Lipton, JN Butt, D Richardson, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, KM Rosso, and L Shi. 2012. "Identification and Characterization of MtoA: a Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome of the Neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1." Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry 3:Article No. 37.  doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00037
  • Ma R, C Zheng, and C Liu. 2012. "Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, ed. Robert A Meyers, pp. 4774-4784.  Springer, New York, NY. 
  • Sheng P, Q Hu, RP Ewing, C Liu, and JM Zachara. 2012. "Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of a Basaltic Clast from the Hanford 300 Area, Washington, USA." Environmental Science & Technology 46(4):2025-2032.  doi:10.1021/es2023785
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, MS Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, GE Hammond, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, and C Zheng. 2012. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2011 to January 2012PNNL-21169, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Shang J, C Liu, Z Wang, and JM Zachara. 2011. "Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity." Environmental Science & Technology 45(14):6025-6031.  doi:10.1021/es200920k
  • Bishop ME, H Dong, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, and RE Edelmann. 2011. "Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75(18):5229-5246.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2011.06.034
  • Greskowiak J, MB Hay, H Prommer, C Liu, V Post, R Ma, JA Davis, C Zheng, and JM Zachara. 2011. "Simulating adsorption of U(VI) under transient groundwater flow and hydrochemistry – Physical versus non-equilibrium model." Water Resources Research 47:Article No. W08501.  doi:10.1029/2010WR010118
  • Liu C, J Shang, and JM Zachara. 2011. "Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion." Water Resources Research 47:W12514.  doi:10.1029/2011WR010575
  • Wang Z, JM Zachara, JF Boily, Y Xia, CT Resch, DA Moore, and C Liu. 2011. "Determining Individual Mineral Contributions To U(VI) Adsorption In A Contaminated Aquifer Sediment: A Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75(10):2965–2979. 
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, MS Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, GE Hammond, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, AL Ward, and C Zheng. 2011. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2010 to January 2011PNNL-20257, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Kerisit SN, and C Liu. 2010. "Molecular Simulation of the Diffusion of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Aqueous Solution." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74(17):4937-4952.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.007
  • Liu C, L Zhong, and JM Zachara. 2010. "Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials." Radiochimica Acta 98(9-11):719-726.  doi:10.1524/ract.2010.1773
  • Ewing RG, Q Hu, and C Liu. 2010. "Scale dependence of intragranular porosity, tortuosity, and tortuosity." Water Resources Research 46:Art. No. W06513.  doi:10.1029/2009WR008183
  • Greskowiak J, H Prommer, C Liu, V Post, R Ma, C Zheng, and JM Zachara. 2010. "Comparison of parameter sensitivities between a laboratory and field scale model of uranium transport in a dual domain, distributed-rate reactive system." Water Resources Research 46:Article No. W09509.  doi:10.1029/2009WR008781
  • Istok JD, MM Park, MM Michalsen, AM Spain, LR Krumholz, C Liu, JP McKinley, PE Long, EE Roden, AD Peacock, and BR Baldwin. 2010. "A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry: Application to uranium bioreduction." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 112:1-14.  doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.07.004
  • Ma R, C Zheng, H Prommer, J Greskowiak, C Liu, JM Zachara, and ML Rockhold. 2010. "A Field-Scale Reactive Transport Model for U(VI) Migration Influenced by Coupled Multirate Mass Transfer and Surface Complexation Reactions." Water Resources Research 46:Art. No. W05509.  doi:10.1029/2009WR008168
  • Shang J, C Liu, Z Wang, H Wu, K Zhu, J Li, and J Liu. 2010. "In-Situ Measurements of Engineered Nanoporous Particle Transport in Saturated Porous Media." Environmental Science & Technology 44(21):8190-8195.  doi:10.1021/es1015586
  • Um W, JM Zachara, C Liu, DA Moore, and KA Rod. 2010. "Resupply Mechanism to a Contaminated Aquifer: A Laboratory Study of U(VI) Desorption from Capillary Fringe Sediments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74(18):5155-5170. 
  • Yan S, B Hua, Z Bao, J Yang, C Liu, and B Deng. 2010. "Uranium(VI) Reduction by Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron in Anoxic Batch Systems." Environmental Science & Technology 44(20):7783-7789.  doi:10.1021/es9036308
  • Zachara JM, BN Bjornstad, JN Christensen, ME Conrad, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, R Haggerty, G Hammon, DB Kent, A Konopka, PC Lichtner, C Liu, JP McKinley, CJ Murray, ML Rockhold, Y Rubin, VR Vermeul, RJ Versteeg, AL Ward, and C Zheng. 2010. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium PlumePNNL-19209, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Kerisit SN, and C Liu. 2009. "Molecular Simulations of Water and Ion Diffusion in Nanosized Mineral Fractures." Environmental Science & Technology 43(3):777-782. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, L Zhong, SM Heald, Z Wang, BH Jeon, and JK Fredrickson. 2009. "Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment." Environmental Science & Technology 43(13):4928-4933.  doi:10.1021/es8029208
  • Liu C, Z Shi, and JM Zachara. 2009. "Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation ." Environmental Science & Technology 43(17):6560-6566. 
  • Qafoku N, L Zhong, CJ Thompson, C Liu, BW Arey, AV Mitroshkov, and RG Riley. 2009. "Physical control on CCl4 and CHCl3 desorption from artificially contaminated and aged sediments with supercritical carbon dioxide ." Chemosphere 74(4):494-500. 
  • Qafoku N, PE Dresel, JP McKinley, C Liu, SM Heald, CC Ainsworth, JL Phillips, and JS Fruchter. 2009. "Pathways of aqueous Cr(VI) attenuation in a slightly alkaline oxic subsurface ." Environmental Science & Technology 43(4):1071-1077. 
  • Bai J, C Liu, and WP Ball. 2009. "Study of sorption-retarded U(VI) diffusion in Hanford silt/clay material." Environmental Science & Technology 43(20):7706-7711.  doi:10.1021/es901306c
  • Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, AE Plymale, SM Heald, JP McKinley, DW Kennedy, C Liu, and P Nachimuthu. 2009. "Oxidative Dissolution Potential of Biogenic and Abiogenic TcO2 in Subsurface Sediments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73(8):962-976.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.01.027
  • Jaisi DP, H Dong, AE Plymale, JK Fredrickson, JM Zachara, S Heald, and C Liu. 2009. "Reduction and long-term immobilization of technetium by Fe(II) associated with clay mineral nontronite ." Chemical Geology 264(1-4):127-138.  doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.02.018
  • Shi Z, C Liu, JM Zachara, Z Wang, and B Deng. 2009. "Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments." Environmental Science & Technology 43(21):8344-8349.  doi:10.1021/es9021359


