Frontiers in Chemical Imaging
Ian McNulty, Ph.D.
Over the past two decades x-ray microscopy has blossomed into a popular and rich methodology, opening the door to new research in the nanomaterials, biological, and environmental sciences. X-rays offer penetration through thick samples and exquisite sensitivity to elemental, chemical and magnetic states in buried structures. The advent of brilliant x-ray sources, nanofocusing optics, and fast dispersive and area detectors has enabled dramatic progress in instrumentation. Modern microscopes include scanning and full-field instruments with a resolution approaching 20 nm that provide a variety of contrast mechanisms and sample environments. New methods based on coherent diffraction, promising for x-ray lasers as well as synchrotrons, offer imaging beyond the limits of lenses and sensitivity to ordering and lattice strain. This talk highlights recent work at the CNM, APS, and elsewhere.
Orlando H. Auciello
Orlando H. Auciello, Ph.D.
Argonne Distinguished Fellow
Argonne National Laboratory
"Science and Technology of Multifunctional Oxide and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Films and Applications to a New Generation of Multifunctional Devices/System"
Thursday, February 9, 2012
EMSL Auditorium - 11:00AM
New paradigms in the research and development of novel multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics, new materials science and chemistry, and their impact in a new generation of multifunctional devices for micro/nano-electronics and biomedical devices and biosystems. This talk will focus on discussing the science, technology, and engineering of multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films extensively investigated, developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory during the last 15 years, and the efforts focused on integrating them into a new generation of micro/nano-electronic devices and implantable biomedical devices and biosystems.
Work in nanophotonics began in the 1980s, before the word nanophotonics was even recognized. This work and the work of groups around the world has evolved into an exciting and rapidly growing field which has provided for nanometric optical imaging in the near-field. Even though a variety of techniques are being developed with nanometric optical imaging potential, near-field optics remains the most general method for optical characterization with resolutions at and below 100 nm. It is the only technique that can be applied to absorption, fluorescence, light collection and has demonstrated potential in non-linear imaging and Raman scattering. It is also the only optical method that provides for on-line pixel by pixel correlation with topography.
Mark H. Ellisman, Ph.D.
University of California, San Diego
"Advancing Methods for Labeling, Staining, Imaging and Reconstructing Large Brain Tissue Volumes at High Resolution"
Tuesday, July 26, 2011
ETB Columbia River Room - 3:00PM
» Research Highlight: A Better Look at the Brain
A grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in and between cells of nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. We are rapidly approaching this horizon as neuroscientists make use of an increasingly powerful arsenal of tools and technologies for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems, and engage in the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases. This presentation will highlight development and application of new contrasting methods and imaging tools that have allowed us to see otherwise hidden relationships between cellular, subcellular and molecular constituents of nervous systems. New chemistries for carrying out correlated light and electron microscopy will be described, as well as recent advances in large-scale high-resolution 3D reconstruction with TEM and SEM based methods. The Whole Brain Catalog (WBC), a Google Earth-like open-source virtual model of the mouse brain, will also be described. The WBC is as an example of an informatics framework and web-based tool whose purpose is partly to facilitate integration of 3D image data from multiple microscopy methods and to enable the linking of information derived from other analytical approaches to imaging data shared in the publically accessible catalog.
Prof. Jingyue (Jimmy) Liu
Director, Center for Nanoscience
Professor, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
"Nanostructures for Catalysis and Energy Production"
Friday, May 13, 2011
EMSL Auditorium - 1:30PM
Energy is not only the driver for improving the quality of human life but also critical to our survival. To power the planet for a better future, it is imperative to develop new processes for effective use of energy and to develop sustainable and clean energy resources. Catalysis, the essential technology for accelerating desired chemical transformations, plays an important role to realizing environmentally friendly and economically feasible processes for producing energy carriers and for converting them into directly usable energy. Design and synthesis of controlled nanostructures can help us address some key issues encountered in understanding the fundamental processes and dynamics of catalyzed reactions. We have recently synthesized both nanostructured metal oxides and shape-controlled metal nanocrystals, and applied them to the systematic investigation of catalytic processes for steam reforming of alcohols and the oxidation of carbon monoxide on nanoscale facets. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques have been used to elucidate the atomic structures of the active phases. The ability of sub-Ångström resolution imaging with in situ capabilities available in a modern aberration-corrected TEM/STEM provides us excellent opportunities to study the dynamic behavior of nanostructures and to understand their synthesis-structure-performance relationships. Recent progresses in synthesizing novel metal oxide nanostructures for energy harvest and storage will also be discussed.
» Research Highlight: Learning to See Atoms
A brief overview of the history of the atom probe tomography (APT) technique and instruments will be presented, from the early field ion microscopy experiments in which images of individual atoms were obtained for the first time to the present state-of-the-art local electrode atom probe in which atomic resolution data sets containing billions of atoms can be obtained. Examples of the types of analyses that may be performed with this technique, including solute segregation to dislocations, interfaces, and grain boundaries, and the characterization of fine-scale precipitates in complex alloys, will be shown. A summary of APT characterizations of creep resistant and radiation tolerant nanostructured ferritic steels will be presented.
Chris Jacobsen, Ph.D.
"X-ray Imaging: Cryo, Spectroscopy and Tomography for Environmental Science"
Associate Division Director, APS XSD, Argonne National Lab
Professor, Physics & Astronomy, Northwestern University
Monday, February 7, 2011
ETB Columbia River Room - 11:00AM
» Presentation: X-ray imaging for environmental science
X-ray microscopes can image specimens that are 1-1000 micrometers thick in natural conditions, so that they nicely complement electron microscopes. New capabilities in x-ray microscopy are described: the ability to measure organic chemistry speciation at 50 nanometers resolution or better, and the ability to measure trace elements at concentrations approaching a part per billion. Enhancements to these basic capabilities include 3D imaging via tomography, the correlation of heavy elements with soft material ultrastructure, and the use of cryogenic specimens to minimize the effects of radiation damage. These and other advances in synchrotron-based x-ray imaging will be described.
Division Deputy for Experimental Systems Advanced Light Source
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
"Photocathodes for Free Electron Lasers"
Thursday, January 13, 2011
EMSL Auditorium - 1:30PM
» Research Highlight: Shining Light into the Dark Places of Science
Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have a peak brightness well over 1010 times that of a 3rd generation synchrotron and can produce fully coherent ultra-fast x-ray pulses into the sub-fsec regime. As such, FELs represent the ideal source for examining matter on fundamental length and time scales. The next evolution of FELs will involve increasing the repetition rate into the MHz regime, increasing the time averaged flux and the number of experiments that can simultaneously operate at the same time reducing the physical scale and therefore cost of the machine to the minimum possible.
The performance of an FEL is directly linked to the quality of the electron beam; typically this beam is produced by a laser-driven photocathode, before acceleration to relativistic velocity in a linear accelerator. A lower emittance beam can be used to lase at higher energy, or can be used to reduce the physical scale of the FEL, by reduction of the electron energy and hence the length and cost of the accelerator.
In this talk, I will give an overview of FEL physics as it affects photocathode design and show how through engineering of the electronic structure of the photocathode, potentially huge advances can be made in FEL performance.