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Success Stories at PNNL

Select a category below to find Client Success Stories that demonstrate how PNNL unites expertise, innovation, and collaborative partnerships to create a meaningful impact. You'll also find more customer success stories on YouTube...


Collaborative Research

Biodegradable polymer delivers more effective, safer therapeutic radiation

As part of a broader mission to develop better alternative treatments for diseases such as cancer, Battelle researchers at PNNL and the University of Utah co-developed a way to use a commercially available radioactive isotope, Yttrium-90, to deliver radiation by surgically implanting seeds holding the isotope into tumors. Yttrium-90 has characteristics that make it a good radiation source for killing cancer cells-namely, a shorter physical half-life and effective confinement of radioactivity to the placement site-but it cannot be delivered in metal brachytherapy seeds as some other medical isotopes are.

To overcome this, researchers developed a fast-dissolving, or resorbable, polymer seed to be used in place of metal as a delivery device for the therapeutic radioisotope. The result is a potential cancer treatment-called the resorbable brachytherapy seed-that can be less expensive, can deliver more effective radiation, is less hazardous to hospital workers, and is biocompatible with-and bioabsorbed (naturally removed) from-the body.

Advanced Medical Isotope Corp (AMIC) of Kennewick, Washington, showed an interest in further developing the technology for potential commercialization, sparking further research collaboration with Battelle and co-developers at the University of Utah. This working relationship led to industry funded research and development work at PNNL and at University of Utah to mature the resorbable brachytherapy seed technology that AMIC then exclusively licensed in late 2010.

The company is now working toward commercialization, with plans to perform further research and development of the new brachytherapy seeds, which resemble conventional metal brachytherapy seeds and may be placed by direct injection using standard tools. AMIC anticipates the use of these seeds for treatment of prostate cancer, as well as for many of the more radiation-resistant cancers including brain tumors, head and neck tumors, and liver cancer.

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Collaborative Research

Global mass spectrometer company reaps the benefits of long-term partnership

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The relationship between PNNL and Agilent Technologies dates back to the Agilent's inception in 1999 as a spin-out of Hewlett-Packard. Since then, the collaboration has been a critical and ongoing part of new product development for Agilent, a company that develops cutting edge analytical instrumentation and methodologies for engineers, scientists, and researchers around the globe to meet communications, electronics, life sciences, and chemical analysis challenges.

Through several collaborative research projects over the years, Agilent and PNNL have shared a common focus on advancing the state of the art in the measurement industry in terms of not only instrumentation, but also methodologies and software. One important goal for Agilent as an industry leader was to find new ways to address the most important aspect of mass spectrometry-the ability to achieve trace-level analysis. To do so requires the utmost in instrument sensitivity.

Agilent had found what they were looking for in PNNL's award-winning ion funnel technology, which vastly improves ion transmission in mass spectrometry, thus improving detection and measurement capabilities. The company has been able to achieve factors-of-10 greater sensitivity with this technology. And in 2010, Agilent introduced a new mass spectrometer incorporating dual ion funnel technology- the 6490 Triple Quadrupole LC/MS. This new device achieves unprecedented sensitivity in part by including dual ion funnel technology, designed to dramatically increase the number of ions that enter a mass spectrometer.

Today, Agilent continues to collaborate with researchers at PNNL and expand the scope of their research and development to solve emerging challenges posed by the scientific community.

Awards

  • 2004 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer
  • 1999 R&D 100 Award

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Collaborative Research

Renewable process makes big impact with global agricultural processor

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More than two billion pounds of petroleum are consumed each year to meet the current demand for propylene glycol (PG), used to manufacture chemicals needed to produce a broad range of common industrial and consumer products including paint, printer ink cartridges, and cosmetics, among numerous others. Now a new process developed by researchers at PNNL offers a commercially proven, cost-effective way to make PG from renewable sources.

Development of the Propylene Glycol from Renewable Sources (PGRS) process began nearly a decade ago with a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between PNNL and a national agricultural association. What resulted was a new set of catalysts and the discovery that glycerol could be converted to PG, meaning what was once made only from petroleum could be made entirely using a renewable feedstock.