  • Ilton ES, N Qafoku, C Liu, DA Moore, and JM Zachara. 2008. "Advective Removal of Intraparticle Uranium from Contaminated Vadose Zone Sediments, Hanford, USA." Environmental Science & Technology 42(5):1565-1571.  doi:10.1021/es071113m
  • Marshall MJ, AE Plymale, DW Kennedy, L Shi, Z Wang, SB Reed, A Dohnalkova, CJ Simonson, C Liu, D Saffarini, MF Romine, JM Zachara, AS Beliaev, and JK Fredrickson. 2008. "Hydrogenase- and Outer Membrane c-Type Cytochrome-Facilitated Reduction of Technetium(VII) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1." Environmental Microbiology 10(1):125-136.  doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01438.x
  • Peretyazhko T, JM Zachara, SM Heald, BH Jeon, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, DA Moore, and CT Resch. 2008. "Heterogeneous Reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) at the Solid-Water Interface." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(6):1521-1539.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.01.004
  • Peretyazhko T, JM Zachara, SM Heald, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, AE Plymale, and CT Resch. 2008. "Reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) Sorbed on Al (hydr)oxides." Environmental Science & Technology 42(15):5499-5506.  doi:10.1021/es8003156
  • Dresel PE, N Qafoku, JP McKinley, JS Fruchter, CC Ainsworth, C Liu, ES Ilton, and JL Phillips. 2008. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford SitePNNL-17674, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Jaisi DP, C Liu, H Dong, RE Blake, and JB Fein. 2008. "Fe2+ sorption onto nontronite (NAu-2) ." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(22):5361-5371.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.08.022
  • Kerisit SN, C Liu, and ES Ilton. 2008. "Molecular dynamics simulations of the orthoclase (001)- and (010)-water interfaces." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(6):1481-1497. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, N Qafoku, and Z Wang. 2008. "Scale-dependent desorption of uranium from contaminated subsurface sediments." Water Resources Research 44:W08413.  doi:10.1029/2007WR006478
  • Wang Z, C Liu, X Wang, MJ Marshall, JM Zachara, KM Rosso, M Dupuis, JK Fredrickson, SM Heald, and L Shi. 2008. "Kinetics of Reduction of Fe(III) Complexes by Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74(21):6746-6755.  doi:10.1128/AEM.01454-08
  • Wang Z, JM Zachara, C Liu, PL Gassman, AR Felmy, and SB Clark. 2008. "A cryogenic fluorescence spectroscopic study of uranyl carbonate, phosphate, and oxyhydroxide minerals." Radiochimica Acta 96(9-11):591-598.  doi:10.1524/ract.2008.1541
  • Wang Z, KB Wagnon, CC Ainsworth, C Liu, KM Rosso, and JK Fredrickson. 2008. "A Spectroscopic Study of the effect of Ligand Complexation on the Reduction of Uranium(VI) by Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS)." Radiochimica Acta 96(9-11):599-605.  doi:10.1524/ract.2008.1542
  • Wellman DM, JM Zachara, C Liu, N Qafoku, SC Smith, and SW Forrester. 2008. "Advective Desorption of Uranium (VI) from Contaminated Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments under Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions." Vadose Zone Journal 7(4):1144-1159.  doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0166