One of the PNNL researchers introduced Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) to the collaboration, which led to a new CRADA for additional work between PNNL and ADM to optimize the catalyst for potential commercial application. In 2006, ADM licensed the process and initiated plans for a pilot plant. After successfully constructing and operating a pilot plant in 2009, ADM completed construction of a full-scale production facility for the sole purpose of commercially producing PGRS. The new multi-million dollar facility, which began operations in early 2011, is expected to achieve up to 200 million pounds annual production capacity.

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Collaborative Research

Turning waste materials into valuable energy source

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In 1995, three entrepreneurial researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) spun out into a new venture, licensing critical vitrification-or melting-technology for transforming process waste materials into rich sources of clean, renewable fuels. They were looking into technologies that could offer alternatives to incineration for waste being generated at sites across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and identified a new technology they thought might be applicable to other than just DOE waste, marking the genesis of Plasma Enhanced Melter (PEM®) technology.

PEM technology works by subjecting waste materials to very high temperatures that are achieved by creating plasma, or a hot ionized gas.  When the waste material is introduced to the plasma zone, it is broken down into both its elements and molecular constituents that reform into a fuel gas. That gas can then be used as a clean fuel, or as a building block to make other clean liquid fuels, and other clean chemicals. The process also drastically reduces the volume of the remaining waste and converts it into a stable, glass-like form that can be put to beneficial use, such as in paving material.

The concept for integrating the proprietary plasma technology with existing glass melter technology was the result of a research collaboration between PNNL, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and DOE. By way of the Lab's Entrepreneurial Leave of Absence program, the PNNL researchers created a spin-off company-InEnTec LLC-and with the assistance of other PNNL scientists and engineers, further developed the PEM technology.

InEnTec's PEM systems are now installed at municipal, medical, and hazardous waste sites around the world. The company commercially deploys the technology by constructing and operating processing plants, and selling the resulting products-rich energy producing methanol, ethanol, diesel, industrial chemicals, and hydrogen.

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Collaborative Research

New clean technology to generate renewable energy

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For more than 4,000 years, people have tried to make useful power from fast water currents. But traditional water wheels and hydro power systems are expensive and difficult to construct. Then along came the Flip Wing turbine from Seattle, Washington-based Hydrovolts, Inc. The new turbine operates beneath the surface, like an underwater paddle wheel, and is about the size and cost of a small car. Although its structure is much smaller, it generates the same amount of power as conventional water wheels.

Hydrovolts was founded after Puget Sound Tidal Power LLC (now Hydrovolts) was hired to conduct an advanced study of tidal power feasibility in Puget Sound. Although renewable, tidal energy has cyclical peaks and valleys that prevent consistent generation of the best power, which prevents it from being a reliable energy resource. Committed to building sustainable communities, Hydrovolts reached out to PNNL for advice on developing new portable hydro-powered turbines that generate distributed power from local water currents.

Through the Laboratory's Technology Assistance Program, PNNL researchers provided engineering expertise and environmental analysis that encouraged Hydrovolts to focus their product development toward artificial water current applications-such as irrigation canals, waste water plants, and mining sites-with predictable water flows and other operational advantages rather than natural, tidal sources. Based on this guidance, the company designed a hydrokinetic turbine that produces clean, renewable power using predictable and controlled water currents. Today, Hydrovolts is focused on installing its turbines in canals throughout the U.S. and overseas.

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Collaborative Research

Self-sustaining power source pulls energy out of the air

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Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a technology that extracts energy from its surrounding environment, creating a perpetual power source for compact, low-power devices such as wireless sensors or radio frequency transmitters. The Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester exploits naturally occurring temperature differences, producing electricity whenever it detects these differences across the device's two ends.

The energy harvester technology was introduced to the private sector when a group of University of Oregon graduate students created an award-winning business plan and marketing strategy for the technology through the joint UO/PNNL Technology Entrepreneurship Program. Along with technology veterans from Hewlett-Packard, one of the entrepreneurial students founded Perpetua Power Source Technologies to build upon and commercialize the technology.

The Corvallis, Ore.-based company received an exclusive license from PNNL to incorporate the technology into its new product called the Perpetua Power Puck™. Its operating technology is based on a portfolio of novel, patent-pending thermoelectric generator (TEG) designs that allow the conversion of ambient thermal energy into electric power for a variety of low-power uses. The Perpetua energy harvester products are currently being marketed for industrial automation, military and other uses.

The self-sustaining nature of this technology is especially valuable for monitoring the integrity of dams, buildings, bridges, and pipelines—applications where sensors communicate with remote facilities, and maintenance or repair is costly and logistically difficult. Energy harvesters can replace or extend the life of traditional batteries used for these applications.

Awards

  • 2009 R&D 100 Award
  • 2009 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer

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Collaborative Research

New grid balancing technology makes blackouts a thing of the past

Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found an efficient way to balance the ebbs and flows of energy supply by increasing or reducing the demand that household appliances place on the power grid at a given time.

A synergistic pairing of Department of Energy (DOE) and privately developed intellectual property gave DOE, PNNL operator Battelle, , and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) a path for bringing a solution to American households for real-world testing.

The Grid FriendlyTM Appliance (GFA) Controller is an electronic circuit board, built into appliances, that continually monitors fluctuations in available power through alternating current frequency signals at residential wall outlets. The GFA Controller acts as a shock absorber for imbalances in supply and demand by signaling appliances to either reduce or increase energy consumption temporarily based on grid activity—helping reduce or prevent the impact of potential power outages.

In 2007, the GFA Controller was demonstrated in 150 clothes dryers in the Pacific Northwest, an effort facilitated by utility providers BPA, Portland General Electric, and PacifiCorp. The demonstration showed that the device, which can be retrofitted into commercially-available appliances, responds to electricity fluctuations almost instantaneously, without interrupting the daily lives of homeowners.

The success of this effort led to additional funding from BPA to make improvements to the technology, including cutting its size in half and increasing its ability to respond to fluctuations in both frequency and voltage.

Awards

  • 2007 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer
  • 2008 R&D 100 Award

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Collaborative Research

New ‘expert’ keeps tabs on energy use in buildings

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Energy Expert is the commercial name given to a newly-adapted version of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL’s) Whole-Building Energy (WBE) Diagnostician tool, which monitors energy use in buildings and/or by major building systems. Using trend data to automatically detect and provide alerts for anomalies in energy consumption, as well as supporting information on impacts, the technology automatically creates a model of energy use as data are accumulated. The model is then used to predict future energy use and alerts building operations staff to variances between actual and expected consumption measurements.

In 2004, NorthWrite, Inc., an energy software company, visited PNNL to learn more about the software. Shortly after the visit, a partnership between the organizations was formed, and the team enhanced the tool to increase its flexibility and usability by converting it to a Web-based application called the Energy Expert.

PNNL and NorthWrite entered into a non-exclusive license that returns a use fee to the Laboratory based on sales of Energy Expert, which uses the WBE base technology. Following the license agreement, through Technology Assistance Program projects, which provide up to one week’s worth of a PNNL researcher’s time in a fiscal year, the Energy Expert product was further enhanced. It is now the centerpiece in NorthWrite’s energy business development efforts and is available for commercial use through NorthWrite’s suite of Web-based facility management software tools called WorkSiteTM.

This ability to continuously monitor energy usage means expensive fluctuations in energy performance can be addressed sooner, resulting in greater energy efficiency and lower energy costs. Other industries have observed the potential of the Energy Expert through NorthWrite’s marketing efforts, and have entered into discussions with PNNL and NorthWrite to adapt the technology for monitoring climate control in grocery stores, as one example.

Awards

  • 2008 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer (shared with NorthWrite)

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Collaborative Research

Coating helps increase water testing sensitivity by one thousand times

The Functionalized Nanoporous Thin Films (FNTF) technology is a low-cost, highly-selective means for detecting heavy metals in aqueous environments. It allows testing for virtually every heavy metal with potential to negatively affect human health and the environment, and increases sensitivity by more than a thousand times the previous capability.