  • Liu C, BH Jeon, JM Zachara, and Z Wang. 2007. "Influence of Calcium on Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase Uranium (VI)." Biotechnology and Bioengineering 97(6):1415-1422.  doi:10.1002/bit.21357
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, NS Foster, and J Strickland. 2007. "Kinetics of Reductive Dissolution of Hematite by Bioreduced Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate." Environmental Science & Technology 41(22):7730-7735.  doi:10.1021/es070768k
  • Liu C. 2007. "An Ion Diffusion Model in Semi-Permeable Clay Materials." Environmental Science & Technology 41(15):5403-5409.  doi:10.1021/es0624117
  • Fang J, Z Gu, D Gang, C Liu, ES Ilton, and B Deng. 2007. "Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by activated carbon coated with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine)." Environmental Science & Technology 41(13):4748-4753.  doi:10.1021/es061969b
  • Jaisi DP, H Dong, and C Liu. 2007. "Influence of Biogenic Fe(II) on the Extent of Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in Clay Minerals Nontronite, Illite, and Chlorite." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71(5):1145-1158.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.11.027
  • Jaisi DP, H Dong, and C Liu. 2007. "Kinetic Analysis of Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in Nontronite." Environmental Science & Technology 41(7):2437-2444. 
  • McKinley JP, JM Zachara, SC Smith, and C Liu. 2007. "Cation exchange reactions controlling desorption of Sr-90(2+) from coarse-grained contaminated sediments at the Hanford site, Washington." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71(2):305-325. 
  • Zachara JM, CF Brown, JN Christensen, JA Davis, PE Dresel, C Liu, SD Kelly, JP McKinley, RJ Serne, and W Um. 2007. A Site Wide Perspective on Uranium Geochemistry at the Hanford SitePNNL-17031, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Zachara JM, SM Heald, BH Jeon, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, JP McKinley, A Dohnalkova, and DA Moore. 2007. "Reduction of Pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by Aqueous Fe(II) and the Nature of Solid Phase Redox Products." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71(9):2137-2157.  doi:doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.10.025


  • Ilton ES, C Liu, W Yantasee, Z Wang, DA Moore, AR Felmy, and JM Zachara. 2006. "The Dissolution of Synthetic Na-Boltwoodite in Sodium Carbonate Solutions." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(19):4836-4849.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1553
  • Ilton ES, SM Heald, S Smith, D Elbert, and C Liu. 2006. "Reduction of Uranyl in the Interlayer Region of Low Iron Micas Under Anoxic and Aerobic Conditions ." Environmental Science & Technology 40(16):5003-5009. 
  • Ilton ES, SM Heald, SC Smith, D Elbert, and C Liu. 2006. "Reduction of Uranyl in the Interlayer Region of Low Iron Micas Under Anoxic and Aerobic Conditions." Environmental Science and Technology 40(16):5003-5009. 
  • Liu C, BH Jeon, JM Zachara, Z Wang, A Dohnalkova, and JK Fredrickson. 2006. "Kinetics of Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase U(VI)." Environmental Science and Technology 40(20):6290-6296. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, W Yantasee, PD Majors, and JP McKinley. 2006. "Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United States." Water Resources Research 42(W12420):1-15.  doi:10.1029/2006WR005031
  • McKinley JP, JM Zachara, C Liu, SM Heald, BI Prenitzer, and B Kempshall. 2006. "Microscale Controls on the Fate of Contaminant Uranium in the Vadose Zone, Hanford Site, Washington." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(8):1873-1887 .  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.10.037


  • Liu C, JM Zachara, L Zhong, RK Kukkadapu, JE Szecsody, and DW Kennedy. 2005. "Influence of Sediment Bioreduction and Reoxidation on Uranium Sorption." Environmental Science and Technology 39(11):4125-4133. 
  • Ainsworth CC, JM Zachara, KB Wagnon, SG McKinley, C Liu, SC Smith, HT Schaef, and PL Gassman. 2005. "Impact of Highly Basic Solutions on Sorption of Cs+ to Subsurface Sediments from the Hanford Site, USA." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(20):4787-4800. 
  • Dong W, WP Ball, C Liu, Z Wang, AT Stone, J Bai, and JM Zachara. 2005. "Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment." Environmental Science and Technology 39(20):7949-7955.  doi:10.1021/es0505088
  • Qafoku N, JM Zachara, C Liu, PL Gassman, O Qafoku, and SC Smith. 2005. "Kinetic Desorption and Sorption of U(VI) During Reactive Transport in a Contaminated Hanford Sediment." Environmental Science and Technology 39(9):3157-3165.  doi:10.1021/es048462q
  • Wang Z, JM Zachara, PL Gassman, C Liu, O Qafoku, W Yantasee, and JG Catalano. 2005. "Fluorescence Spectroscopy of U(VI)-Silicates and U(VI)-Contaminated Hanford Sediment." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(6):1391-1403.  doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.028
  • Zachara JM, JA Davis, C Liu, JP McKinley, N Qafoku, DM Wellman, and SB Yabusaki. 2005. Uranium Geochemistry in Vadose Zone and Aquifer Sediments from the 300 Area Uranium PlumePNNL-15121, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Zhong L, C Liu, JM Zachara, DW Kennedy, JE Szecsody, and BD Wood. 2005. "Oxidative Remobilization of Biogenic Uranium (IV) Precipitates: Effects of Iron (II) and pH." Journal of Environmental Quality 34(5):1763-1771. 


  • Liu C, JM Zachara, and SC Smith. 2004. "A Cation Exchange Model to Describe Cs+ Sorption at High Ionic Strength in Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 68(3-4):217-238. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, AR Felmy, and YA Gorby. 2004. "An Electrodynamics-Based Model for Ion Diffusion in Microbial Polysaccharides." Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces 38:55-65. 
  • Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, DW Kennedy, RK Kukkadapu, JP McKinley, SM Heald, C Liu, and AE Plymale. 2004. "Reduction of TcO4- by sediment-associated biogenic Fe(II)." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(15):3171-3187. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, O Qafoku, JP McKinley, SM Heald, and Z Wang. 2004. "Dissolution of Uranyl Microprecipitates from Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68(22):4519-4537. 
  • Wang Z, JM Zachara, W Yantasee, PL Gassman, C Liu, and AG Joly. 2004. "Cryogenic Laser Induced Fluorescence Characterization of U(VI) in Hanford Vadose Zone Pore Waters." Environmental Science and Technology 38:5591-5597. 