The technology is used to coat the surface of silver-dollar-sized “sampler” discs, which provides the mechanism for increasing selectivity and detecting nearly every class of heavy metal that is harmful to human health—including mercury, lead, and cadmium, to name a few. It provides a testing means with an indefinite storage life without deterioration of the sample, enabling a reliable forensic archive.

Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed the technology in partnership with PANalytical B.V., an international supplier of analytical instrumentation and software for X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The company collaborated with PNNL to obtain a sampling material designed to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of XRF analysis of heavy metals in aqueous systems. This new capability would allow PANalytical to enter new markets including environmental characterization, drinking water analysis, and home water-sampling kits.

Coupled with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, this advancement gives water testers an easy-to-use technology that removes the requirement for complex chemical pre-treatment and handling of liquid samples needed for current heavy metal assay methods.

Awards & Recognition

  • 2007 R&D 100 Award
  • Featured in September 2007 issue of R&D Magazine as one of the top 25 micro- and nanotechnologies of the year

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Collaborative Research

Unique partnership brings new cancer treatment to life

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In 1998, a company co-founded by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) retiree Lane Bray, an internationally recognized expert in medical isotopes, came to PNNL for technical assistance. The company, IsoRay Medical, Inc., now produces Cesium-131 radiochemical brachytherapy "seeds" used in facilities across the country to treat prostate and other cancers. The Cesium-131 seed offers a significantly shorter half-life than the two other isotopes commonly used for brachytherapy, allowing faster delivery of therapeutic radiation to the prostate gland, reduced incidence of common brachytherapy side effects, and lower probability of cancer cell survival.

"IsoRay literally started in Lane Bray's basement, with about three employees," said Larry Greenwood, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) technical lead for the IsoRay project. In 1998, Bray, a PNNL retiree and internationally recognized expert in medical isotopes and Don Segna, a retired engineer, formerly with the U.S. Department of Energy, met with Greenwood to discuss technical issues related to the fledgling company.

This meeting led IsoRay to PNNL's Economic Development Office and access to PNNL expertise in the form of a Technical Assistance Program (TAP) project. Five additional TAP projects and seven years later, IsoRay was producing and marketing its Cs-131 seeds, which are now being used in 36 medical centers and clinics across the nation.

As a small start-up company, IsoRay did not have the physical or financial resources to conduct extensive testing in a radioactive environment. The company began by performing non-radioactive testing in a technology incubator facility before conducting the radioactive work at PNNL. In addition to providing a radiological lab and expertise, PNNL offered its regulatory experience. "We got our feet wet at PNNL, learned what kind of equipment we needed and how the regulatory process worked," said Bray, now chief scientist at IsoRay.

IsoRay developed all of the intellectual property and holds all of the patents for the separation and purification of Cs-131. They recently built their own radiological laboratory in Richland, Wash., where they are now producing the seeds.

Awards

  • 2006 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer

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Collaborative Research

Stars align to reveal cure for information overload

Modern technology has created the opportunity to rapidly access information on a myriad of subjects, often resulting in the generation of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of pieces of data. However, in many instances, the abundance and variety of information can be overwhelming for decision-makers. The Starlight Information Visualization System, an advanced three-dimensional visualization technology, helps solve the problem of information overload.

Starlight was originally developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with Battelle and industry partners, for the U.S. intelligence community. It is currently licensed to start-up Future Point Systems, founded in 2006 in partnership with PNNL to build upon and commercialize the Starlight technology. The company is headquartered in Mountain View, CA, with offices in Richland, WA and Washington DC.

Unlike any other information analysis tool, Starlight is designed to capture and graphically depict complex relationships in data from multiple information sources. By making such relationships simultaneously visible, Starlight enables exciting, rapid, and powerful new forms of concurrent information exploitation. The result is an unprecedented approach to information management and sense-making.