  • Liu C, JM Zachara, SC Smith, JP McKinley, and CC Ainsworth. 2003. "Desorption Kinetics of Radiocesium from Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(16):2893-2912. 
  • Fredrickson JK, S Kota, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, and JM Zachara. 2003. "Influence of Electron Donor/Acceptor Concentrations on Hydrous Ferric Oxide (HFO) Bioreduction." Biodegradation 14(2):91-103. 
  • Lin Y, C Liu, H Wu, HK Yak, and CM Wai. 2003. "Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Toxic Heavy Metals and Uranium from Acidic Solutions with Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Reagents." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 42(7):1400-1405. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, O Qafoku, and SC Smith. 2003. "Effect of Temperature on Cs+ Sorption and Desorption in Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, U.S.A." Environmental Science and Technology 37(12):2640-2645. 


  • Liu C, and WP Ball. 2002. "Back Diffusion of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminants from a Natural Aquitard to a Remediated Aquifer under Well-Controlled Field Conditions: Predictions and Measurements." Ground Water 40(2):175-184. 
  • Liu C, YA Gorby, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, and CF Brown. 2002. "Reduction Kinetics of Fe(III), Co(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), and Tc(VII) in Cultures of Dissimilatory Metal-reducing Bacteria." Biotechnology and Bioenegineering 80(6):637-649. 
  • Ball WP, and C Liu. 2002. "Diffusion-Limited Contamination and Decontamination in a Layered Aquitard: Forensic and Predictive Analysis of Field Data." In Resource Recovery, Confinement, and Remediation of Environmental Hazards, IMA Volumes in Mathematics and Its Applications, vol. 131, ed. John Chadam et al, pp. 179-194.  Springer-Verlag New York Inc., New York, NY. 
  • Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, DW Kennedy, C Liu, MC Duff, D Hunter, and A Dohnalkova. 2002. "Influence of Mn oxides on the reduction of U(VI) by the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66(18):3247-3262. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, DW Kennedy, and A Dohnalkova. 2002. "Modeling the Inhibition of the Bacterial Reduction of U(VI) by beta-MnO2(S)(g)." Environmental Science and Technology 36(7):1452-1459. 
  • Zachara JM, SC Smith, C Liu, JP McKinley, RJ Serne, and PL Gassman. 2002. "Sorption of Cs+ to Micaceous Subsurface Sediments from the Hanford Site, USA." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66(2):193-211. 


  • Liu C, and JM Zachara. 2001. "Uncertainties of Monod Kinetic Parameters Nonlinearly Estimated from Batch Experiments." Environmental Science and Technology 35(1):133-141. 
  • Liu C, JM Zachara, YA Gorby, JE Szecsody, and CF Brown. 2001. "Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) and Sorption/Precipitation of Fe(II) on Shewanella putrefaciens Strain CN32." Environmental Science and Technology 35(7):1385-1393. 
  • Liu C, S Kota, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, and CK Brinkman. 2001. "Kinetic Analysis of the Bacterial Reduction of Goethite." Environmental Science and Technology 35:2482-2490. 
  • Kukkadapu RK, JM Zachara, SC Smith, JK Fredrickson, and C Liu. 2001. "Dissimilatory Bacterial Reduction of Al-Substituted Goethite in Subsurface Sediments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(17):2913-2924. 
  • Zachara JM, NS Foster, JE Amonette, EJ Bylaska, AR Felmy, PL Gassman, SM Heald, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, MJ Mason, KM Rosso, CK Russell, JR Rustad, SC Smith, Z Wang, and TW Wietsma. 2001. Annual Report 2000 Environmental Dynamics and SimulationPNNL-13456, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Liu C, JE Szecsody, JM Zachara, and WP Ball. 2000. "Use of the Generalized Integral Transform Method for Solving Equations of Solute Transport in Porous Media." Advances in Water Resources 23(5):483-492. 
  • Zachara JM, NS Foster, JE Amonette, EJ Bylaska, AR Felmy, PL Gassman, SM Heald, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, MJ Mason, KM Rosso, CK Russell, JR Rustad, SC Smith, Z Wang, and TW Wietsma. 2000. Annual Report 1999 Environmental Dynamics & Simulation PNNL-13206, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 


  • Liu C, and WP Ball. 1999. "Application of Inverse Methods to Contaminat Source Identification from Aquitard Diffusion Profiles at Dover AFB, Delaware." Water Resources Research 35:1975-1985. 

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