Awards

  • 2003 R&D 100 Award
  • 2006 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer

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Collaborative Research

Collaboration yields big step forward for titanium production

The Titanium Metal Injection Molding (Ti MIM) technology—a quantum leap forward in titanium metallurgy—overcomes barriers of impurity intrusion to enable cost-effective production of small, precise titanium parts that is finally on par with steel and stainless steel manufacturing. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) initially funded the development of Ti MIM through an internal investment program.

In 2006, Praxair, Inc. and PNNL joined forces, each bringing a missing piece to the titanium manufacturing puzzle. Praxair, a global, Fortune 300 supplier of atmospheric, process, and specialty gases, was interested in opening new markets for its gases. The company brought its knowledge of industry, contacts in the manufacturing world, and financial support to the licensing agreement. At the same time, PNNL, with more than $100,000 of internal funds invested, brought its titanium metal injection molding process. Paired together, the organizations innovated and succeeded.

Following an additional internal investment to examine the use of titanium hydride powder in the Ti MIM process, PNNL pursued further research into the potential for expanding applications into larger scale manufacturing. The Laboratory is currently leveraging the Ti MIM technology to develop prototype aircraft components for a U.S. aerospace manufacturer.

Awards

  • 2006 R&D 100 Award

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Collaborative Research

Thick films show promise in hydrogen sensors

Apollo, Inc is a general contracting firm specializing in infrastructure and industrial projects such as water treatment, wastewater treatment, bridges, laboratories, wineries, manufacturing facilities, commercial buildings, and environmental remediation. Apollo needed help developing hydrogen sensors to identify leaks and gas concentration for its digital control systems, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was in search of a U.S. business partner to commercialize such a technology.

The two partnered to develop and commercialize the technology using an Initiative for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA). An IPP is a mechanism for engaging weapons scientists, engineers, and technicians from the former Soviet Union and other regions of proliferation concern, and redirect their expertise to peaceful work through partnerships with U.S. commercial enterprises.

In collaboration with the Karpov Institute in Moscow, Russia, the research yielded two applications that appeared promising as potential solutions to the technology need. Eventually, the metal oxide thick films application was chosen to move forward, and a new approach to the sensor technology was created by scientists at the Karpov Institute, which retains invention ownership rights within the former Soviet bloc countries.

In 2006, Battelle exclusively licensed patent applications based on inventions made under the CRADA to Apollo, Inc. of Kennewick, Wash. and gained ownership under the IPP. Apollo then developed a prototype sensor, which was met with positive feedback, and significantly scaled up development of the thick film. The company can now process up to 50 batches per unit, and plans to add gas sensing equipment to its product line.

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Collaborative Research

Enhanced imaging technology sends great signals

The Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) technology represents a new, three-dimensional, general purpose imaging technology that does not use intrinsic or extrinsic fluorescent labels, but is instead based on molecular vibrations, making it theoretically applicable as an analytical tool for identifying chemical or biological samples.

Although the CARS process is not new, recent developments and resulting commercial licensing have enabled the CARS process to become more practical for implementation in biological and other research. The high degree of spatial resolution at high levels of sensitivity represents a significant advance in imaging and mapping fundamental molecular processes.

To date, several non-exclusive licenses have been executed with industry clients, beginning in 2004 with Olympus, a camera giant and world leader in research and clinical microscopes and diagnostic testing. Royalties derived from the license were then used to fund the development of a new laser prototype for which a patent is pending. In 2006, PNNL executed a non-exclusive license with Leica, a leading global designer and producer of high-tech precision optics systems. Carl Zeiss licensed the technology in 2007.

PNNL’s improvements in CARS technology was an early outcome of work with staff and equipment at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a scientific user facility located on PNNL’s campus. Extensive development work on the CARS technology continues at Princeton University under the leadership of former PNNL staff member Dr. Sunney Xie.

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Collaborative Research

PNNL software helps airlines be proactive about flight safety

Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory raised the bar on proactive airline safety when they developed a software technology called The Morning Report. The breakthrough technology provides commercial airlines, the federal government, the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration the ability to gain insight into potentially unsafe flight practices and conditions.

The Morning Report technology was developed by PNNL in collaboration with Battelle, NASA-Ames, ProWorks, Flight Safety Consultants and Safe Flight. It is licensed to Sagem Avionics Inc., a Texas-based provider of technical support, MRO services, and marketing and sales of commercial aerospace products.

The technology uses sophisticated multivariate statistical algorithms to analyze massive amounts of flight data from on-board instrumentation on thousands of aircraft, distinguishing between common patterns and atypical events. A report of the findings is available for review each morning, allowing safety inspectors to quickly identify anomalies, share pertinent information with other decision makers, and possibly, prevent accidents.

The algorithms developed by the researchers at PNNL are so effective at identifying typical patterns, atypical events, and pre-cursors to significant events that they are now being adapted for other applications such as monitoring the electric power grid, with the expectation that they may help avoid electrical blackouts and other significant events in the future.

Awards & Recognition

  • 2005 R&D 100 Award
  • 2005 R&D Magazine Editor’s Choice for Product with the Greatest Impact on Safety
  • 2007 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer

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Collaborative Research

Food processor recovers product losses with PNNL invention

With the French fry reigning as one of the world’s most popular foods, food processors are mass-producing them with the latest in processing technology. Cutting mechanisms, while excellent for reducing operating costs and improving end-product consistency, also represent an enormous opportunity for waste when a single blade is damaged. In one hour, a broken blade can reduce 80,000 pounds of prime potatoes into truckloads of defective strips the manufacturer often must pay to have removed for animal feed. The remaining potato sludge adds to the plant’s waste processing burden.

International potato processing leader Lamb Weston turned to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for a method to detect and quickly repair a broken knife without halting production. Teaming with plant engineers from Lamb Weston, PNNL scientists applied existing research to develop a new Multi-blade Knife Failure Detector (KFD). Now operating in eight Lamb-Weston plants worldwide, the KFD takes less than one second to identify a blade break, trigger an alarm, and signal blade replacement. On one line at one plant, the new system has reduced annual cutting losses by more than six million pounds.

The severe environments of food processing and industrial manufacturing plants often restrict the use of advanced detection technologies. Food processing plants are wet and noisy with numerous sources of equipment vibration and electrical interferences. PNNL’s application of science into the KFD technology overcame these obstacles by bringing real-time equipment and process monitoring to industry—without crippling amounts of capital investment since much of the fundamental research had already been done.

Awards

  • 2000 R&D 100 Award
  • 2000 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer

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Collaborative Research

Research investment in PNNL technology pays big for Chicago firm

A chance meeting between two men—Steve Miller, a staff scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Craig Yoder, senior vice president of Chicago-based Landauer, the world leader in providing personnel radiation monitoring services—in Vienna, Austria led to one of the most successful relationships between PNNL and industry to date.

Miller had developed Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), a radiation detection technique based on optical stimulation of sensitized metal oxides, alkali-halide and alkaline-earth halide crystals. Yoder, a former Battelle employee familiar with PNNL’s dosimetry technology research, contacted Miller suggesting joint research aimed toward commercializing the OSL technology.

Thus Landauer, highly respected for its expertise in accurate radiation dose assessments, began sponsoring OSL research in 1990 under PNNL’s 1831 Industrial Research Contract. PNNL provided the underlying technology, and Landauer provided crucial funding and manufacturing expertise. As a result of combining their complimentary strengths, Landauer began commercial use of OSL for its personnel radiation monitoring service in 1997.

OSL gave Landauer a path toward international growth and has had a key impact in several foreign markets. In Japan, Nagase-Landauer—Landauer’s joint venture in Japan since 1973—converted its film-based radiation monitoring service to OSL in 2000. In response, the company’s key competitor also switched from film to glass dosimetry and most of the Japanese market transitioned within 18 months.

“We are having a similar impact in France where the advantages of OSL are creating pressures for our competitors to make their own technological changes,” said Yoder. OSL is now used around the world in countries including Japan, UK, Canada, France, Peru, Australia, Brazil, and China.

Awards

  • 1992 R&D 100 Award
  • 1994 Federal Laboratory Consortium Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer
  • 2000 R&D 100 Award (for high dose dosimetry)

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